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How Feudalism Hinders Community


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How Feudalism Hinders Community
Transformation and Economic Evolution:
Isn’t Equal Opportunity a Basic Human

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  • 1. The 4th Media » How Feudalism Hinders Community Transformation and Economic ... Page 1 of 6 M4 English Beijing SHOTS 四月网 四月青年社区 博客 Русский язык 百科 ABOUT US Just Another Voice Submit Query Home Opinion Politics Economy Society Environment Culture Video Photos Forum Subscribe: Your email address Submit Query How Feudalism Hinders Community Transformation and Economic Evolution: News Feed Comments Feed Isn’t Equal Opportunity a Basic Human Top stories Right? 1 LOOK WHO U.S. IS SUPPORTING NOW: Mujahedeen Last Fought American Troops in Post Categories: Opinion > MurrayHunter Afghanistan Prof. Murray Hunter | Monday August 6, 2012, 14:21 Beijing , Print 4 2 US Criminal Financial Elites Shelter Tax Evaders, Financial Swindlers and Money Launderers While Policing The Citizens The Oly mpicOpening Ceremonylast Fridaynight was a spec ular extraordinaire under the direc tac tion of DannyBoy of le 3 Ousting President Assad: Israel’s “Divide & Conquer” Strategy Continues to Destroy Syria “Slumdog Millionaire” fame. One of the highlights of the ceremonywas a showc ase of British cultural and economic 4 Report: Syrian Government Arrests A Turkish Army evolution. General in Aleppo, Syria Conspic uous during this part of the ceremonywas the c ofast 5 Obama Does Syriana: US Support for the Weaponized white, blac Asian and other ethnicgroups performing as a k, “Rebels” Fighting for “Regime Change” in Syria. unified whole, showing the good, bad, and uglyof British history . 6 In Alliance with the West and Israel, the Saudi-led al- Britain, one of the bastions of feudalism in the past has appeared Qaeda Elements Have Already Started an All-out to have c ome to terms with her infamy banishing the disease to , Proxy War the annuls of history. 7 Sanctions, Diplomacy’s Weapon of Mass Murder: A On a national speaking tour of Malay sia, the renowned Oxford Brilliantly and Ruthlessly Executed Diplomatic Coup Islamicsc holar Prof Tariq Ramadan visited the town where the author is domic iled. Prof Ramadan 8 The West and Glorification of Terrorism: “Onset of a wrote a blog after his trip describing a mosque built on the shore with some wind and solar power Crisis of Dementia or Sign of Irreversible Anemia? generation[1]. He saw the mosque as sy mbolicof Malay sia’s rejection of US values, and the maturing of Islamichumanism. 9 EU Mistakes and Lessons for Future Eurasian Union 10 Asia Times Reports Saudi Spy Chief Prince Bandar I guess perc eption and meaning is in the ey of the beholder, or alternativelyTariq Ramadan had e Assassinated visited the town in some parallel universe. The mosque is loc ated in one of the poorest states of Malay where anypublicdisc sia ussion of Islam requires a lic e from the authorities. enc Video +MORE Given that there is little shortage of plac of worship one c es ould easilythink that the funds used to build the mosque mayhave better served the c ause of Islamichumanism byassisting in elevating poverty Grand infrastruc . ture and the grand projec to build the ic ts ons are sy mbolicnot of Islamic humanism, but rather the gulf between the empowered and powerless in the c ountry . These two events c aused me to reflec on a disease that still festers in manyparts of the world – t the curse of feudalism. Feudalism is an affliction upon humankind, akin to apartheid and slavery . The nature of feudalism inhibits people, communities, and nations from making the nec essary transformation within ec onomyand soc ietythat will ensure escape from the shackles of poverty to , survival with dignityoutside the envelop of ignoranc that prevents emergenc into an aspired e e plac within the world c e ommunity . Regrets and fingerpointing as world powers swallow Annan’s resignation What is even more amazing is that authors like Messrs Beinhoc ker, Diamond, Friedman, Ohmae, Porter, and Sac have had little, if not any hs, thing to sayon this matter. Feudalism has been treated Ban’s anti-Syria stance threatening UN existence: like leprosy its existenc deigned. ; e American author Anti-atom Japanese rally in thousands (PHOTOS, Traditionallyfeudalism referred to the order of soc ietyin medieval Europe between the 9th and 16th VIDEO) centuries. Feudalism c ould be described as soc ietygoverned bythose eligible through birthright, US position on Syria directly endorses terrorism – relationships with the favoured and landed gentry . Lavrov Feudalism c be seen as a grant of land, the sharing of power and privilege in return for favour an VIDEO: Scattered gun fights sound ‘Battle for and loy , and a struc alty turing of societywith well defined lay where eac lay forms a sub- ers h er Damascus’ culture with different sets of values, beliefs, assumptions, and aspirations. Severe Weather – Global Warming Climate Change is Here Ec onomicorganization will also follow this hierarc al order where wealth will be c entrated hic onc within the upper echelons of soc . There are normallyveryfew vertic movements of people up iety al VIDEO: Lavrov-Clinton talks: ‘Very good chance’ of and down the hierarc . hy progress on Syria in Geneva The basis of power is through land, capital, military or politic c , al ontrol, and these arrangements are Photos +MORE hereditaryand within selec families from generation to generation. ted 8/17/2012
  • 2. The 4th Media » How Feudalism Hinders Community Transformation and Economic ... Page 2 of 6 Through analogy the c ept of feudalism extended to Shogunate Japan, parts of Afric the , onc a, kingdoms of the Middle East, South Asia, Latin Americ South Americ and to the “Malay” a, a, Archipelago (Nusantara). Although there was a movement to sponge the term in the 1970s’[2]; unlike the eradication of polio, the causes and symptoms of feudalism didn’t disappear. Feudalism in various forms still exists in US Now Allows Americans Donate Money to one form or another, and its best to call a spade, a spade. US/NATO/GCC/Israel-Arab Terrorists in Syria The c eptual nature of feudalism c be seen to exist within three lay onc an ers. Most Popular The first lay c er onsists of the institutions and assoc iated mec hanisms of the “rule of law”. Due to 1 Russia Moves Nuclear Missiles to Cuba: The wide variations across the world, feudalism ac ross this lay is diffic to prec er ult iselydesc ribe. Cuban Missile Crisis PART TWO??? However it isn’t so important whether the power base of institutions is based on divinity theoc y , rac , 2 The 18th CPC Party Congress Special: The Coming roy peerage, militaryauthority or c al , ivilian rule, some, if not manycharacteristic are verysimilar. s of a Second Chinese Social Revolution? One of the most important c harac teristic is that entryand membership of institutions is based on s some form of privilege. 3 US Arms Arab Terrorists With Tanks, Fighter Jets, Helicopter Gunships: US Troops in Turkey at the Position, authority and promotion usuallyinvolve some form of nepotism. Verystrong power- , Syrian Border distanc relationships help to maintain an unquestioned authoritywithin these institutions. Dealings e with outside parties and stakeholders are usuallyundertaken through c hosen and selec parties ted 4 Asia Times Reports Saudi Spy Chief Prince Bandar that are formallyor informallylinked to the leadership of the institution. Assassinated 5 US Government Silently Positions for Martial Law Manyof these institutions utilize the dogma theydevelop as means that c annot be questioned as Financial Collapse Arrives in America without some form of fear bythe general population with covert or overt threats of punishment by the authorities. 6 The Al-Qaeda, CIA Funded Boogeyman, Directs "Free Syria Army" Commits Mass Murders of Under suc a regime the rule of law is used as an instrument of c h ontrol, utilized for the interests of Innocent Syrian Populations the power-elite. Institutions strive for absolute power over a range of strategicassets important to the economyof the c ountry even though the c , onstitution mayspec otherwise. This is ac ify hieved 7 Media Deception: Busted! Photoshop Forgery to through various informal methods suc as extra-legal and extra-judic ac h ial tion over a long period of Sell Image of War Torn Syria Exposed time that intimidates the general population[3]. 8 Power of War Propaganda on Iran, How It Works: The second lay of feudalism is the waypeople in soc er ietyare structured. In manysocieties this 80% of Americans Think Iran’s Nuclear Program c be veryovert where even ‘titled peerages’ spec c an ify lass. Threatens the US 9 London Olympics: Chinas Success and Sour In one modern developing c ountrygovernment departments serving the publiceven have spec ial Grapes: A Reflection of the Wests Racist rooms to serve ‘VVIPs”. Other signs maybe more c overt where level of education divides soc iety Arrogance into the ‘educated’ that ‘believe they know what’s best’, and the ‘undereducated’. This divide is the basis of deep seated politic instabilityin some c al ountries. 10 Third Chinese-Russian Veto Blocks the Road to World War III: “The [West] Have Shown Only What is perhaps most important is that potential opportunities for people to enric their lives h Arrogance, Not Sincerity,” Said Chinese through entrepreneurial and business opportunities is severelylimited to groups outside the Ambassador to UN ‘privileged’. The most lucrative opportunities are the sole prerogative of small groups under various guises c alled cronyism or nepotism, etc. Due to the formal market restric tions bylicensing and c ontrol over land manyc ountries appear to be ‘business friendly’ but are certainlynot ‘market friendly’, where large businesses operate under protection as monopolies or oligopolies. This brings great inefficienc to the ec y onomyin a similar manner the ‘import replacement tariffs’ of the 1960s in manydeveloping ec onomies at the time. As a consequenc major businesses in manySouth East Asian nations are in the hands of onlya e few dozen families. Wealth is c entrated and through their position and developed c onc omplac y enc , these groups tend to invest in relativelylow risk rent seeking investments. Manybusinesses are based upon resourc monopolies and large trac of land are stripped in e ts pursuit of large profits under the thinlyveiled name of development. This is not just restric to the ted large firms of the nation. Farmers with c onnec tions to loc authorities are able to go into state and al national forests almost unc ked and c hec arve out as muc land as theyc for their ac h an tivities. In suc soc h ieties resourc are stripped for personal benefit at a c to the environment. This is an es ost extremelyimportant fac c tor ontributing to global warming that has barelybeen mentioned in debate, let alone ac upon. Feudal soc ted ieties are a major contributor to global warming. The third lay of feudalism is the most damaging to soc er iety– mindset. In feudal like soc ieties the elite work with the assumption that ‘we are the law’ and operate ac ordingly festering an ambienc c , e of narcissism through the upper ec helons of soc . Perc iety eptions, ideas, and attitudes bec ome fixed where soc ietysettles into a complac patterning. ent In contrast, rural population live in an ambienc of hopelessness and resignation of the assumption e that ‘this is how life is’. The onlygroups that have muc freedom of opportunityare the urban h newc omers who are able to find employ ment or open a micro-enterprise within the major cities and towns. Suc is the evolved mindset of these ty h pes of societies; conservatism, risk adversity ego-c , entrality, self interest, and lac of c ern about the environment bec k onc ome the dominant traits of people and order of things. This mindset does not discriminate between publicand private sec or rural and tor urban groups. 8/17/2012
  • 3. The 4th Media » How Feudalism Hinders Community Transformation and Economic ... Page 3 of 6 Soc ietycreates a massive defenc mec e hanism to denythe signs and forc of c es hange, leading to a veryfixed national narrative. This narrative c bec an ome so fixed and ego-c entricthat relations with neighbouring countries often bec ome strained with the smallest of issues. Complac ybrings ineptness where institutions slowlydec as c enc ay orruption and patrimonialism, the propensityto favour familyand friends, rise. All institutional activities are focused upon the sole objec tive to support the existing power elite and protec them from domesticthreats. t Motivation is low and servic levels in both government and the private sec is more akin to the e tor old Eastern European c ountries under communist rule, rather than the vibrant growth economies around the world. Corruption bec omes embedded within the c ulture where even the y oung and educ ated see it as the onlymeans to advanc in soc , and more alarmingly– not wrong[4]. e iety Soc ietydisintegrates into the lowest moral and ethic form not unlike past soc al ieties that kept slaves, where in fac this still exists todayin a c t ontemporaryform. Although altruism is often espoused, in reality little if anyexists within soc . , iety In some c ases feudalism bec ame established in societies that easilyac epted authorityafter c colonial masters moved out. The new governments used feudalism as a means to both c ontrol and reap benefits for themselves. Urbanization and industrialization should normallybring enough impetuous to eradic the forms of feudalism that exist within a nations as the basis of order and ate organization. Change brings pressure for transformation. Urban soc ietybegins to grow rapidly triggered bythe , muc higher wages offered for fac h toryemploy ment than c be obtained in anyagric an ultural ac tivities. Initiallythis migration is selective with the y ounger educ ated seeking urban employ ment but as demand for workers grows and stories about higher wages filter bac to the rural areas, k larger numbers of people migrate to the c ities. Urban populations bec ome consumers and inc rease demand for all ty pes of food, ac ommodation, c c onsumer and durable goods. Theyalso partake in savings either voluntaryor through nationally induc savings sc ed hemes developed bygovernment through an emerging banking sy stem. The educ ation system is enhanc from basicsy ed stems distilling discipline to those that plac more e emphasis on c al and c ritic reative thinking. Growing urban development attrac new entrepreneurs whose values shift from traditional ts attitudes to those more in line with an urban environment of a newlydeveloping country(see figure 1.). Those with natural abilities are quic to emerge and the soc k io-economicstructure of society begins c hanging awayfrom its feudal base. Theypic up new skills and c k ompetenc from educ ies ation and employment and learn as theygo along in their new businesses. Figure 1. The shifting values that urban societybrings to a developing economy. However as a developing ec onomyexperienc rapidlyc es hanging demographic this mayleave a s, deeplydivided agrarian soc ietyand newlyeduc ated urban soc . This c still be seen todayin iety an most South-East Asian c ountries whic have bec h ome part of the sourc of politic problems in e al countries like Thailand[5]. Developing soc ietyhas some influenc on agrarian soc e ietythrough urban residents remitting funds bac to parents and families in their villages and returning to build new houses and buyc k onsumer goods. This starts to break down traditional values and bring envyinto village societies. Although ec onomicgrowth is destroy traditional c ing ulture and values, a whole range of new opportunities begin to emerge with rural based urban c entres developing. These new towns commerc iallyserve their respective hinterlands with goods, basiceduc ation and health services provided bygovernment. Newlydeveloped infrastruc ture, roads, railway c s, ommunic ations, schools, and health centres help provide the abilityof rural soc ietyto transform itself. This brings a whole new range of opportunities to those that c see the opportunity have the resourc networks and skills to develop them. an , es, The economyis now developed into partitioned agric ultural, manufac turing and servic industries e with manynew opportunities c ontinuallydeveloping. The proc esses of rural-urban migration, population growth in urban centres, and increasing educ ation, increased c onsumption and saving. Rising entrepreneurship oc urred through inc c reased opportunities, catalysing increased investment and rapid economicgrowth. These phenomena are shown in the sc hematicin figure 2. Figure 2. The path to rapid economicgrowth in a developing economy. Rising populations c reate momentum, whic c h reate opportunities and begin to feed off eac other h creating a chain in the economyand expand as other opportunities bec ome exploited. Real estate developments, need building c ontractors, whic need hardware suppliers, whic need hardware h h goods manufac turers, who need workers who are paid and spend moneyon food, ac ommodation, c and c onsumer goods. Sales operations are needed to sell the real estate and c redit facilities are needed to enable people to buythe homes and properties. 8/17/2012
  • 4. The 4th Media » How Feudalism Hinders Community Transformation and Economic ... Page 4 of 6 The development of a textile industryneeds suppliers, tool manufac turers and dy manufac e turers, and the development of the automobile industryneeds parts manufac turers, paint manufacturers, steel suppliers, logistictransport providers, and automobile dealers. All these interactions c reates and environment with a set of opportunities. This pattern of development, growth, and c reation of opportunities, are in a perpetual motion. The inner c and ity suburban areas of c ities develop c ertain socio-economicc haracteristic in terms of the sets of s needs and wants c onsumers have leading to its own set of interrelationships whic determines h what c happen and what c an annot happen. There are pressures to adopt new more egalitarian business struc tures whic sometimes c h hallenge long existing orders. During the under-developed and earlydeveloping phases of ec onomic development in manyc ountries, businesses have been c ontrolled byfamilies of government officials and the militaryprotec byrestric ted tive regulation and prac es that allow monopolies and tic oligopolyc ompetition. Suc situations would be similar to those under the Suharto regime in Indonesia and the Marc h os regime in the Philippines, but also exists throughout Afric the Middle East and Latin Americ In a, a. some of the old Soviet Bloc c k ountries, state c apitalism was replac bya small group of politic ed ally supported entrepreneurs in what c ould be c alled ‘oligarch capitalism’. To a lesser in some c ountries like Malay c sia ertain parts of industries are controlled byGovernment Linked Companies (GLCs) under another version of state c apitalism. The effec of these business t structures is to restric opportunityand growth to small groups of people. t One of the weapons the power elite use to prevent the above c hain reaction of events is to delayor fail to build the necessaryinfrastruc ture to support this transformation. However c hanging demographic c s reate trends that even the most powerful elite groups c annot hold bac often k, bringing great politic instability al . In these cases it maytake some form of shoc event like a politic upheaval or even revolution to k al change the situation where a more egalitarian business societyis c reated where more liberal business environments exist[6]. These reforms usuallyc ome under pressure bythe people who have bec ome educ ated, having the confidenc to rec e ognize opportunities and had the opportunityto travel and see other countries where the business environment is muc more open. Onc this c h e hange in soc ietyoc urs the c economyc move onto the next stage of bec an oming a developed ec onomy . Figure 3. shows the transformation from a feudal to a more egalitarian business soc . iety Figure 3. The shift from a feudal to an egalitarian business soc . iety So what are the c onsequenc of feudalism? First of all feudalism c es reates rigiditybased on hierarc , power distanc c hy e, ustom, c ulture, and soc expec ial tations. This embeds staticprac es tic within a societythat leads to higher transac tion costs and thus inefficienc [7]. y Anyc omparative advantage a nation mayhave c be veryquic lost through this rigidity These an kly . embedded informal rules, status rights, norms, and beliefs impede c hange, whic is needed in an h economythat is undergoing struc tural change and growth. This prevents a fac based ec tor onomy moving onto becoming and innovation based ec onomy . Patrimonial prac es slowlylead to ec tic onomicdec line, at least relative to other nations whic may h lead to politic instabilityand c al hallenge of the status quo. This ec onomicdec is in c ay ontrast to other countries that are try to strengthen the rule of law and transparenc . ing y Manythird world governments venturing into state owned enterprises to assist in ec onomic development are onlytransferring the ‘old values and practices’ into these new organizations whic h are doomed to inefficienc from the start. State owned enterprises instead of opening up and y developing the ec onomyfurther take awayentrepreneurial opportunities from private c itizens and thus instead of enhanc growth, just redistribute existing wealth to privileged groups[8]. ing Business in the hands of suc a few within the ‘privileged class’ leads to other afflic h tions like groupthink that lead to consideration of few alternatives and poor decision making[9]. Other prac es like c tic losed tenders just enhanc un- c e ompetitiveness and raise transac tion costs. Today international markets require innovation, partic ’s ularlyin developing supplyand value chains. Rigid management and rent seeking industrystruc tures based on a staticoutlook of soc , partic iety ularlywhere government polic has supported this status quo greatlyhinders the y abilityto be creative and compete internationally. In the world todaythere are manyresourc ric c e h ountries that survive on resourc based exports e whic is hiding the underly long term problems of the c h ing ountry lac of c ’s k omparative advantage. This prevents transformation, prevents the creation of c omparative advantage in anything, except for resourc based monopolies and rent seeking ac e tivities. Even if drasticpolitic cal hange oc urs, the ac umulated wealth, networks, and c c c apital, along with the inefficient institutions left behind maintain a form of neo-feudalism that cannot be easilybroken 8/17/2012
  • 5. The 4th Media » How Feudalism Hinders Community Transformation and Economic ... Page 5 of 6 up. The inertia and vested interests of what has gone on for manyy ears prevents dy namicchange. As a consequenc muc of a c e h ountry population is deprived of the right to pursue basic ’s opportunities where theyare limited to a mic and SME nature. ro Ric hard Florida postulates that technology toleranc and talent are prerequisites to c , e, reativityand innovation, the basis that enables the transformation of an economy[10]. Feudalisticsoc ieties tend to be poorlyendowed with tec hnologyand more importantlyare unable to learn to be innovative from the infusion of new tec hnologies. New tec hnologies are most often applied blindlywithout adaptation to spec c ific onditions within the rec eiving country As manyfeudal soc . ieties are based on some form of dogma, toleranc fore alternative views is not usuallyac eptable and thus original thinking and c c reativityis greatly hindered. To this we must add market openness to enable the other fac tors to flourish. Otherwise an exodus of talent from the countryor ‘brain-drain’ mayoc ur when there are anymissing elements c desc ribed above. Anyc ountrythat seeks to find its plac of prosperous contentment within the world must transform e from a feudalscape to an innoscape. The c apital ac umulation c c must be made to work in a c y le waythat c reates real value. This ec onomicmodel must c omprise of equitable market regulation, strong c orporate governance, sound philosophies of risk alloc ation, undertake banking reform, enable fair, equitable, and responsible market regulation, c reate prudent fisc and monetarypolic , and most importantlyof al y all eliminate the abilityof the people to use spec ulation as a sourc of wealth. e As a final point in this discussion, the equalityof opportunityis a basichuman right. People maynot be poor bec ause theyhave been left behind the rest of the world, as the Sac hy hs pothesis would make us believe[11]. Theymaybe poor bec ause of the soc and ec ial onomicstructures theylive within. Feudalism is like a fenc that keeps people awayfrom the lush pastures of opportunity e . Therefore it is disappointing that the Millennium Development Goals did not more explic target itly feudalism as a c ause and preserver of povertyand devise spec strategies to eradic it. ific ate Manymeetings on development around the world have repeatedlyec hoed this to little avail[12]. The risk is that the elements of feudalism that exist around the world will be largelyignored as they are too politicallydiffic to tac ult kle. The Millennium Development Goals mayjust tac the kle symptoms rather than the ac tual structural causes of poverty. Prof. Murray Hunter, University Malay Perlis sia Endnotes [1] [2] Brown, E., A., R., (1974), The Tyrannyof a construc Feudalism and Historians of Medieval t: Europe, American Historical Review, Vol. 79, No. 4., pp. 1063-1068. [3] Ac ording to Franc Fukuy c is ama’s hy pothesis, lac of the rule of law and ac ountabilityallows a k c government to bec ome easilydespotic Fukuy . ama, F., (2012), The Origins of Political order: From Prehuman Times to the French Revolution, New York, Farrar, Straus and Giroux. [4] See: Unknown, Corruption surveyrevealing, The Star Online, Tuesday3rd July2012, [5] See: Profile: Thailand’s reds and y ellows, BBC News, 20th April 2010, /8004306.stm, ac essed 20th April, 2010). .c ific c [6] However even in some c ases this does not c hange even after a revolution, i.e., the fall of the Soviet Union just replac state c ed apitalism with ‘oligarc c h apitalism’, the peoples revolution against Marc did not dispose of ‘c os ronyc apitalism’, and the revolutions in Latin Americ during the 1960s a and 1970s did not c hange the situation muc Egy Liby and Tunisia are still in the balanc h. pt, a, e. [7] Williamson, O., E., (1999), The Mechanisms of Governance, New York & Oxford, Oxford UniversityPress. [8] See the current debate on this issue in Malay at http://malay sia sia- today .net/mtcolumns/newsc ommentaries/50917-pkr-wants-rc i-on-george-kent-saga [9] Hunter, M., (2012), Opportunity, Strategy, & Entrepreneurship: A Meta-theory, Vol. 1, New York, Nova Sc ientificPublishers, pp. 305-308. [10] Florida, R. (2012), The Rise of the Creative Class – Revisited: 10th Anniversary Edition – revised and Expanded, New York, BasicBooks. [11] Sac J., (2005), The End of Poverty: How we can make it happen in our lifetime, London, hs, Penguin. 8/17/2012
  • 6. The 4th Media » How Feudalism Hinders Community Transformation and Economic ... Page 6 of 6 [12] Misra, M, (2011), The Threatened Millennium Development Goals in India, Peace & Conflict Monitor, 3rd march,, Islam, A. (2004), Health-Related Millennium Development Goals: Policy Challenges for Pakistan, Journal of Pakistan Medical Association,, Abro, H., (2011), Eliminating feudalism for an equitable socio-economic development, Business and Financial Review, 11th January, Tags: American Historical Review life society status 4 Print Related articles: None of related articles Add Comments Name (required) Mail (required) 3+4= (required) Submit Query Protected by WP Anti Spam Notify me of follow-up comments via e-mail US Now Allows Americans Donate Money to US/NATO/GCC/Israel-Arab Terrorists in SyriaCopyright ©2011 April Media Co, Ltd. All Rights Reserved 四月网 | 四月青年社区 | 百科 | 博客 | Beijing SHOTS | Русский языкAbout US | Contact Us | Work for us | Help 8/17/2012