Do we have a creative intelligence?___________________________________________________________________________________________Prof. Dr. Murray Hunter 516 2012Hunter, Murray; Do we have a creative intelligence?; WiWi-Online.de, Hamburg, Deutschland, 2012; online imInternet unter http://www.wiwi-online.de/fachartikel.php?artikel=516; Stand*:
Do we have a creative intelligence? Murray Hunter University Malaysia PerlisThere is no conclusive agreement about what the concept of intelligence really is. Someconcepts of intelligence focused upon achievement, i.e., how much a person really knowsrelative to others in an age group, or aptitude orientated, i.e., the person’s ability to learn1.Traditionally intelligence has been considered as a general trait “g” where people would differin the level they possess. However as separate abilities (e.g. verbal, memory, perceptual, andarithmetic) were recognized as intelligence, the concept of intelligence widened2.Howard Gardner took an interest in Norman Geschwind’s research concerning what happens tonormal or gifted individuals after the misfortune of a stroke or some other form of braindamage. Gardner was amazed at how a patient, counter to logic would lose the ability to readwords, but could still read numbers, name objects, and write normally 3. This suggested thatdifferent aspects of intelligence originate from different parts of the brain.Gardner synthesized his knowledge of the study of brain damage with his study of cognitivedevelopment and believed that peoples’ endeavors were not based upon any single type ofintelligence, but rather a mix of different intelligences. Intelligence needs to be applied invarious ways for survival in different environments and thus the abilities of a banker, medicaldoctor, and Eskimo looking for fish are situational specific, all requiring high levels ofcompetence. Western society heavily values verbal, mathematical, and spatial competencieswhile other competencies may be more important in other cultures. Intellectual competencemust therefore entail the possession of a set of skills that can enable someone to solveproblems, resolve difficulties they may find in day to day living, have the potential to findproblems, and have the ability to acquire new knowledge from their personal experiences4.Every form of intelligence can be seen as a specific paradigm having its own symbols and logicthat will define, enable evaluation, and solve problems.Gardner hypothesized the multiple intelligence theory in recognition that broad mental abilitiesare needed in society and that every person has a unique blend of different intelligences5.Gardner initially listed seven types of intelligence, body-kinesthetic, verbal-linguistic, logical-mathematical, visual-spatial, musical, interpersonal, and intrapersonal intelligence. Gardneralso affirmed that our separate types of intelligences may not just be limited to the sevenabove and that others may also exist. Brilliance and achievement most often depend upon theindividual finding the right vocation in life that suits their intelligence mix.
One of the other forms of intelligence that Gardner speculated about was spiritual intelligence.Zohar and Marshall postulated that spiritual intelligence is a moral base enabling us to questionissues of ‘what’ and ‘why’ about things, and whether we should or shouldn’t be involved inparticular activities6. Unlike general intelligence which is logical and rational, spiritualintelligence enables us to question, which is central to the concept of creativity.Expanding upon Gardner’s concept of interpersonal intelligence is the concept of emotionalintelligence (EQ), which has become very popular over the last two decades. Emotionalintelligence places emphasis on a number of characteristics that are important for creativitywithin a group or social setting7.However emotional intelligence may have a dark side. Some individuals are able to utilize onlythe perception traits of emotional intelligence without feeling the emotions of sympathy,compassion, and altruism. They are better able to manage and manipulate others emotionsbetter than their own8. This ability to manipulate and deceive others, albeit creatively, has beendubbed Machiavellian Intelligence by Andrew Whiten and Richard Byrne9. This appears a primalability in humans as primates have been observed manipulating groups in order to gain supportand rank10.Intelligence and creativity are very different. The narrower definition of intelligence tends to bethe basis of convergent thinking, while creativity is about divergent thinking in this regard.Creativity is a much wider concept than intelligence. Our creative style has very little to do withour general intelligence11. Our creativity has more to do with the particular characteristics ofour intelligence and thinking styles we rely upon (see figure 1). Creativity relies uponimagination to assist us see patterns and similarities between unrelated things throughmetaphor and analogy, etc. Creativity occurs across our various intelligences, bringing theminto synergy12. Original thinking is about making these connections.
Thinking Typologies Based on experience, awareness, reflection, mixed emotion and imagination, very intuitive based The basis of our skills and thinking. Useful for strategic and abilities used alone or Wisdom visionary thinking and solving supplement other thinking (emotion & problems based on past patterns. typologies (our most primitive experience) Can be and is influenced by G and type of thinking) – wider than MI – more right hemisphere but Gardner’s MI uses both Emotive Memory General Multiple Instinctive Knowledge Intelligence Intelligences Solution Connective Application (Memory & I) Frontal lobe and coordinated Fluidity right/left hemisphere thinking. Can be greatly enhanced using specific Mainly developed academic cognitive tools that can be learned. Cognitive processing learning which creates formal Can be supplemented by other (creativity) knowledge. This formal thinking typologies. Heavy use knowledge can supplement imagination/metaphor/symbolic. other thinking typologies as it is Problem solving & creating new fairly useless on its own. – left ideas hemisphereFigure 1. The four major thinking typologiesMultiple intelligence recognizes that different skills originate from different areas of the mindand offers a different insight into how we think. There are multiple paths of perception andreasoning patterns. A single form of intelligence restricts the very way a problem is seen, whatdata is useful, how the data is organized and analyzed, and what alternatives are acceptable. Inaddition, domain paradigms that the majority of people have been trained within, can act asbarriers to breakthroughs and this is often why a person from outside a domain may have anadvantage. Prior knowledge can be restrictive and anchor one to existing assumptions andbeliefs that prevail within the domain. This is why prodigious performance is much more likelyin fields where prior knowledge is not so important like chess, music, and mathematics, than infields that require extensive knowledge like medicine, biotechnology, and nano-electronics, etc.Some entrepreneurs are able to successfully enter new domains without any formal trainingbecause they are not restricted by the patterned thinking of the relevant disciplines to theindustry13. The ability to change thinking paradigms is a pathway to creativity.If we view intelligence as a wide concept and focus upon the outcomes then intelligencebecomes cultural, geographic, time-bound, and a situational and contextual process rather thana trait14. Therefore it’s not intelligence itself that is important, but how knowledge is processedand what is done with it. Recent research into children with learning disabilities indicates that itis the capacity of the working memory, i.e., the capacity to store and manipulate informationand domain related knowledge, is more important than IQ in academic attainment15.
However social bounding restricts acceptance of what is original and what is not. For examplewhether Yoko Ono’s avant-garde art expression is considered original depends upon her peers.The Royal Society overlooked Edmund Stone’s discovery that willow bark relieved fever, leadingto the discovery of aspirin.The consequences of something new may not be seen for many years. It took more than adecade for the value of powered flight to be realized, as it was only when a need for spotting onthe battlefield emerged during the Great War that led to rapid development of the aircraftindustry. While the development of the automobile industry was restricted in England with lawsrequiring a man with a flag to walk in front of any automobile on the road, the Europeanindustry grew rapidly and flourished without these social and legal restrictions.Although the cognitive processes of creative thinking may not change, the knowledge,surrounding culture and applications will. Thinking is usually based upon historical precedentand thereby path dependent, focused upon solving contemporary problems. Over time theparadigms, values and ethical orientations we think within will change. Thinking tends to bedominated by major themes and contemporary issues (societal patterning) of the time such ascentralization and mechanization in the 1950’s, technology in the 1960’s, low cost laborintensive manufacturing in the 1970’s, capital intensiveness of the 1980s, globalism of the1990’s, sustainability in the 2000’s, and localization over the last decade.Economists, medical doctors, psychologists, scientists, and managers are bounded to thecurrent thinking of their respective fields, anchored to the current values and philosophies(domain patterning). Organizational thought is often restricted through the assembling of ‘likeminded’ people sharing the same beliefs and values where differing opinions may be subtlysuppressed (organizational patterning).The tacit influence of political correctness is intrinsic censorship that is much more powerfulthat formal means of censorship ensuring compliance to the beliefs and values of the time andplace. What we read, study, and learn most often dominates our thoughts locking us intoexisting flows of ideas, anchoring our thoughts to the current ‘realities’ that society defines as‘truths’. Peer and group acceptance is a very important personal need which may inhibit theexpression of ideas unacceptable to the group.To be creative in the social arena, a person should have a high level of emotional and spiritualintelligence16. Sternberg mentioned the concept of practical intelligence which is necessary fora person to adapt, shape and make selections in everyday life in order to cope with everydayissues and problems17. Practical intelligence is thus a measure of tacit knowledge, where tacitknowledge is what is needed to survive and be successful in a given environment18.
In the same article Sternberg mentioned the concept of creative intelligence. This concept isalso mentioned by a number of other authors, although the term is used broadly and there islittle consensus upon what it really constitutes. Creative intelligence is a term groupingtogether the cognitive and non-cognitive aspects of creative generation like intense interest,motivation and other social influences19, or a term that refers more to styles of creativethinking 2021.So both concepts of creative intelligence widen the concept of creativity by placing importanceon the contextual and environmental variables on one hand and on thinking processes,applications, or styles on the other. Rowe outlines four styles of creative intelligence; Intuition which is based on past experience to guide action, Innovation which concentrates on systematic and data orientated problem solving, Imagination which uses visualization to create opportunities, and Inspiration, which emotionally focuses on the changing of something22.Khandwalla focuses on a number of personal characteristics like sensitivity, problemrestructuring ability, fluency, flexibility, guessing ability, originality, elaboration and the uses ofvarious thinking processes that support them, e.g., convergent thinking, problem restructuring,and elaboration, etc 23. These approaches show that creativity is both influenced by theenvironment and thinking processes employed.In such a context creativity can be broadly considered an ability, or an intelligence in its ownright. A metaphorical construct of creative intelligence would look something like Figure 2. Aperson is surrounded by their social environment. The social environment stimulates anindividual’s perceptions, socializes beliefs and makes judgments upon creative efforts. Thefamily, domicile outlook, generational influence, age, education, work and life experiences, etc,all have some influence on interest and motivation, which should skew an individual towardinterests and passions like art, teaching, engineering, science, home duties, sports, etc.The environment is completed by the field where contemporaries and peers within it ultimatelymake social decisions about what is creative and what is not. For example the art communitydecides what art is outstanding and what art is mediocre. These judgments may only occuryears after the object of art was created, as it may take an artist many years to becomerecognized. Although Vincent van Gogh painted most of his life, it wasn’t until the end of his lifethat he became known. It was only after his death that his vivid post-impressionist paintingswere fully appreciated. Likewise, peers in each science through journals and conferences decidewhat new information to the domain is acceptable or unacceptable. The work of Alfred Wagneron Polar air circulation and his hypothesis about the jet stream and continental drift was notwidely accepted until 20 years after his death. A new product or fad may be considered
something creative during ‘the fad period’, where the product’s creative edge disappearsafterwards. Products like the hula-hoop, Frisbee, virtual pets, lava lamps, pet rocks, cabbagepatch kids, and Pokémon rose in popularity quickly and eventually declined. This fadphenomenon can be seen in many widely disused management philosophies like managementby objectives (MBO), matrix management, one-minute management, and business processreengineering, etc. New Ideas Unknown Opportunities Surrounding Developing Strategies Environment Solving Problems “Domain” &“Field” Environmental Environmental Factors conducive Factors that to creativity hinder creativity Internal Influencing Perception Factors Motivational Focus & Attention Trigger Creative Patterning Awareness Sensitivity Energy Source of Emotion Prior intelligence & Curiosity Knowledge Thinking Patterned Thinking Empathy Processes Processes Confidence (Self Organizing Discipline System) Interest Memory Passion Heuristics Applied Thinking Belief Tools, Imagination Manifestations & Fantasy Elaborations Domain & Field Experience Acceptance/ Tacit Knowledge Rejection Creative Product
Figure 2. A Metaphoric Construct of “Creative Intelligence”Within the field of entrepreneurship four types of situations require creative intelligence. Theseare the quest for new ideas, the search for yet unknown opportunities, the development ofstrategies to exploit potential opportunities and solving a multitude of problems that faceindividuals through the life of the venture. Within the gambit of ethical strategy and behaviorcreative intelligence is paramount to being able to implement ethical principles into complexand ambiguous situations.Our perception of the outside world is greatly dependent upon our patterning, heuristics, otherbiases, and prior knowledge. What we notice or don’t notice depends upon our creativesensitivity, focus and attention. What we are interested in, have passion for and confidence in,all influence our perception of people, objects and events. Our perception and reaction toexternal stimuli and how our cognitive system will process incoming data depends upon theexisting psychic tension and developed cognitive dissonance. If there is tension between ‘wherewe are’ and ‘what we envisage, desire or aspire’, attention and energy will be drawn into thefollowing cognitive processes.Our cognitive operations are independent from the external environment and ourconsciousness. All cognitive processes are the result of changing neural and receptorinteractions that occur within different parts of the brain. Information within the brain isdistributed in a decentralized configuration, functioning as a whole through a strategy calledassembly coding24. This is a very flexible coding strategy as it can reorganize and recombineinformation in a numerous number of ways. Through this mechanism we are able to continuallymake perceptions in an ever changing world25.Our perceptions, reasoning, concept of self are not concentrated on one part of the brain, asthe brain is a decentralized processor. The brain is a self organizing system which coordinatesthese functions. There is no centre of convergence. Therefore the brain is a decentralizedsystem that utilizes information in different locations to produce our perceptions, thoughts,reasoning and intuition. Cognitive processes are not serial, but operate in parallel, reciprocaland distributed interaction26. For example when we see an object and touch it, our sight andtactile preceptors make independent contributions to the identification of the object – thebrain utilizes multiple strategies to achieve this. There is thus no single locus or point for theidentification of objects. The representations of objects are made up of spatial-temporalpatterns of distributed neural activity27.The way information is organized is of paramount importance to how we see things and insolving a problem. As the brain processes in parallel and can recombine information innumerous ways, this assists an individual develop new thoughts, new ideas and to solve
problems. Making analogies is a matter of comparing two different concepts that share somesimilarity in parallel. The creative process goes through a number of steps, which relies on themind as a self organizing system to restructure information and make new associations,enabling problems to be solved. This usually occurs during a period of incubation whichbecause of the need to reorganize information could be one of the most important aspects ofseeing new associations and finding solutions to problems.Rather than rely on our raw natural thinking processes, we can utilize disciplined and controlledthinking styles and tools that channel our thinking processes for enhancing creative thought28.These tools can assist us to look at situations and problems in different ways so we can see newassociations and linkages which may lead to new ideas or solutions to problems.So broadly speaking a metaphoric concept of creative intelligence is made up of ourenvironment, the factors and variables that influence our perceptions and cognitive thinkingprocesses, a motivational trigger, our prior knowledge, our thinking styles, tools that we canemploy to enhance creativity, and the product of the process itself, which will be accepted orrejected as being something creative. If this model is representative of what creativeintelligence is, then by manipulating the environmental parameters, being aware of ouremotions and other influences upon our perception and thinking, and by developing newthinking styles through the use of thinking tools we can enhance our creative ability.1 The traditional measure of intelligence was the IQ test to predict school performance and vocational potential.2 This can be seen in tests which measured more than a single variable like the Scholastic Aptitude test (SAT),which gives a verbal and mathematic score. Another test, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children gives 11subtest scores of which 6 are concerned with verbal abilities and 5 with non-verbal abilities.3 Gardner, H. (2003). Multiple Intelligence After Twenty Years, Paper presented to the American EducationalResearch Association, Chicago, Illinois, 21st April, 2003.4 Gardner, H. (2004), op. cit., pp. 60-61.5 Gardner, H. (1999), Intelligence Reframed: Multiple Intelligences for the 21st Century, New York, Basic Books, P.45.6 Zohor, D. and Marshall, I. (2000). Spiritual Intelligence: The ultimate intelligence, London, BloomsburgPublishing.7 Dulewicz, V. and Higgs, M. (1998). Emotional Intelligence: Management fad or valid construct, Working Paper9813, Oxford, Henley Management College8 Austin, E.I., Farrelly, D., Black, C., & Moore, H., (2007), Emotional intelligence: Machiavellianism and emotionalmanipulation: Dies EI have a dark side? Personality and Individual Differences, Vol. 43, pp. 179-189.9 Whiten, A., & Byrne, R., (1997), Machiavellian Intelligence II: Extensions and Evaluations, Cambridge, UK,Cambridge University Press.10 Byrne, R., (1997), Machiavellian Intelligence, Evolutionary Anthropology, Vol. 5, P. 172.11 Kirton, M. J. (1994). Five years on, Preface to the second edition, In: Kirton, M. J. (Ed.), Adaptors andInnovators: Styles of creativity and problem solving, 2nd edition, London, Routledge, pp. 1-33.12 Homer-Dixon, T. (2000). The Ingenuity Gap: How can we solve the problems of the future?, New York, Alfred A.Knopf, P. 395.
13 For example many notable thinkers and entrepreneurs that dropped out of school or were self taught includeAbraham Lincoln, Amadeo Peter Giannini, Andrew Carnegie, Andrew Jackson, Barry Diller, Ben Kaufman,Benjamin Franklin, Carl Linder, Charles Culpeper, Christopher Columbus, Coco Chanel, Colonel Harlen Sanders,Dave Thomas, David Geffen, Dave Karp, David Ogilvy, DeWitt Wallace, Frederick Laker, Frederick henneryRoyce, George Eastman, Ingar Kamprad, Isaac Merrit Singer, Jay Van Andel, Jerry yang, John D. Rockefeller,Joyce C. hall, Larry Ellison, Michael Dell, Ray Kroc, Richard Branson, Shawn Fanning, Steve Wozniak, ThomasEdison, and Walt Disney.14 Gardner, H. (2004). Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligence (Twentieth Anniversary Edition), NewYork, Basic Books, P. 4.15 Alloway, T., P., (2009). Working memory, but not IQ, predicts subsequent learning in children with learningdisabilities, European Journal of Psychological Assessment, Vol. 25, No. 2, pp. 92-98, Alloway, T., P., & Alloway, R.,G., (2010), Investigating the predictive roles of working memory and IQ in academic attainment, Journal ofExperiential Child Psychology, Vol. 106, No. 1, pp. 20-29.16 Hicks, M. J. (2004). Problem Solving and Decision Making: Hard, soft and creative approaches, London,Thomson learning, P. 33717 Sternberg, R. J. (2002). Successful Intelligence: A New Approach to leadership, In: Riggio, R. E., Murphy, S. E,and Pirozzolo, F. J. (Eds.). Multiple Intelligences and Leadership, Mahwah, NJ., Lawrence Erlbaum Associates,Inc., pp. 9-28.18 Tacit knowledge is generally acquired on one’s own, usually unspoken and implicit, procedural in natural, notreadily articulated and directly related to practical goals that people value (Sternberg Ibid., P. 11).19 Cropley, A. J. (1994). Creative Intelligence: A Concept of True Giftedness, High Ability Studies, Vol. 5, No. 1,pp. 6-23.20 Khandwalla, P. N. (2004). Lifelong Creativity: An Unending Quest, New Delhi, Tata McGraw-Hill.21 Rowe, A. J. (2004). Creative Intelligence: Discovering the Innovative Potential in Ourselves and Others, UpperSaddle River, Pearson Education22 Rowe, A. J. (2004), Ibid., P. 3.23 Khandwalla, P. N. (2004), op. Cit., P. 213.24 Singer, W. (2009). The Brain, a Complex Self-Organizing System, European Review, Vol. 17, No. 2, P. 326.25 An example of how assembly coding enables the identification of novel objects through flexible recombination can be understood by seeing how a small child may identify a cow for the first time, if they have no previous experience or understanding of what a cow is. The child upon seeing the cow at the zoo identifies the cow (a novel object) as a large version of the dog, he or she has at home. It is only after the parents explain that a cow is a different animal to a dog, that the child can refine his or her identification of the cow as a separate animal to a dog. Reading is another activity that shows how the brain can understand the recombination of letters making up different words, sentences and paragraphs into unique meaning.26 Singer, W. (2009). The Brain, a Complex Self-Organizing System, European Review, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 321-329.27 Singer, W. (2009), Ibid., P. 32528 Many creative enhancement tools exist which include Brainstorming, attribute listing, absurd solutions, analogies,checklists, excursions, morphological analysis, Synectics, and thinking frames, etc.