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Contemporary Readings in Law and Social Justice Vol. 4, No. 1. 2012



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    • Contemporary Readings in Law and Social Justice Volume 4(1), 2012, pp. , ISSN 1948-9137 CREATIVE INTELLIGENCE AND ITS APPLICATION TO ENTREPRENEURIAL OPPORTUNITY AND ETHICS MURRAY HUNTER murray@unimap.edu.my Centre for Communication & Entrepreneurship University Malaysia PerlisABSTRACT. This paper begins with a review of major issues facing society today,observing how difficult they are to solve. After a review of the nature of theenvironment, introducing the concepts of relatedness and influence of time andspace on innovation, thinking, cognition, intelligence, and creativity, the metaphoricconcept of creative intelligence is postulated. The elements of creative intelligenceare described along with other supporting elements like prior knowledge,imagination, energy, and awareness. The role of creative intelligence in developingentrepreneurial opportunities and solving ethical problems is then discussed.Keywords: Environment, relatedness, cognition, imagination, energy, intelligence,creativity, creative intelligence, awareness, entrepreneurial opportunity, ethics. “Hard imaginative thinking has not increased so as to keep pace with the expansion and complications of human societies and organizations” H.G. Wells11. IntroductionOn the face of current events one could be excused for thinking that we arefacing a crisis in creativity and original thinking.2 The absence of derivednew meanings from the environment is leading to a vacuum in theemergence of new philosophies. Generation Y appears to be on a sojourn ofself discovery for meaning. Technology has created a dual economy madeup of exploited unskilled assembly workers on one side and wealthyconsumers on the other. The North-South divide is as wide as ever. We arenot sure whether the economic downturns of late are a cyclic phenomena orwhether there is something structurally wrong with the system itself. Manydecisions institutions within society has made achieved counterintuitive 9
    • results, where the opposite to what was desired has occurred, i.e., therestriction of narcotics and enforcement has produced a large undergroundindustry with a high cost of enforcement. There are so many potential crisesin the world today without apparent solutions (see table 1.), highlighting agreat discrepancy between these issues and our ability to solve them. Some are calling upon our past growth paradigms to be re-evaluated dueto growing resource scarcity, our damaging effect upon the environment,and the inability of the economic system to make reallocation adjustmentsto account for rapid depletion of hydrocarbon resources.3 As we move fromelite to mass education, students primarily attend universities as a means togain a more lucrative career, rather than intellectual enrichment4, Our levelof knowledge is doubling every five years, yet our understanding about theworkings, interrelationships and co-dependence within the environment isstill apparently lacking. We think in predictable ways5 rationalized in one dimensionality6,where idea originality is scarce. Problems that don’t fit into our socio-political worldview are downplayed, ignored, or even abnegated existencebecause of our prevailing biases, vested interests and/or the fear of movingto new viewpoints and positions. Most often, politically embedded nationalagendas prescribe our solutions without giving the opportunity to reflect ordevelop new insights. For example, nationalist sentiment, strict bordercontrol, and immigration laws hinder the redistribution of labor migrationfrom areas where there are acute levels of poverty and unemployment toareas where there are chronic labor shortages. Positive thinking has becomea form of social control, where dissent is brushed aside and labeled aspessimism. Our optimistic outlook to the affairs of the world is a delusion ofwillful ignorance, reducing our vigilance, and contributing to the creation ofa blind and powerless society.7 Future solutions will depend upon theability of humans to escape this moral callousness and think creativelyoutside our existing patterning, and predisposed paradigms of thought.2. Domains, Reductionism and PathsIn the Victorian era scientists began to divide fields into narrow andprotected domains with their own vocabularies, hierarchies, and elites; thuscementing tightly bounded beliefs into respective disciplines. Thepredominating metaphor of these disciplines has been that of the machine,clockwork, precision, and predictability, reflected in the precision ofmathematics and quantitative theories. The goal of science was to reducethe world into understandable parts in order to reduce our sense ofuncertainty and anxiousness. The development of these academic domainswhere expert specialization takes place has led to little increased creativity 10
    • and original thinking. In fact specialization has seemed to hinderinnovation.8 Many massive engineering developments like the building of theHoover Dam, the development of the atomic bomb, and the space programwere not based on science as much as they have been based uponengineering reductionism.9 Potential new breakthroughs in specificdomains are often resisted by discipline centered experts committed toestablished reductionist views based on the models they work from. Somediscipline premises were totally incorrect. For example, economicspreached individualism and decentralized markets, yet our security andprosperity has been largely the result of collective action to eradicatedisease, promote science, develop critical infrastructure and, providewidespread education.10 The tools of trade are usually too selective to allowthe big picture to be seen, becoming the ‘rose colored glasses’ of perceptualand discipline-centric domain imprisonment.11 This can be very clearly seen in the parable of a king who invited agroup of blind men to identify an elephant shows that our understanding isbased on perspective. One feels the tail and says it is a rope. Another grabsthe leg and says it is a pillar. Another feels the side and says it’s a wall.Another felt the head and said it was a water jug, and so on. Real science and the development of new knowledge are based onsimple experiments to test hypotheses, more like creative art. As aconsequence the advancement of science is unpredictable. Gatheringintelligent individuals together is not the answer to creating breakthroughs.Without the element of creativity there is unlikely to be any majorbreakthroughs, as we see in so many organizations today.12 Reductionist tools like mathematics and geometry have great difficultyin explaining everyday occurrences like the operation of a steam value, atennis game, riding a bicycle, and catching a ball as there is the element ofchaos (not to be confused with crisis) and unpredictability in anyphenomenon. One can develop complex wave equations but never reallyknow exactly what is going to happen. Reductionism relies upon linearperfectionism which doesn’t exist. Even the earth’s rotation is not exact.Our perfectionist time systems must be regularly adjusted to account fornature’s imperfection.13 We try to think about the world in a linear waywhere the world really behaves in non-linear ways. Most events need tounfold along particular paths, something that cannot be controlled.Evolution is an unplanned process.Table 1. Some of the major complex problems facing the World todayAntibiotics European credit and Racism currency crisisChina-Taiwan relations Floods Rising food prices 11
    • Climate change and Guantanamo Rising unemploymentglobal warmingCorruption Hate Soil salinity and erosionCounterfeit medicine Labor shortages Spratly IslandsDecaying infrastructure Migration (Understanding) sustainability of agricultureDecline of biodiversity Ozone depletion within Urban sprawls the ionosphere (overdevelopment)Decline of coastal Population growth War and regional conflictfishery stocksEnergy Poverty Water scarcity and managementVery few humans tend to think far beyond their familiar geographicalterritory and immediate future. The majority of our everyday ‘thought flow’tends to be negative and could reasonably be described as ‘cognitivegarbage’, consisting of random thoughts that lack any substance to be ofany usefulness. We muddle through basing our thinking on unquestionedpatterning influenced by past behavior, beliefs shaped by myths and evensuperstitions we gather. Much of what we actually think and do is aprogression and culmination of a series of previous ideas that define thepathways we follow. Where original ideas were ‘poor ones’, all followingdecisions along the defined path will lead to less than ‘optimal’ situationsthat eventually accumulate and could lead to a disaster – metaphorically likedrifting into a dark tunnel with no way out. This is reflected in the way theworld economy is being managed, present approaches to povertyeradication, the history of abandoned medical practices found to beineffective, current unsustainable farming practices, poor resourcemanagement,14 and disastrous approaches to river irrigation, coastalfisheries management,15 and water sharing across major world waterways.16 The decisions we make are primarily dependent upon the context andcircumstances of a particular time and place. For example many countriesfocused on national development to promote domestic industries after theSecond World War and started their own automobile industries as an importreplacement strategy. Contemporary development theories at the timeadvocated import replacement strategies to assist a developing country saveforeign exchange and create employment17. However industry protectionmeasures over time created industrial inefficiency which led to highdomestic prices for automobiles, the inability to create sources ofcompetitive advantage, with little ability to compete with the rest of theworld. Firms in these import replacement industries struggled to survive andmany industries closed down completely. An import substitution policyinitially brought economic growth, but the industrial base it created becamea basis for economic rigidity and stagnation later on. Management theory 12
    • over the years has also been value laden providing fixed paradigms thatbrought particular types of results, i.e., scientific management, Theory Y,TQM, Industrial democracy, Re-engineering and lean productiontechniques. A good decision at one time based on contemporary theories atthe time can become a poor decision at a later time. The contexts, situations,circumstances, and benchmarks for judging decisions change, thuscreativity is paramount to society to enable flexibility and dynamismaccording to changing economic structures and conditions, i.e., the ability tobreak out of rigid paradigms. Creativity embodies the concept of utility, one of the pillars of classicaleconomics,18 and is more important than ever before as traditional sourcesof growth and prosperity are drying up. From an integrated globalperspective, progress in the future will not be about crude wealth formation,but more about selected growth, redistribution, and stabilization in selectedregions around the globe, much more complex than fostering crude growth,requiring coordination on a global scale that has never seen before.3. Thinking, Creativity, and SocietyOur understanding of creativity and thinking has been drastically enhancedthrough emerging ideas within the biology, genetics, neuroscience, andevolutionary psychology disciplines. The advent of functional magneticresonance imaging (fMRI) and position-emission tomography (PET) whichcan measure cerebral blood flow in the brain through sensing magneticsignals or low level radiation respectively to determine brain activity levelshave greatly deepened our understanding of the cognitive processesinvolved.19 Quite remarkably, the cognitive process has many similaritieswith computer information processing steps of acquisition, storage,retrieval, processing, data organization and artificial intelligence structures20leading to the computer metaphor in the science of cognition. All our religious doctrines, political ideologies, economic philosophies,management theories, and technology applications are based on ourcollective beliefs and values. Political philosophies of the last century havebeen based upon our primal fears of elimination or aspirations about adefined image of what the future should be, and traditional religioustheologies brought hope of immortality through the promise of forgivenessof our guilt and an afterlife. We are part of the environment and define itthrough our experience, needs, beliefs, values, biases, and motivations. The paradigm of knowledge has shifted from something seen as factualand absolute, to a contextual nature. Philosophers and psychologists of the20th century changed our conceptuality of knowledge in a massive shiftfrom the predictable Newtonian order centered on absolute identities of the 13
    • past. Our metaphor of understanding and explaining the environment hastranscended from a detached to an embodied view. Knowledge is a relativeconstruction, where for example, a coastal foreshore area can be understoodas a hinterland of resources by a geologist, a backdrop for a landscape sceneby a painter, a potential location for settlement by explorers, a place forchildren to play, and a romantic place to walk by couples; all derivingmeaning through context, need, aspiration, and experience. There is nowacceptance that the environment embodies multiple realities where meaningis based upon the context of individual and society. The importance of creativity can be explained through the metaphor ofthe universe as a medium full of drifting matter where distribution and formchanges over time. The universe evolved from being a homogenousenvironment of dust particles to becoming a complex haphazardenvironment where matter has condensed to form galaxies, clusters, andsuper-clusters. Evolution is thus a series of time phased transitions from oneform of matter to another under the influence of energy,21 Therefore the keyto evolution is the ability to reconfigure new combinations of information tocreate new knowledge, enacted by energy (discussed later), within ouravailable resources and capabilities to fit what the environment will accept.This is creativity. Creativity and intelligence are two very different cognitive qualities.Intelligence is more a characteristic and promotes paradigm specificconvergent thinking. Creativity on the other hand is a process and operatesdivergently,22 more relevant in finding solutions to problems anddeveloping new ideas. Creative thinking through various thinking stylesconnecting and restructuring information is the process that develops newcombinations of knowledge that manifest new ideas, inventions, andinnovations,23 New ideas must be accepted by peers to catalyze the progression ofsociety. Sometimes the acceptance of new ideas may take a long period oftime. The delays in acceptance may occur because the significance of someideas may not be fully appreciated at the time. The theories of flight andaerodynamics were not understood until the Wright Brothers found meaningand significance through experimentation based upon trial and error.Moreover inventions like Dunlop’s tire may be lost to the world if there isno apparent immediate application. The tire was only reinvented when animmediate application (the bicycle and automobile) existed. What constitutes creativity and original thinking can be very subjective.There is great argument about whether new ideas and inventions constituteprogress and what simply advocate change for change’s sake or solvesproblems people never knew they had. The additional apps and featuresbuilt into new mobile phone models are probably not going to advancesociety in any way, but may appeal to consumer emotions. Creativity can be 14
    • distinguished from fad creation, where creativity should incorporate newvisions. The consequences of creativity may only be discovered some time in thefuture. The moving of polluting industries out of Europe to Asia in the1990s was originally seen as an advantageous move by Europeanmanufacturers in lowering production costs and escaping stringentenvironmental regulations within the EU,24 but the consequences of thiswere not fully appreciated by policy makers at the time. The absence ofthese industries has drastically eroded the EU’s tax base and contributed tohigher unemployment levels.25 The application of creativity is primarily concerned with adaption to achanging environment. Creativity is culturally, geographically, andemotionally bound. It is also situational, and time phased. Creativity andoriginal thinking is concerned with technology, organization, socialdisposition and the ethical aspects of our lives. This is an important trait fora firm to posses in order for it to survive within a dynamic environment.26The top companies on the “500-lists” in 2020 will most likely becompanies that we don’t even know today. Adaptation is grounded onadopting new understandings that lead to new meanings that turn theimagination into the explicit which can be acted upon to create value tosociety. Testimony to the failure to adapt is the number of firms that dropoff the “500-lists” into bankruptcy, and the number of firms that rise intimes of recession, replacing failed companies on the “500-lists”.27 Creativity facilitates change and enables evolution within society.Unlike analytical thinking, creativity and the resulting ideas are rarelyconstructed upon tangible evidence and information. It’s an intuitiveprocess and flourishes at the edge where there is the potential for change.Creativity is the very catalyst of new knowledge itself, resulting in a newideas, inventions, technologies, or business models that translate intochange of society. Creative thinking must therefore transcend the thoughtboundaries that society has defined; otherwise society will remain static.4. Complex Systems and Our Thinking ApproachesThe environment is part of a larger system, which is part of a larger system,which is part of a larger system constituting the ever changing ambiguousmedium that we are immersed within. W. Brian Arthur postulated thatcomplex systems have three important characteristics.28 Firstly complexsystems grow in co-evolutionary diversity where different entities competeand collaborate in ever diversified activities, some surviving, while othersperish. Secondly, complex systems are on a continual path of structuraldeepening where entities will increase in complexity, and thirdly complex 15
    • systems act as ‘capturing software’ where entities interact with otherentities giving birth to new entities, objects, and events. These threeprocesses work continuously creating new phenomena where actions are nottotally predictable, e.g., the equities market, human immune system, etc.Consequently the environment continually reorganizes itself to higherdegrees of complexity, capacity, and meaning, through independent butinterrelated actions, while each entity maintains its own identity andredefines itself according to the changing requirements of the environment. Opportunities can be recognized in the market through discovery,29 orconstructed through developing a concept over time30 through actions in thereal world.31 This approach sees opportunity creation much the same as theprocess of creating new knowledge, a social construction that makes senseout of the environment.32 The market system can metaphorically be compared to the ebb and flowof a tide. The market environment is a culmination of time, place,technology, society, government, suppliers, customers, and competitors. It’san emerging system where new entities, business models, inventions, andideas spin off the ‘ebb and flow’ of the possible.33 Entrepreneurialopportunities exist as rocks uncovered by the ‘ebb and flow’ of the tide. It isa dynamic construct, a result of the continually interacting elements of themarket system. One invention or innovation may provide a platform for ahost of other innovations to spring into existence just like the railways inAmerica catalyzed the potentiality of many new industries that fosteredeconomic growth in the late 1800s and the internet that did the same in thelate 1990s. Innovation drives emergence and maintains the sturdiness of themarket system, continually changing the market structure. The marketstructure being the skeleton of the market system could be metaphoricallydescribed as shifting sands along a coastline, regularly eroded by the tide,molded by the winds, and left with impressions of the footprints of animals,people, and tracks of vehicles that pass over it. The market structure consists of companies undertaking variousactivities, transport infrastructure, supply chains, distribution points,bookkeeping systems, money, institutions facilitating exchange, regulatorybodies, and consumers. The structure is a complex web of reciprocalrelationships where each part relies on the rest of the market structure forexistence; i.e., the market structure cannot exist without each componentand each component cannot exist without the market structure. Existence isrelative to the existence of other entities within the market structure, i.e.,products cannot exist without the means of exchange, transport, and viceversa. The concept of relatedness applies to everything. Man doesn’t have amasculine self identity until he is in proximity to a woman and vice versa.Without males and females being side by side together there is no gender 16
    • awareness. Although being male and female is biological, the gendered selfis determined learning in childhood and the feelings we develop over ourgrowth and development.34 Likewise Pluto was considered a planet until2006, an equal member alongside the other eight planets within our solarsystem until many other similar objects of similar magnitude to Pluto werediscovered within the Kuiper Belt. Pluto is now controversially described asa dwarf planet due to the new set of relationships known as Trans-Neptunian objects (see figure 1). The discovery of the trans-Neptunianobject Sedna in 2003 changed our understanding of the solar systemdramatically. Our knowledge is enhanced through new understandings ofrelatedness. Knowledge is not a static constant but rather an emergingdynamic phenomenon that continually changes our understandings. Ourknowledge is subject to what we know today, which can completely changetomorrow. This facilitates change. The ‘ebb and flow’ of the tide embraces complexity. It appears verysimple, but actually is the manifestation of complex interrelationships. Thetide isn’t an object in itself, but has so much influence on what is going on.The tide defines and shapes the landscape. The tide is invisible but theeffects are clearly visible. The force of a tide can vary in magnitude from asmall wave covering your feet as you walk along a beach to a massivetsunami that can wipe out coastlines on multiple continents during a singleevent like an earthquake. Tide is similar to the invisible effect that occurswithin the environment, appearing simple but with overly complex motions.The change we see appears simple but the forces behind it are extremelycomplex. Most phenomena are just so complex we just see the effects andcan only hypothesize the causes or the motions. The true nature of a tideisn’t the water as just the true nature of the environment isn’t the individualconstituents within it, i.e., infrastructure, objects, or activities. This is notsomething that can be grasped, touched, clearly defined, or truly understand.The fall of the Soviet Union, the Asian financial crisis, and the economiccrisis of 2008, and the Arab Spring all came with little warning. Ambiguityis invisible where only the manifestations can be seen, unable to becorrelated to any causes directly, and thus too complex to be understood – itcan only be known, i.e., we can see the effects of gravity, but not gravityitself.Figure 1. The concepts of context and relatedness are metaphoricallyillustrated by the two grey inner-circles which are both the same size.35 17
    • From a quantum perspective existence depends upon the relation betweenentities and objects. We cannot understand anything in isolation, but onlythrough what it does.36 The nature of the environment is both a bond(structure) and a flow (system) that embodies complexity. It is relationshipthat gives meaning and forms the tide of the environment – an extremelypowerful concept that gives our identities an existence. Each particle is amere abstraction in physics until the interactions with other particles areunderstood.37 We see the relationships between things which enable us tosee the ambiguity and contradictions.38 For example, we cannot make senseof, or understand human beings in isolation. We must focus on therelatedness, i.e., experience between our self and others. Even the conceptof “I” and “me’ is grounded in relatedness between people. All politics,diplomacy, economics, are based upon relatedness. The key tounderstanding is seeing the relationships and contradictions rather than thesingular entities. Connections can best be seen where contradictions are perceived;becoming a starting point for a new understanding of the possible. Newideas come from where there are errors, not perfections. Errors act as atrigger to force us to rethink our hypotheses and challenge ourpreconceptions. This opens up possibilities to ‘what could be’. BenjaminFranklin once said “Perhaps the history of the errors of mankind, is morevaluable and interesting than that of all the discoveries.” Seeing newconnections through relatedness is the basis of new creative insights thatlead to breakthroughs in new knowledge. We simplistically understand climate change as global warming,characterized by rising temperatures, changing weather patterns, meltingicecaps, and rising sea levels. We generally believe in the phenomenonprimarily because of greenhouse gases we as a society collectively emit intothe atmosphere. Anybody who argues against this would be labeled askeptic or non-believer, protecting vested interests. However a recent studysuggests the relationship between temperature change and higher CO2levels in the atmosphere are highly exaggerated where atmosphere is not assensitive to CO2 levels as was first thought.39 In addition the Arctic andAntarctic ice caps are growing, and not in decline as many believe,40leading to confusion, more debate, polarized positioning and evenskepticism.41 In complexity, truths are not absolutes. In the field of development economics there is little agreement aboutstrategy and what should be measured as success indicators. TheMillennium Village (MV) project founded by Professor Jeffrey Sachs andphilanthropist Ray Chambers was started with a host of objectives, desires,and hopes.42 Overwhelming successes were claimed.43 However, these werestrongly questioned from a number of perspectives, with some claiming 18
    • better results could have been obtained through other strategies.44 Truths arenot absolutes they are relative to what one believes. Any view we have isonly partially the truth. There are many truths – and it is important toacknowledge that.45 Reality rests upon these multiple truths whichaccommodate ambiguity. Creativity is about continually restructuring andevolving our worldviews to accommodate change and ambiguity. Withinthe quantum view one must accept uncertainty upon the premise that we cannever know everything. Instead of using mathematical formulas, we canonly assume probabilities that certain things may happen. Precision does notexist. Our lives and the environments we live within have become so complexthat it is exceeding our cognitive abilities to cope. Our brain has developedfrontal lobes over the last two million years making two significantcontributions to the way we think. If we return to the first scene “The dawnof man” in Stanley Kubrick’s epic 2001: A Space Odyssey, the beginning ofour species was sparked off by a moment of creativity – the great apegaining an insight on how to use a bone as a tool and weapon. Ourprefrontal cortex has given us the ability to make connections. Secondly ourprefrontal cortex gives us the ability to interact, to have empathy, toimagine, and to manipulate the social surround. Kubrick’s great apesdefended the group – a social action. However over time we have become preoccupied with our manmadesystems and ignored natural systems, becoming too logical and linearthinking. The great sociologist Max Weber called this the process ofrationalization. He characterized this rationalization as efficiency,predictability, calculability, and control over uncertainty, manifested byrigid bureaucracy,46 the prime means by which we organize our society.Author and psychiatrist Iain McGilchrist describes the phenomena as a lefthemisphere dominated society, where the left has no wisdom, just data andrepresentations, where for example money stands for values and objects,where maximum utility is sort, where there is need for control, in anenvironment where we comply to rules.47 What most don’t realize is that we actually have very little control overthe environment, just an illusion of control. We have developed structureslike bureaucracy and systems like ISO, Six Sigma, and TQM to give theappearance of order and control around us. But our science is not fact as wetend to assume. Science is made up of hypotheses about findingcorrelations, not necessarily cause and effect, not necessarily fact.Economics, management and sociology simply reflect our values,aspirations and fears at the time and thus impasse narrow perspectives uponenvironmental phenomena. This is clearly seen in academia today whereaccording to Tufts Professor Amar Bhídé, most of the big economicjournals today reflect right wing ideology,48 thus suppressing alternative 19
    • views. People beliefs, expectations, and values influence their views of theworld according to their respective perspectives.49 Change occurs through the development of new ideas, inventions, andinnovations. The environment is a self regulating system evolving throughthe trial and error, driven by creative thinkers who take action upon theirideas. This could be a morphic phenomenon where collective informationbecomes an enabler of new emergence, explaining why different groups indifferent parts of the world without knowledge of each other orcollaboration can invent the same thing. This drives what Schumpeter called‘creative destruction’ and what the systems theorists call ‘emergence’, andis where creative thinking originates. Creative thinking occurs out of thechaos rather than order of any environment. Creative thinking is also restricted through our bounding to time andspace.50 What is possible must have the right social, cultural, legal, andtechnological ideas, inventions, and innovations in place as prerequisites,before a new idea, invention, or innovation can exist through what StevenJohnson calls the ‘adjacent possible’.51 Numerous scientific discoveriesand technological improvements like the steam engine, automobile, orwinged flight, occurred after thousands of cumulative hours of thoughttranspired. No single person can be considered fully responsible for thesediscoveries or inventions.52 A single idea is a summary of all conceptswhich have been learned over the years of living. An idea must beexpressed for creativity to emerge, which is not restricted to any one form.It could be a narrative, a poem, a model, a picture, or a piece of art. Any original concept without all necessary ideas, inventions, andinnovations in place will be fantasy rather than something with immediatepotential reality, i.e., the absence of a small engine that could produceenough thrust over and above its own weight was one of the barriers toinventing powered flight. The idea of nano-sensors circulating within thebloodstream to diagnose human ailments currently lacks the ability tominiaturize such sensors, but will most probably become a reality when therequired nano-technology exists. All new ideas, inventions, and innovationsare created on the foundations of previous works – a summary of allprevious concepts that have been learned over previous years expressed asan idea, invention or innovation. For example, an automobile is a compilation of numerous previousinventions that enable the form of an automobile to exist. Without the ideasof steel, rubber, fuel, concepts of compression and combustion, electronics,tires, braking system, new alloys, hydraulic systems, road rules andcarriageways, the automobile cannot exist (see figure 2). The creation ofinventions that become automobiles is a continuous process. Incrementalimprovements to the whole idea advance the automobile. New compositepolymer materials and plastics make lighter frames without sacrificing 20
    • strength, new engine power enhancing systems like turbochargers and fuelinjection systems contribute to the enhancement of car performance. Theautomobile is a system of ideas and also forms part of other ideas liketransport systems and city planning, etc. The potential reality is limited byknowledge and imagination. The inter-connectiveness of everything is so entangled that looking atthe separate parts of any system will tell us very little about the functioningof the whole. Anything without the context of the rest of the system haslittle meaning, i.e., tires, a braking system, or a chassis will tell us littleabout an automobile itself. Everything must exist in relation to other thingsin order to have meaning. To the inventor who is making connections,finding the related meanings between the different objects is the key toingenuity. It’s the new meaning that ingenuity provides that advancessociety. Automobile Chassis Engine Tires Control & Braking System Environment Management Systems Suspension Fuel Rubber Electronics Alloys Road Rules Systems Steel Compression Chemical Microprocessors Hydraulics Roads & & Processes carriageways Combustion Heat Engineering Plantations Transistor Laws of Fluids Horse & Processes principles BuggyFigure 2. Time and Space: It was the previous ideas and inventions thatexisted before an invention like the automobile was possible.The invention process is subject to multiple realities. Entrepreneurs developnew ideas upon their prior knowledge, existing technology and inventions.Any new invention is based on the past and is a projection into the future.Thus the entrepreneur stands on the origin of possibilities and projects his orher imagination along a new vector of reality of choosing. For example, 21
    • Anita Roddick’s holiday in America and visit to the Body Shop operated bysisters Peggy Short and Janet Saunders in Berkeley California, triggered herto imagine a new reality of ethically based retail outlets around the world.Without entrepreneurs standing at the origin of possibilities and envisaginga different future, society could never change. Had each entrepreneurchosen a different way to go, different realities to what was created wouldnow exist. An entrepreneur is the creator of new realities.5. Thought CognitionThe cognitive functioning of the mind is no longer a mysterious black box.Over the last fifty years we have developed a much deeper understandingabout how we think. With the work of Pierre Paul Broca and Karl Wernickein the 19th Century, the different functioning of the left and righthemispheres of the brain began to become vaguely understood. Thisunderstanding was greatly enhanced with the work of Michael Gazzanigaand Roger Wolcott Sperry on functional lateralization and how the twohemispheres communicate with each other when the corpus callosum thattransfers signals between the two hemispheres was severed with split-brainpatients.53 After further work by Robert E. Ornstein, a strong consensusdeveloped that the brain was fully conscious in both hemispheres carryingout perception, thinking, storing and retrieving memory simultaneously, butat the same time providing different and conflicting views of the world. Julian Jaynes hypothesized in his controversial book The Origin ofConsciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind that the brain wasindeed divided with a dominant left part that spoke and a subservient rightthat obeyed – hence the bicameral mind.54 Although at the time Jaynes sawbicameralism as metaphoric, advances in cerebral imaging in the 1990sconfirmed his early predictions.55 Jaynes postulated that we have a schizoidtendency due to hemispherical conflict in the way each hemisphere thinks,which heavily influenced beliefs about consciousness at the time. Theseideas about split brain functioning were taken up by academics andpractitioners in the creativity and education fields. The functions of the brain was described as split into two hemisphereswhere the left side was believed to be sequential, concerned with facts,splitting the world into concrete and identifiable categories, logicalreasoning, linear thinking splitting things apart, mathematically orientated,and the centre of words and language. Thus the left hemisphere is able tobring narrow and sharply focused attention to detail. On the other side, theright looked at the environment in a holistic manner looking at the whole,visually and spatially orientated, seeking similarities through analogy, 22
    • thinking in images, and thus able to believe, be vigilant over theenvironment, and transform ideas. Our education system has been orientated towards developing generalintelligence and critical thinking, all left traits. This is probably due to beliefin the 1960’s that left side traits were more important in earning an income.This is clearly reflected in the learning taxonomy developed by BenjaminBloom in the 1950s. Edward De Bono brought predominating focus upon the righthemisphere of the brain as the centre of holistic or what he called lateralthinking, where creativity was thought to be derived.56 At that time it wasbelieved that the dominance of one side and corresponding thinking styleswould suit specific activities, i.e., left side dominance would suit activitieslike learning languages, mathematics, engineering, and reading, while rightside dominance would better suit activities like social science, educationand the visual arts57. From a gender perspective it was considered that rightdominance would enable superior interpersonal skills and would be morecommon in women and left hand dominance which promoted logicalreasoning would be more common in men.58,59 which supported AngloSaxon arguments about male dominance in the Victorian era and influencedvocational guidance right up to recent times. The divided brain paradigm was reinforced by medical schools wherestudents would examine brain anatomy to see the clear division of the braindown the centre. For many years child psychologists and educators wouldlook at children’s hand orientation as a rough indication of brainhemisphere dominance.60 As it was believed that the left hemisphere wasmost important to develop scholastically, most children were encouraged tobe right handed which was controlled by the left hand side of the brain. This belief in the way we thought was built upon by Ned Herrmann aphysicist who worked within the human resource department of GeneralElectric. After years of research in creativity of the human brain Hermanndeveloped a metaphorical model of how the four quadrants of the brain havespecialized functions.61 Herrmann believed the brain works as a coalition offour quadrants that carry out specialized functions. Quadrants A and B aresuperimposed over the left side of the brain which is sequential and time-bound and quadrants C and D are superimposed over the right hand side ofthe brain which is holistic and timeless. Quadrant A thinkers think in termsof words and numbers, logically and analytically. They are achievementorientated and most people are trained and educated in this way.62 QuadrantB thinkers are task-orientated and result driven in the way they organizefacts and plan. Quadrant C thinkers are intuitive and rely on interpersonalstimulations and quadrant D thinkers are conceptualizing, imaginative andholistic.63 The four quadrants are the basis of our thinking preferenceswhich determine how we prefer to learn, understand and express things in 23
    • what are called cognitive preferences or preferred modes of knowing.64People tend to think from different positions within the whole brainmetaphor. Each quadrant works in tandem in varying degrees withinindividuals. When faced with a situation or problem we use our preferredway of thinking to make sense and solve the problem. When people areanchored toward one mode, other modes of thinking are avoided. Thisgreatly affects our intake of information, comprehension of a situation andoverall learning capabilities.65 However this was not reflective upon how the brain really worked.Functions that were previously believed to only occur on one side of thebrain were found to actually occur on both sides, and it was found that thecorpus callosum played a very important coordinating role, which can varyfrom person to person.66 In addition, our whole understanding ofintelligence was beginning to be redefined both in terms of concept andapplication.67 Traditional general intelligence was not the only form wehave. We have many different forms of intelligence which vary inimportance according to the time, location and situation we exist within.The talents and abilities of a New York stockbroker differ from an Olympicmarathon runner, an advocating lawyer in a courtroom, a geologist, and anAustralian aboriginal living off the land in Central Australia. No one cansay which of these people are more intelligent as the necessary talents,abilities, and underlying intelligences differ just as the tasks, applications,and required outcomes differ. Our increasing understanding of the role of the prefrontal cortex throughboth cerebral imaging and examination of brain damaged patients indicatedthat it is the thinking processes that are of upmost importance in applyingintelligence to problems and challenges we face. The prefrontal cortex isthe centre where we are able to distinguish differences in people, objects,and events and develop premeditated time phased actions, choose betweenalternatives based on set criteria and values, override unacceptable actionpathways that the limbic system may bring attention to. Thus the prefrontalcortex is able to filter and inhibit inappropriate thought, emotions, anddistractions.68 The prefrontal cortex receives highly filtered data from the senses. Itcombines this data with selective memory recall69 to construct a map ofreality that enables us to see the world within our own context. This dividesour reality into, and connects past, present, future together through bothcross temporal and modal association and deliberate potential actions70 – atotally relational system. Consequently the prefrontal cortex is a top-down processor rather thanthe bottom up limbic system that encourages action through emotionalgeneration. The prefrontal cortex can also be seen as an integrator of thetwo hemispheres, limbic system, senses, and memory functions. Both 24
    • reason and imagination originate from the prefrontal cortex where bothprocesses require all facets of the mind rather than being exclusivelydomiciled in any one hemisphere. The prefrontal cortex must integrate theleft hemisphere’s narrow focused and categorized view of the world whichlock us into particular patterns with the right hemisphere’s overall openview seeing the world more as a system – as the right hemisphere sees andthis needs to be made sense of by the left hemisphere which categorizeswhat the right sees. A mental map is constructed which will differ fromothers in the degree of balance between left and right hemispheredomination. The prefrontal cortex selects data that creates our mental maps filteredwith set patterns, values and beliefs contained within neurologicallyconstructed schemata stored within the memory. Where thoughts, desires,feelings, and ideas are not consistent with the values and beliefs withinthese schemata, feelings of confusion, puzzlement, surprise, guilt and/orremorse may emerge due to the conflicting way reality is interpreted.71These types of conflicts must be resolved through reason, imagination andemotion. Sometimes this leads to great new insights where new connectionsare made integrating into what could be called reasoned imagination. Therole of emotion is to draw attention to important triggers and keys in theprocess. Due to the empathic nature of the prefrontal cortex, we seerelationships between people, things and events. Creativity and originalthinking is about seeing these relationships. At other times emotions triggerthe initiation of any of a vast array of defense mechanisms that may lead tosome forms of dysfunctional thinking.72 From this point of view it could beargued that our conscious awareness resides within the prefrontal cortexand connected tracts leading to the rest of the brain.73 The world weexperience is as much a product of our mind as it is the environment. The brain is a self organizing system full of neural connections.Probably one of the closest explanations to how our brain processesinformation in the recognition process is the neural network model.74Information is broken up and stored in nodes that connects with other piecesof information through the dendrite of a neuron (a branched tree likestructure) to terminal buttons at the end of axons (thin branches of neuralcells), where the terminal buttons connect to the dendrites of other cells atthe synapse (junction between the terminal button of one neuron and thedendrite of another neuron). These neuron connections are numerouscreating (or arranging) our thoughts from a relational database ofinformation that can be assembled to form meaning when electricalimpulses go above a threshold that makes us aware of a piece ofinformation. Neural networks accommodate learning through changing the weights ofnode activation through excitatory or inhibitory actions. This improves the 25
    • efficiency of the network in making identifications through being able toprocess information in parallel, through both top-down and bottom-upprocessing. This enables a person to look, in the case of writing, either atthe word level, letter level, and feature level, which implies we can interpretincomplete words and sentences.75 The controlling mechanism ofcommunications (i.e., connections) between neurons is located within theprefrontal cortex.766. Memory and Prior KnowledgeOur memory stores information about people, objects, and events; insomething like a web of connections explained above. We are not exactlysure where memory is stored, but it is believed to be around areas of thebrain responsible for language, vision, and hearing, etc, connected throughmillions of complex synapses. The hippocampus performs the role as amediator in forming memory and as a coordinator in connecting therespective memory centers of the brain.77 Consequently information is notstored whole and divided into relational bits. Recent research has shownthat when new experiences occur, a gene activates within the hippocampusthat triggers modifications in neural connections by adjusting the strength ofthe synapses.78 Our life experiences, knowledge, knowhow, values, and beliefs are allstored within the neural systems within our memory. Prior knowledge isinformation and knowledge a person accumulates over their lifetime.79 Asone’s experience grows the mental matrix of prior knowledge becomesricher and more complex. However prior knowledge is not all truth, it ismade of perception, beliefs, and imagination which make up thecomponents of our memory (see figure 3) – our constructed reality. The content of prior knowledge can be demonstrated by thinking aboutLeonardo da Vinci’s mural Il Cenacola or The last Supper . In the picturemany people believe that a holy chalice is present. On viewing the paintingone will find there is actually no holy chalice on the table whatsoever(however there are cups). This is how our beliefs developed throughBiblical stories around the last supper shape and influence our mentalconstruction of what we would expect to see, i.e., how we construct ourreality. Our prior knowledge as well as being influenced by the worldaround us also influences our general perception of the world. 26
    • Memory Truth Knowledge Belief ImaginationFigure 3. Prior knowledge consists of truth, belief, knowledge, imagination, andmemory.We build up knowledge upon a pool of metaphors as a way to comprehendand construct meaning about the environment around us.80 The advantage ofmetaphor is that it can be loosely applied to contextual situations in aflexible manner to help clarify uncertainty through analogy. Metaphorsmake things more familiar to us and if they can explain new experiences toour satisfaction, our current schemata and emotions are reinforced. Throughthe use of metaphor, prior knowledge assists in problem solving byproviding simpler analogies where complex cause and effect cannot beeasily understood and evaluated. Metaphors help a person make sense oftheir experiences, perceptions, develop plans for the future, andcommunicate these ideas to others.81 For example, business strategy is oftenreferred to through sport and war analogies which make concepts easier tounderstand and visualize. In a similar manner, blood circulation is oftenexplained in pumping and pressure analysis. Metaphor is not restricted to narrative and relies very heavily uponmental imagery. Spatial based mental imagery is extremely important inconceptualizing and solving problems. Imagery is powerful in arousingemotion as we see when the majority of people are exposed to sexuallyexplicit and violent material. Mental imagery originates within the visualcortex located in the occipital lobe in the posterior of the brain, thus sharingthe same processing space with the visual perception area.82 Much of ourimagination is generated in the visual mode which is sometimes confusedwith reality.83 Imagery is a composite picture just like a mental map. We cannotreconstruct an entire image of a scene we can only make a compositesimulation, which is actually what we also do when we look at a scenethrough our eyes84 - remember the Last Supper example. What we see is the 27
    • composite we construct and not reality. Images cannot however serve asconcepts or ideas themselves, they can only serve as the meaning of wordslike a dictionary.85 Metaphorical language evolves into existing imagery and narrativeframeworks within prior knowledge, where ideas can be shared with others.If current metaphors cannot explain our interpretations of currentexperiences and solve particular problems, then new experiences need to beblended in with prior knowledge to create a modified schemata and newemotions. This overtime develops much more sophisticated and richermental models which assist us when issues and problems we considerbecome much more complex – the development of wisdom.86 Experience differs from knowledge in that it introduces feeling andemotion. For example one could read about snorkeling and diving but untilone has gone diving where they can feel the pressure and experience theundersea life, knowledge has no feeling. As individuals experience thingsdifferently, i.e., diving around the surface verses diving at the depth of 25feet and diving in clear tropical waters verses murky lake water. To a greatdegree knowledge is individually orientated. No one has the sameexperience of the same event and this adds to the concept of understandingas something relative rather than absolute. The enrichment andtransformation of our schemata over time occurs through learning andexperience.87 The key to our ability to continue learning is to be able tointegrate the knowledge we acquire with the knowledge we already have. The belief and imagination components of prior knowledge influenceour thinking and decision making processes. Our current beliefs are like ananchor that prevents us from thinking of new ideas. We are also stronglyinfluenced by the beliefs of others and emotions tied to similar pastexperiences.88 Prior knowledge manifests as stereotyping which assists a personcomprehend a story and judge its plausibility, bringing in judgments andbiases to our thinking.89 In addition, biases guide our decision pathways.Any first decisions we make on any matter creates a pathway upon whichfuture decisions will be guided. Biases tend to keep us on a consistent paththrough an “escalation of commitment”, even though we may know that theoriginal decision was wrong. We are also bound by culture. Culture has a strong bearing on our abilityto be creative both at a social and organizational level. For example, cultureinfluences how employees feel in a workplace; are people linked or workwithin a ranked hierarchy?, do people seek ideas through collaboration ortake on ‘top-down’ ideas?, are people empowered or controlled?, do peopleexist within an environment of ambiguity or certainty?, do people makedecisions spontaneously and intuitively or through formal processes andprocedures?, is the organization flexible and quick to act or inflexible and 28
    • slow to act?, and does management make work play or work under anenvironment of seriousness? Creativity and original thinking is about making new connections, i.e.,developing new neural networks. Thus our thinking is limited by theknowledge we already have within our memory and the process of how weintegrate new perceptions into existing prior knowledge. As perceptions areinfluenced by our beliefs and biases, new ideas are actually the result oflogical hindsight rather than foresight.90 Therefore creativity can be seen asbeing a restructuring of our knowledge to fit the elements of the problemswe face. In these cases the role of creativity is to find new ways to define aproblem so it can be solved with the knowledge we have. From thisperspective the mind’s self organizing system is restricted by the boundariesof environmental perception and our prior knowledge, placing limits on thescope of possible emerging ideas. Virtually no idea or invention has occurred in isolation. We learnthrough various methods from others i.e., James Watt used pre-existingknowledge to develop his version of the steam engine. New ideas andinventions tend to be incremental steps rather than breakthroughs outsidethe bounding of prior knowledge. Humans are social animals andcommunication is central to our evolving thinking. As our prior knowledgeincreases through social interaction, learning and experience, so does thenumber of potential possibilities for making new connections that lead tonew constructions, just as our ability to speak a foreign language increasesexponentially once we know the basic syntax rules and increase ourvocabulary. The way our cognition system is designed and the role prior knowledgeplays is extremely useful for people carrying out their work like doctorsmaking a diagnosis, mechanics inspecting an engine for faults, airline pilots,and farmers, etc., doing the routine parts of their jobs. Prior knowledgeguides them through a number of frames each representing pre-existingmental models through which they perceive – shaping our reasoning anddecision making process. This is also the basis of their specialist intuition.91Any new idea is anchored to our life experience, formally or informallyacquired knowledge and associated emotions attached to vision that enablesnew connections.92 The key to original thinking is reflection, plasticity andflexibility at both the neural and thinking levels.7. ImaginationImagination is the ability to form mental images, phonological passages,analogies, or narratives of something that is not perceived through oursenses. Imagination is a manifestation of our memory and enables us to 29
    • scrutinize our past and construct hypothetical future scenarios that do notyet, but could exist. Imagination also gives us the ability to see things fromother points of view and empathize with others. Imagination extends our experience and thoughts, enabling a personalconstruction of a world view that lowers our sense of uncertainty.93 In thisway our imagination fills in the gaps within our knowledge enabling us tocreate mental maps that make meaning out of the ambiguities of situationswe face where information is lacking,94 which is an important function ofour memory management. This partly explains why people react differentlyto what they see due to the unique interpretations they make based ondifferent prior knowledge and experience. Imagination enables us to createnew meanings from cognitive cues or stimuli within the environment, whichon occasions can lead to new insights. Our knowledge and personal goals are embedded within our imaginationwhich is at the heart of our existence, a cognitive quality that we would notbe human without.95 Imagination is the means novelists use to create theirstories.96 The Turkish Nobel Laureate Orhan Pamuk imagined a world heretreated into as a child where he was someone else, somewhere else increating the narrative and story of his novel “Istanbul”. Imagination isneeded in marketing to create new value sets to consumers that separatenew products from others. This requires originality to create innovation97.Imagination is the essence of marketing opportunity98 that conjures upimages and entices fantasy to consumers, allowing them to feel what itwould be like to live at Sanctuary Cove in Northern Queensland, Australia,receiving a Citibank loan, driving a Mercedes 500 SLK around town, orholidaying in Bali. Imagination aids our practical reasoning99 and opens upnew avenues of thinking, reflection, allowing a mentally reorganized world,to enable concepts of doing things differently. Imagination decomposeswhat already is, replacing it with what could be, and is the source of hopefear, enlightenment, and aspirations. Imagination is not a totally conscious process. New knowledge mayincubate subconsciously when a person has surplus attention to focus onrecombining memory and external stimuli into new meanings. Most peopletend to spend a great deal of time while they are awake “daydreaming”,where attention shifts away from the present mental tasks to an unfoldingsequence of private responses.100,101 This may be enough to activate ourdefault network, a web of autobiographical mental imagery, which mayprovide new connections and perspectives about a problem we have beenconcerned with. Recent research has shown that the brain periodically shiftsphase locking during a person’s consciousness,102 where neural networksactivate and these brief periods may be enough to allow the dominant lefthemisphere give way to the right hemisphere, enabling a person to see theenvironment, problem or issue from a new perspective.103 This has been 30
    • corroborated with research that found where people engage in mildlydemanding intellectually challenging tasks during breaks from work thatthey are doing, there is a higher probability of finding solutions to problemsthat they have been engaged within their primary activity.104 Theseprocesses originate from the prefrontal cortex where we imagine ourselvesand the feelings of others, the posterior cingulate cortex connecting ourpersonal memories throughout the brain, and the parietal cortex connectingthe hippocampus which is reported to store episodic memories.105 Unguided imagination (or what was once termed “free association”)through dreaming and “daydreaming” enables the gathering of informationfrom different parts of our memory, which may not be easy to accessconsciously. This information may come from a within a narrow domain ora much wider field. The more imagination takes account of the wider field,experience, and prior knowledge, the more likely these ideas createdthrough imagination will have some originality – through complexknowledge restructuring. Allen McConnell writing about Steve Jobs inPsychology Today postulated that the large array of fonts designed for theMacintosh computer were inspired from Job’s interest and knowledge abouttypography he learned while doing a calligraphy class at Reed.106 It wasJob’s imagination of seeing an array of fonts in the Macintosh that made itreality. There are very few serendipitous occurrences in creative insight.Most are the result of triggers and slow incubation periods that lead to arevelation.107 Marsh and Bower called the above types of insights inadvertentplagiarism.108 Most cases of insight were inspired by something in the past;although though imagery these new concepts may have been given newtypes of manifestations. It is through the imagery of analogies that manybreakthroughs in science have been achieved.109 Einstein developed hisinsight for the theory of relativity through imagining what would happen ifhe travelled at the speed of light, Faraday claimed to have visualized forcelines from electric and magnetic fields from a wood fire giving insight intothe theory of electromagnetic fields and kekulé reported that he gainedinsight into the shape of the benzene molecule after he imagined a snakecoiled up in a circle. Imagination is a multidimensional concept and encompasses a numberof different modes which can be described as follows;1. Effectuative imagination combines information together to synergizenew concepts and ideas. However these are often incomplete and need to beenhanced, modified, and/or elaborated upon as more information from theenvironment comes to attention and is reflected upon. Effectuativeimagination can be either guided or triggered by random thoughts, usuallystimulated by what a person experiences within the framework of their pastexperience. Effectuative imagination may also incubate from pondering 31
    • over a specific problem within the occasional attention of a person.Effectuative imagination is extremely flexible and allows for continuouschange. This is an important ingredient in entrepreneurial planning, strategycrafting, particularly in opportunity construction, development, andassembling all the necessary resources required to exploit anyopportunity.110 Effectuative imagination also leads to other forms ofimagination that assists in the construction of concepts, ideas, and actionscenarios. Effectuative imagination enables flexibility in our thinking.2. Intellectual (or constructive) imagination is utilized when consideringand developing hypotheses from different pieces of information orpondering over various issues of meaning say in the areas of philosophy,management, or politics, etc. Intellectual imagination originates from adefinite idea or plan and thus is guided imagination as it has a distinctpurpose which in the end must be articulated after a period of painstakingand sometimes meticulous endeavor. This can be very well illustrated withCharles Darwin’s work which resulted in the development of his hypothesisexplained in his book The Origin of Species which took almost two decadesto gestate and complete. Darwin collected information, analyzed it,evaluated and criticized the findings, and then reorganized all theinformation into new knowledge in the form of a hypothesis.111 This can bea long drawn out process, sometime decades long, with intermittent periodsof high intensity and other periods where very little thought is given to theproblem. Intellectual imagination is a very conscious process, although itmay slip into other forms of imagination that enable new insights.3. Imaginative fantasy creates and develops stories, pictures, poems,stage-plays, and the building of the esoteric, etc. This form of imaginationmay be based upon the inspiration of some fact or semi-autobiographicalexperiences (James Bond), extrapolated or analogized into new persona andevents (Star Trek) that conform to or stretch the realms of reality intomagic, supernatural mythology and folklore (The kane Chronicles, KingArthur). Imaginative fantasy may be structural with mythical people in realworld settings (The Planet of the Apes), past, present, or future, with realpeople in mythical settings (Lost in Space). Fantasy may totally disregardthe rules of society (The Wonderful Wizard of Oz), science and nature (TheTime Machine, Back to the Future), or extrapolate them into the future withscience fiction (2001: A Space Odyssey). Fantasy can also be based uponhuman emotions (Romeo and Juliet), distorted historical facts (The Patriot),historical times and political issues (Dr. Strangelove), take a theme andfantasize it (1984, Animal Farm), encapsulate dark fantasy (Wag the Dog),or evoke urban legend (The Stepford Wives, Dusk to Dawn). Imaginativefantasy can be a mixture of guided and unguided imagination and isimportant to artists, writers, dancers, and musicians, etc. 32
    • 4. Empathy is a capacity we have to connect to others and feel what theyare feeling. Empathy helps a person know emotionally what others areexperiencing from their frame and reference.112 Empathy allows our mind‘to detach itself from one’s self’ and see the world from someone else’sfeelings, emotions, pain, and reasoning.113 Empathy can assist us in seeingother realities, alternative meanings of situations, which may consist ofmany layers. Empathy shows us that there are no absolutes, just alternativemeanings to situations.114 Empathy links us to the larger community andthus important to human survival in enabling us to understand what isrequired to socially coexist with others. Empathy shows that realitiessometimes conflict. Seeing conflicting realities is a sign that we are startingto know. Howard Gardner postulates that the concept of empathy shouldalso include our empathy with nature and our place within it.115 High ego-centricity leads to reduced empathy and the inability to see otherviewpoints. However recent studies on narcissistic individuals has shownthat there are two types of empathy, affective empathy discussed above andcognitive empathy which involves the ability of people to see person’semotional state without being able to feel what they are feeling.116 Lack ofempathy can also be compensated by strategizing and spontaneousmentalizing to manipulate others to their advantage. These Machiavellianpersonalities don’t necessarily feel the same emotions as those withempathy receive, so don’t feel guilty when manipulating others.117 This typeof behavior can be seen in short-term mating strategies by males.118 Besidesbeing extremely important in interpersonal relationships, empathy is animportant tool for competitive strategy as it enables one to think about howour competitors would react to our moves and what they would do.Branding can also be considered a result of empathy as branding is designedto try and capture connections with potential customers by appealing totheir emotions, self identity and aspirations.5. Strategic imagination is concerned about vision of ‘what could be’, theability to recognize and evaluate opportunities by turning them into mentalscenarios, seeing the benefits, identifying the types and quantities ofresources required for taking particular actions, and the ability to weigh upall the issues in a strategic manner. A vision helps a person focus upon thetypes of opportunities suited to their disposition. This sense of vision isguided by a person’s assumptions, beliefs and values within the psych.Vision has varying strengths in different people depending upon their egocharacteristics and motivations. The ability to spot and evaluateopportunities is closely linked with a person’s imagination, creativethinking, propensity to action, and perceptions of their talents and availableskills. According to Bolton and Thompson entrepreneurs spot particularopportunities and extrapolate potential achievable scenarios within thelimits of their skills and ability to gather resources to exploit the 33
    • opportunity.119 These extrapolations from opportunity to strategy requireboth visual/spatial and calculative thinking skills at a strategic rather thandetailed level. Adequate concentration is required in order to have astrategic outlook upon things. This requires focus in strategic thinking,creativity, a sense of vision, and empathy. Strategic (and also intellectual)imagination can be utilized through thought experiments, the process ofthinking through a scenario for the purpose of thinking through theconsequences. Too little focus will result in random jumping from potentialopportunity to opportunity without undertaking any diligent mentalevaluations. Too much focus may result in narrow mindedness and evenobsessive thinking which would result in either blindness to potentialopportunities or at the other end of the scale taking action without truly“objective” evaluation. Strategic imagination in some cases is a form ofwisdom.6. Emotional imagination is concerned with manifesting emotionaldispositions and extending them into emotional scenarios. Without anyimagination, emotion would not be able to emerge from our psych andmanifest as feelings, moods, and dispositions. Fear requires the imaginationof what is fearful, hate requires imagination about what is repulsive, andworry requires the imaginative generation of scenarios that make oneanxious. Through emotional imagination, beliefs are developed throughgiving weight to imaginative scenarios that generate further sets of higherorder emotions. Emotional imagination operates at the unconscious andsemi-unconscious level. People who show excessive emotional imaginationwould most probably be defined as exhibiting psychotic tendencies.Emotional imagination is one of the most powerful types of our imaginationand can easily dominate our thinking processes.7. Dreams are an unconscious form of imagination made up of images,ideas, emotions, and sensations that occur during certain stages of sleep.Dreams show that every concept in our mind has its own psychicassociations and that ideas we deal with in everyday life are by no means asprecise as we think.120 Our experiences become sublimed into our memorypassing into the unconscious where the factual characteristics can change,and can be reacquired at any time. According to Jung, dreams are theinvisible roots of our consciousness,121 and connect us to our unconscious.However the meaning of dreams is can only be based on our speculativeinterpretation. Some dreams are very straight forward, while others surreal,magical, melancholic, adventurous, and sexual where we are most of thetime not in control.8. Memory reconstruction is the process of retrieving our memory ofpeople, objects, and events. Our memory is made up of prior knowledgeconsisting of a mix of truth and belief, influenced by emotion. Recurringmemory therefore carries attitudes, values, and identity as most of our 34
    • memory is within the “I” or “me” paradigm. Memory is also reconstructedto fit into our current view of the world, so is very selective. The process ofmemory reconstruction occurs within our subconscious emerging into ourconsciousness without us being really being aware of the source elements,i.e., what is fact and what is belief. Memory reconstruction is assimilativeand can construct new knowledge out of random facts, beliefs andexperiences which may lead to insight. Each form of imagination outlined above certainly overlaps and mayoperate in tandem. Imaginative thinking provides the ability to movetowards objectives, and travel along selected paths. Imagination is muchmore divergent than logical thought, as imagination can move freely acrossfields and disciplines, while logical thinking is orientated along a narrowlyfocused path. From this perspective imagination is probably more importantthan knowledge as knowledge without application is useless. Imaginationenables us to apply knowledge. However imagination can also be dysfunctional. Personality disordersand the emerging emotion can dominate our imagination with fear, anxiety,paranoia, and/or narcissistic tendencies, etc.122 This may prevent a personfrom imagining new alternatives to their current goals and behavior, thusallowing their past fears and anxieties to dominate their thinking.123Imagination can consciously or unconsciously dissociate a person from thereality of their everyday life where they may fall into the life of fantasy.Abstract imagination can very quickly take a person away from realitywhere current problems are ignored in favor of fantasy.1248. EmotionCognition as a discipline has emerged over the last sixty years with thebrain as a computer metaphor, leaving the study of emotion to behavioralpsychology. But recent research has determined that our cognitiveprocessing has an emotional element, and is paramount for effectivefunctioning.125 Our thinking and decision making is influenced by twodistinct, yet interwoven processes. One involves conscious deliberation andanalysis through the prefrontal cortex where facts are considered andweighed, options generated and compared with reasoning to determine anoutcome. The second system is non-conscious rapid emoto-based patternrecognition with emotionally weighted biases.126 Emotion triggersmemories, and perceptions, and memories also trigger emotions whichdefine the nature of our existence relative to the past and future, and oursense of power over any situation. Emotions are part of our fundamental irrationality and unpredictabilityand thus an important influence in creativity and original thinking. Our 35
    • basic emotions come from inner extra-rational dynamics deep within ourpsych that are expressed as feelings, dreams, fantasies, and other imaginedaspects of our lives.127 Our more complex emotions like loyalty, sympathy,pride, confidence, achievement, embarrassment, indignation, bewilderment,pity, elation, satisfaction, boredom, shame, disgust, frustration, and surprise,etc, tend to be socially related and constructed.128 Everything we perceiveevokes some form of feeling and the process of creativity, innovation andinvention is always an emotional and even sensual experience in people asconcepts are translated into words, numbers, diagrams, or objects, leading tosomething inspirational.129 Emotions decide what we like, dislike, what isagreeable, disagreeable, giving meaning to our world. Emotions cansometimes help us see similar patterns across fields without consciousdeliberation and plays an important role in signaling preferences foropportunities by arousing positive emotions, kindling enthusiasm anddetermining our reactions to shocks and the behavioral trajectories we take. Our view of the world is filtered through emotions which guides our selfawareness to a past or future orientation. Our thinking is swayed by ourtime orientation within an emotion matrix depicted in figure 4. Any pastorientation will be full of stories which influence our sense of meaningabout the present. Some of the stories we remember will be full of regret forpast mistakes, disappointment for what was not done, or full of satisfactionand/or pride for what was achieved. The past influences our interpretationof the present. Positive and negative experiences influence what weperceive, contemplate and put our focus upon in the now. The positive andnegative memories of the past also guide our direction in the future. Positivememories guide us towards action where we have a high sense of selfefficacy and negative memories tend to make us averse to taking actionwhere we have a low sense of self efficacy. The future represents ourpositive hopes and aspirations, or negative fears and anxieties wherepositive emotions may lead to a sense of high self efficacy and becomepowerful motivators for action, while negative emotions may lead to senseof low self efficacy feasibility and take an averse attitude towards action.Extreme feelings of low or high self efficacy can lead to either recklessoverconfidence in a positive emotional state or an aversion from action outof fear and anxiety in a negative emotional state. The same feelings are notuniform across the all activities, where a person may feel a high sense ofself efficacy in some areas and low sense of self efficacy in other areas. 36
    • Imagination Heuristics Action adverse Reckless overconfidence Negative emotions Future Orientation Positive emotions Optimal drive Value sets Optimal learning Sense of Present Sense of low self high self efficacy Orientation efficacy Patterning Past Orientation Bad memories Good memories Memory Imagination Belief SystemFigure 4. The emotion matrixThere is a strong nexus between our experiences, prior knowledge andemotion. We see the world through the perspective of our own identityshaped by our emotions. The interaction of experience, prior knowledge andemotion leads to the formation of our beliefs, which lay the foundation ofour values and aspirations, expressed through patterning, and sets ofheuristics which guide our thinking and decision making. The abovedynamics fuels our imagination which translates our memory, into beliefs,aspirations, and emotions into scenarios that create feelings of self efficacy,motivation, energy, and drive. Our optimal position for learning is withinthe present orientation where the influence of future fears and hopes, pastdisappointments and successes are minimized and within our consciousawareness. Too much past or future orientation may lead to personaldelusion such as unrealistic hopes that an entrepreneurial opportunity reallyexists,130 or massive overconfidence in one’s ability to successfullyimplement a complex strategy in the field. Alternatively too much future orpast orientation may lead to undue pessimism where the feeling of selfefficacy and motivation is low, leading to states of anxiety and inaction.Orientation in the past will anchor one into previous patterns of success,which promote rigidity, while too much orientation into the future may lead 37
    • to fantasy, thus leading to unrealistic objectives and the ability to considerrealistic scenarios.131 The impact of our past and future orientation and sense of self efficacyupon our behavior is strong. Emotion is embedded within our culture andforms part of our domicile outlook.132 Philip Zimbardo postulated thatpeople living in tropical climates where there is little change in the weatherand where a language has no future tense leads to an inept propensity foraction.133 Rural youth unemployment within developing and post industrialsocieties appear to be developing a generation of youth that feels little hopeabout the future, while societies in countries like Malaysia where sections ofthe population seek to cling to the order of the past may do little to preparefor the challenges of the future. Max Weber attributed the rise of capitalismin Europe to the present and future orientated Protestant work ethic and therelative backwardness of Catholic centered Europe to the past orientation ofCatholic doctrines.134 Our emotional orientation influences our pace of life,belief systems, aspirations and propensity for action.9. EnergyRecently, the concept of energy has been related to a person’s ability to becreative.135 However there is very little agreement on the definition ofenergy, what it really is, what it does and no way has been found to actuallymeasure it directly.136 A number of different types and terms for humanenergies have been cited, but probably out of these, three are of importanceand are somewhat interrelated. The first of three energies is our physical energy that is necessary to dophysical things like moving from place to place, running, sports, and anyother activity that requires kinesthetic movement. Our physical energy ismanaged by food for fuel, rest and exercise to build strength and discipline.The next energy is our emotional energy which enables the expression ofour general emotions like happiness, surprise, hate, envy, and jealousy, etc.Emotional energy helps to give us focus, interest and attention to differentthings we sense, encounter, or exposed to and is one of our primalmechanisms to keep us alert to danger in the environment.137 Finally there isour mental energy which fuels our ability to make calculations andundertake judgments. Sometimes emotional energy and intelligences arecalled psychic energy, but breaking them into two separate energies allowsus to understand the very different roles they play in our life. The level of energy we have either supports or inhibits our creativity andproblem solving abilities. These three energies are all interrelated, where forexample a physically tired person will not perform mental calculations well,or an emotionally tired person will not be able to undertake either physical 38
    • work or mental thinking very well. These different states show theinterconnection between our various types of energies. Our energy is chemo-electric in nature, where proteins, enzymes andother electrically sensitive chemicals produce and transfer electricitythrough our neuro-system to make us move, feel and think.138 Our energylinks our cognitive and kinetic systems together as one interdependentsystem something like the Chinese concept of Qi that governs our bodily,mental and emotional disposition.139 Energy is a dynamic force that fuels allour processes and like all energy behaves according to the first law ofthermodynamics where it can be stored, released, focused and drainedaccording to stimulation, demands, needs and distractions coming from theenvironment and within our self. Our physical energy is responsible for our kinesthetic movements.However, like nutrients, rest and training; our emotional energy also effectsour levels of physical energy. Take for example an athlete overly nervousbefore a race, feeling ‘butterflies in the stomach’. With extreme anxiousnessand fear (presumably an under-confidence bias and anxiety), the athlete’sphysical energy will begin to drain making the person feel lethargic, tiredand weak. This contrasts with the athlete who is ready to do their best,focused and determined to perform well and ready for the challenge withoutallowing doubts and anxiousness to drain his or her energy. Anotherexample is the inability to reason logically when one is in a state of angerand the tiredness one feels after being angry. Emotional energy helps a person deal with everyday frustrations,conflict and pressure. Our emotional energy is influenced by thesurrounding environment, people, objects and events. Emotions in the formof moods ebb and flow during the day, week, and month.140 We are mostlyunaware of our moods which tend to influence the way we think aboutthings141. Other emotions are triggered by a potential crisis, a crisis, ourhealth, our concern for something or general stress. A person with a highlevel of emotional energy will be able to cope with the normal stresses ofthe day while a person with a low level of emotional energy will quicklysuccumb to any crisis, becoming stressed, anxious and/or frustrated veryquickly. Under such situations a person losses focus, where their attentionbecomes diverted on other tasks that lower general energy levels. Emotional energy is a source of determination providing a person withthe emotional motivation to get on with a job whether it is physical ormentally orientated. Emotional energy provides our enthusiasm, drive andresilience to do things. This is fine in a person who has a clear mission toattend to, but where a person’s emotions are deluded with paranoia,compulsiveness, depression, or other forms of neurosis, their emotionalenergies are diverted into the fantasies these various pathologies mightgenerate142. For example, a paranoid person will spend all their emotional 39
    • and mental energies on suspecting conspiracies against them, leaving littleenergy available for creative or other problem solving issues facing them.These types of emotions lead to immense fatigue and inability to functionlogically. Emotional balance is very important so that both our physical andmental capacities are at their optimum. Mental energy is very important for creativity and supports two types ofcognitive operations. The first is the ability to make mental calculations anddraw inferences from logical and spatial relationships. The second is theability to make judgments, recognize similarities across different categoriesof information using induction and logical reasoning.143 We tend to slowdown in the ability to make quick and accurate mental calculations duringaging but on the contrary improve in our induction and logical reasoningwith age. Mental energy is created through our interest, desire, curiosity,passion and concern for something. Our mental energy levels can beaffected by drugs, food, sleep deprivation and various levels of health.144 The tension between a person’s current identity and future aspirationsmanifests as dissatisfaction. This dissatisfaction potentially creates theenergy and drive needed for action by an entrepreneur.145 The emotionsconnected with dissatisfaction create a form of cognitive dissonance aboutthe current situation and a desired future outcome, thus channeling energyand creating drive. It is an intensively emotional rather than rationalexperience that creates the physical, emotional and psychic energy that arerequired in new venture start ups and the pursuit of opportunity.10. IntelligenceThere is no conclusive agreement about what the concept of intelligencereally is. Some concepts of intelligence focused upon achievement, i.e., howmuch a person really knows relative to others in an age group, or aptitudeorientated, i.e., the person’s ability to learn.146 Traditionally intelligence hasbeen considered as a general trait “g” where people would differ in thelevel they possess. However as separate abilities (e.g. verbal, memory,perceptual, and arithmetic) were recognized as intelligence, the concept ofintelligence widened.147 Howard Gardner took an interest in Norman Geschwind’s researchconcerning what happens to normal or gifted individuals after themisfortune of a stroke or some other form of brain damage. Gardner wasamazed at how a patient, counter to logic would lose the ability to readwords, but could still read numbers, name objects, and write normally.148This suggested that different aspects of intelligence originate from differentparts of the brain. 40
    • Gardner synthesized his knowledge of the study of brain damage withhis study of cognitive development and believed that peoples’ endeavorswere not based upon any single type of intelligence, but rather a mix ofdifferent intelligences. Intelligence needs to be applied in various ways forsurvival in different environments and thus the abilities of a banker, medicaldoctor, and Eskimo looking for fish are situational specific, all requiringhigh levels of competence. Western society heavily values verbal,mathematical, and spatial competencies while other competencies may bemore important in other cultures. Intellectual competence must thereforeentail the possession of a set of skills that can enable someone to solveproblems, resolve difficulties they may find in day to day living, have thepotential to find problems, and have the ability to acquire new knowledgefrom their personal experiences.149 Every form of intelligence can be seenas a specific paradigm having its own symbols and logic that will define,enable evaluation, and solve problems. Gardner hypothesized the multiple intelligence theory in recognition thatbroad mental abilities are needed in society and that every person has aunique blend of different intelligences.150 Gardner initially listed seventypes of intelligence, body-kinesthetic, verbal-linguistic, logical-mathematical, visual-spatial, musical, interpersonal, and intrapersonalintelligence. Gardner also affirmed that our separate types of intelligencesmay not just be limited to the seven above and that others may also exist.Brilliance and achievement most often depend upon the individual findingthe right vocation in life that suits their intelligence mix. One of the other forms of intelligence that Gardner speculated about wasspiritual intelligence. Zohar and Marshall postulated that spiritualintelligence is a moral base enabling us to question issues of ‘what’ and‘why’ about things, and whether we should or shouldn’t be involved inparticular activities.151 Unlike general intelligence which is logical andrational, spiritual intelligence enables us to question, which is central to theconcept of creativity. Expanding upon Gardner’s concept of interpersonal intelligence is theconcept of emotional intelligence (EQ), which has become very popularover the last two decades. Emotional intelligence places emphasis on anumber of characteristics that are important for creativity within a group orsocial setting.152 However emotional intelligence may have a dark side. Some individualsare able to utilize only the perception traits of emotional intelligencewithout feeling the emotions of sympathy, compassion, and altruism. Theyare better able to manage and manipulate others emotions better than theirown.153 This ability to manipulate and deceive others, albeit creatively, hasbeen dubbed Machiavellian Intelligence by Andrew Whiten and Richard 41
    • Byrne.154 This appears a primal ability in humans as primates have beenobserved manipulating groups in order to gain support and rank.155 Intelligence and creativity are very different. The narrower definition ofintelligence tends to be the basis of convergent thinking, while creativity isabout divergent thinking in this regard. Creativity is a much wider conceptthan intelligence. Our creative style has very little to do with our generalintelligence.156 Our creativity has more to do with the particularcharacteristics of our intelligence and thinking styles we rely upon (seefigure 5). Creativity relies upon imagination to assist us see patterns andsimilarities between unrelated things through metaphor and analogy, etc.Creativity occurs across our various intelligences, bringing them intosynergy.157 Original thinking is about making these connections. Based on experience, awareness, Thinking Typologies reflection, mixed emotion and imagination, very intuitive based The basis of our skills and thinking. Useful for strategic and abilities used alone or Wisdom visionary thinking and solving supplement other thinking (emotion & problems based on past patterns. typologies (our most primitive experience) Can be and is influenced by G and type of thinking) – wider than MI – more right hemisphere but Gardner’s MI uses both Memory Emotive General Multiple Instinctive Knowledge Intelligence Intelligences Solution Application (Memory & I) Connective Fluidity Frontal lobe and coordinated right/left hemisphere thinking. Can be greatly enhanced using specific Mainly developed academic cognitive tools that can be learned. Cognitive processing learning which creates formal Can be supplemented by other (creativity) knowledge. This formal thinking typologies. Heavy use knowledge can supplement imagination/metaphor/symbolic. other thinking typologies as it is Problem solving & creating new fairly useless on its own. – left ideas hemisphereFigure 5. The four major thinking typologiesMultiple intelligence recognizes that different skills originate from differentareas of the mind and offers a different insight into how we think. There aremultiple paths of perception and reasoning patterns. A single form ofintelligence restricts the very way a problem is seen, what data is useful,how the data is organized and analyzed, and what alternatives areacceptable. In addition, domain paradigms that the majority of people havebeen trained within, can act as barriers to breakthroughs and this is oftenwhy a person from outside a domain may have an advantage. Priorknowledge can be restrictive and anchor one to existing assumptions andbeliefs that prevail within the domain. This is why prodigious performanceis much more likely in fields where prior knowledge is not so important like 42
    • chess, music, and mathematics, than in fields that require extensiveknowledge like medicine, biotechnology, and nano-electronics, etc. Someentrepreneurs are able to successfully enter new domains without anyformal training because they are not restricted by the patterned thinking ofthe relevant disciplines to the industry.158 The ability to change thinkingparadigms is a pathway to creativity. If we view intelligence as a wide concept and focus upon the outcomesthen intelligence becomes cultural, geographic, time-bound, and asituational and contextual process rather than a trait.159 Therefore it’s notintelligence itself that is important, but how knowledge is processed andwhat is done with it. Recent research into children with learning disabilitiesindicates that it is the capacity of the working memory, i.e., the capacity tostore and manipulate information and domain related knowledge, is moreimportant than IQ in academic attainment.160 However social bounding restricts acceptance of what is original andwhat is not. For example whether Yoko Ono’s avant-garde art expression isconsidered original depends upon her peers. The Royal Society overlookedEdmund Stone’s discovery that willow bark relieved fever, leading to thediscovery of aspirin. The consequences of something new may not be seen for many years. Ittook more than a decade for the value of powered flight to be realized, as itwas only when a need for spotting on the battlefield emerged during theGreat War that led to rapid development of the aircraft industry. While thedevelopment of the automobile industry was restricted in England with lawsrequiring a man with a flag to walk in front of any automobile on the road,the European industry grew rapidly and flourished without these social andlegal restrictions. Although the cognitive processes of creative thinking may not change,the knowledge, surrounding culture and applications will. Thinking isusually based upon historical precedent and thereby path dependent,focused upon solving contemporary problems. Over time the paradigms,values and ethical orientations we think within will change. Thinking tendsto be dominated by major themes and contemporary issues (societalpatterning) of the time such as centralization and mechanization in the1950’s, technology in the 1960’s, low cost labor intensive manufacturing inthe 1970’s, capital intensiveness of the 1980s, globalism of the 1990’s,sustainability in the 2000’s, and localization over the last decade. Economists, medical doctors, psychologists, scientists, and managers arebounded to the current thinking of their respective fields, anchored to thecurrent values and philosophies (domain patterning). Organizationalthought is often restricted through the assembling of ‘like minded’ peoplesharing the same beliefs and values where differing opinions may be subtlysuppressed (organizational patterning). 43
    • The tacit influence of political correctness is intrinsic censorship that ismuch more powerful that formal means of censorship ensuring complianceto the beliefs and values of the time and place. What we read, study, andlearn most often dominates our thoughts locking us into existing flows ofideas, anchoring our thoughts to the current ‘realities’ that society definesas ‘truths’. Peer and group acceptance is a very important personal needwhich may inhibit the expression of ideas unacceptable to the group.11. Towards the Concept of Creative IntelligenceTo be creative in the social arena, a person should have a high level ofemotional and spiritual intelligence.161 Sternberg mentioned the concept ofpractical intelligence which is necessary for a person to adapt, shape andmake selections in everyday life in order to cope with everyday issues andproblems.162 Practical intelligence is thus a measure of tacit knowledge,where tacit knowledge is what is needed to survive and be successful in agiven environment.163 In the same article Sternberg mentioned the concept of creativeintelligence. This concept is also mentioned by a number of other authors,although the term is used broadly and there is little consensus upon what itreally constitutes. Creative intelligence is a term grouping together thecognitive and non-cognitive aspects of creative generation like intenseinterest, motivation and other social influences,164 or a term that refers moreto styles of creative thinking.165,166 So both concepts of creative intelligence widen the concept of creativityby placing importance on the contextual and environmental variables on onehand and on thinking processes, applications, or styles on the other. Roweoutlines four styles of creative intelligence;• Intuition which is based on past experience to guide action,• Innovation which concentrates on systematic and data orientatedproblem solving,• Imagination which uses visualization to create opportunities, and• Inspiration, which emotionally focuses on the changing of something.167 Khandwalla focuses on a number of personal characteristics likesensitivity, problem restructuring ability, fluency, flexibility, guessingability, originality, elaboration and the uses of various thinking processesthat support them, e.g., convergent thinking, problem restructuring, andelaboration, etc.168 These approaches show that creativity is both influencedby the environment and thinking processes employed. 44
    • In such a context creativity can be broadly considered an ability, or anintelligence in its own right. A metaphorical construct of creativeintelligence would look something like Figure 6. A person is surrounded bytheir social environment. The social environment stimulates an individual’sperceptions, socializes beliefs and makes judgments upon creative efforts.The family, domicile outlook, generational influence, age, education, workand life experiences, etc, all have some influence on interest and motivation,which should skew an individual toward interests and passions like art,teaching, engineering, science, home duties, sports, etc. The environment is completed by the field where contemporaries andpeers within it ultimately make social decisions about what is creative andwhat is not. For example the art community decides what art is outstandingand what art is mediocre. These judgments may only occur years after theobject of art was created, as it may take an artist many years to becomerecognized. Although Vincent van Gogh painted most of his life, it wasn’tuntil the end of his life that he became known. It was only after his deaththat his vivid post-impressionist paintings were fully appreciated. Likewise,peers in each science through journals and conferences decide what newinformation to the domain is acceptable or unacceptable. The work ofAlfred Wagner on Polar air circulation and his hypothesis about the jetstream and continental drift was not widely accepted until 20 years after hisdeath. A new product or fad may be considered something creative during‘the fad period’, where the product’s creative edge disappears afterwards.Products like the hula-hoop, Frisbee, virtual pets, lava lamps, pet rocks,cabbage patch kids, and Pokémon rose in popularity quickly and eventuallydeclined. This fad phenomenon can be seen in many widely disusedmanagement philosophies like management by objectives (MBO), matrixmanagement, one-minute management, and business process reengineering,etc. 45
    • New Ideas Unknown Opportunities Surrounding Developing Strategies Environment Solving Problems “Domain” &“Field” Environmental Environmental Factors conducive Factors that to creativity hinder creativity Internal Influencing Perception Factors Motivational Trigger Focus & Attention Creative Patterning Awareness Sensitivity Energy Source of Emotion Prior intelligence & Curiosity Knowledge Thinking Patterned Thinking Empathy Processes Processes Confidence (Self Organizing Discipline System) Interest Memory Passion Heuristics Applied Thinking Belief Tools, Imagination Manifestations & Fantasy Elaborations Domain & Field Experience Acceptance/ Tacit Knowledge Rejection Creative ProductFigure 6. A Metaphoric Construct of “Creative Intelligence”Within the field of entrepreneurship four types of situations require creativeintelligence. These are the quest for new ideas, the search for yet unknownopportunities, the development of strategies to exploit potentialopportunities and solving a multitude of problems that face individualsthrough the life of the venture. Within the gambit of ethical strategy andbehavior creative intelligence is paramount to being able to implementethical principles into complex and ambiguous situations. Our perception of the outside world is greatly dependent upon ourpatterning, heuristics, other biases, and prior knowledge. What we notice ordon’t notice depends upon our creative sensitivity, focus and attention.What we are interested in, have passion for and confidence in, all influence 46
    • our perception of people, objects and events. Our perception and reaction toexternal stimuli and how our cognitive system will process incoming datadepends upon the existing psychic tension and developed cognitivedissonance. If there is tension between ‘where we are’ and ‘what weenvisage, desire or aspire’, attention and energy will be drawn into thefollowing cognitive processes. Our cognitive operations are independent from the external environmentand our consciousness. All cognitive processes are the result of changingneural and receptor interactions that occur within different parts of thebrain. Information within the brain is distributed in a decentralizedconfiguration, functioning as a whole through a strategy called assemblycoding.169 This is a very flexible coding strategy as it can reorganize andrecombine information in a numerous number of ways. Through thismechanism we are able to continually make perceptions in an ever changingworld.170 Our perceptions, reasoning, concept of self are not concentrated on onepart of the brain, as the brain is a decentralized processor. The brain is a selforganizing system which coordinates these functions. There is no centre ofconvergence. Therefore the brain is a decentralized system that utilizesinformation in different locations to produce our perceptions, thoughts,reasoning and intuition. Cognitive processes are not serial, but operate inparallel, reciprocal and distributed interaction.171 For example when we seean object and touch it, our sight and tactile preceptors make independentcontributions to the identification of the object – the brain utilizes multiplestrategies to achieve this. There is thus no single locus or point for theidentification of objects. The representations of objects are made up ofspatial-temporal patterns of distributed neural activity.172 The way information is organized is of paramount importance to howwe see things and in solving a problem. As the brain processes in paralleland can recombine information in numerous ways, this assists an individualdevelop new thoughts, new ideas and to solve problems. Making analogiesis a matter of comparing two different concepts that share some similarity inparallel. The creative process goes through a number of steps, which relieson the mind as a self organizing system to restructure information and makenew associations, enabling problems to be solved. This usually occursduring a period of incubation which because of the need to reorganizeinformation could be one of the most important aspects of seeing newassociations and finding solutions to problems. Rather than rely on our raw natural thinking processes, we can utilizedisciplined and controlled thinking styles and tools that channel ourthinking processes for enhancing creative thought.173 These tools can assistus to look at situations and problems in different ways so we can see new 47
    • associations and linkages which may lead to new ideas or solutions toproblems. So broadly speaking a metaphoric concept of creative intelligence ismade up of our environment, the factors and variables that influence ourperceptions and cognitive thinking processes, a motivational trigger, ourprior knowledge, our thinking styles, tools that we can employ to enhancecreativity, and the product of the process itself, which will be accepted orrejected as being something creative. If this model is representative of whatcreative intelligence is, then by manipulating the environmental parameters,being aware of our emotions and other influences upon our perception andthinking, and by developing new thinking styles through the use of thinkingtools we can enhance our creative ability.12. AwarenessThe environment is full of inconsistencies, discontinuities and disparitiesconcerning objects, people and events in life. Our association with theenvironment is a complex one. It is full of peculiarities and subtleties ofmeaning, if we are sensitive enough to pick them up. Awareness is relatedto our ability to perceive and understand the complex content richenvironment. A high awareness level implies that we are more observantand alert about situations around us and feel comfortable with thecomplexity rather than exerting a great effort in trying to simplifymeaning.174 People who can perceive the rich layers of content of theenvironment have higher levels of creative sensitivity and should thereforebe able to pick up associations between seemingly random facts andinformation. They will be better placed to make connections than someonewho is less sensitive to the environment. Awareness is linked but not dependent upon our intelligence. Withoutawareness our intelligence would not function optimally. In order to solveproblems it is necessary to be able to perceive them. Therefore awarenessplays a role in cognitive processing where intelligence may play an enablingrole; especially if we view intelligence as the ability to perceive, recall, andprocess information spatially, linguistically, musically, and kinesthetically,etc. Within the creativity mode, the brain partly relies on external stimuli toact as cues to assist in long term memory recall. Awareness and attentionassists in picking up these subtle cues which will aid in the recall ofexperience and information manifested as prior knowledge, deeply lockedaway in the long term memory,175 aiding associative processes andimagination. This is not a uniform characteristic within the population andsome people are more endowed than others. Therefore people with lowawareness would not pick up as much stimuli from the environment as 48
    • someone with high awareness, which will result in a lower number of cuesto stimulate recall from the long term memory. Research also indicates thatour perception of the environment may be culturally influenced. Miyamotoet. al. found that Americans tend to view scenes context independently,while East Asians are more context dependent upon the way they viewscenes.176 Our level of awareness is related to various groups of emotions that mayinfluence our perception and thought processes, and thus organization ofinformation.177 Emotions play a major part in developing our self concept“I” and “me” with different sets of emotions are related to different levelsof awareness. At our primal level we are concerned about our basic physiologicalneeds. Our awareness is physical and immediate, concerned about now.Associated with our primal self are the basic emotions concerned aboutsurvival, physical fulfillment and enjoyment. The material level isconcerned with pleasure, comfort, and the avoidance of pain. Theboundaries of a person are metaphorically extended by the things we own.The social self is very much based in feelings of one’s position in relation toothers. Empathy exists at this level and our emotions are concerned withbelongingness. The ego self is the most common domain where we areconcerned about ‘how we see ourselves’ and ‘how others see us’. The egoself is about glorifying ourselves. This level of awareness leads to verysophisticated coping mechanisms to deal with realities that don’t fit in withour world view. The spiritual self enables us to attach different sets ofvalues to “I’ and “me”, where people begin to feel integrated with theworld around them. At this level self esteem comes from doing what aperson feels is right, and where a person may be willing to sacrifice theirinterests for the interests of something greater than themselves. At thishigher level people can transcend their basic emotions of excitement, fear,anger, and anxiety, and will be aware of their defense mechanisms thatoperate at the ego level. One is immersed within their own sea of emotional orientation witheach level of awareness differently influencing perception and thought.Within the lower continuums people’s streams of thought tend to benegatively based where fear manifests itself in worry, anger, judgment, andgeneral anxiety, leading to generally pessimistic narrative. At the spirituallevel there is little negative narrative on the part of the person.178 Geshe Tashi Tsering postulated that every feeling whether good or bad,powerful or light should be paid attention to through mindfulness179 that canbe used as a force to protect the psych.180 This has two importantimplications. The first is to be aware of our own biases and distortivetendencies in our perception of objects. The second implication is that weprotect ourselves from harmful influences and ‘emotionally’ learn. Research 49
    • has shown that mindfulness can activate the ‘default network’.181 The‘default network’ is active when an individual is at rest, not engaged indeliberating thoughts, and shuts down when an individual becomes activeand focused on the outside world. Emotions dominate our deep intrinsic abilities like attention, alertness,interpersonal abilities, creativity, propensity for action, and strategicoutlook, etc., shape our view of the world, and influences our intentions,and actions. This approach in explaining behavior is probably better thanprevious schools of entrepreneurial thought.182,183 For example, peoplethrough history like Gandhi, Churchill, Stalin, and Hitler were dominatedby their emotions of concern, compassion, destiny, legacy, ruthlessness,revenge, Machiavellianism, hate, fear, and insecurity respectively. Emotionsgreatly influence peoples’ sense of self efficacy which infers that thinking isheavily influenced by life experience, time and place, and the levels ofawareness they are attuned to. Awareness can be selective and may give a person some heightenedsensitivity to some aspect of their life. There may be more awareness insome areas than others, such as increased sensitivity to color, pictures,sounds, music, values and ethics, human behavior, empathy, spiritual andspatial dimensions, etc.184 People’s sensitivity also ebbs and wanes duringthe day, month and different times in a person’s life.185 At mean levels ofawareness, a person will tend to perceive more in their area of sensitivityendowment and experience subtle satisfactions or disappointmentsconcerning certain pieces of art, music, performance, etc. Pleasantappreciations can lead to increased vigor and energy in a person’s area ofsensitivity. This leads a person to better intuition in their particular areas ofsensitivity. However, too much sensitivity on the other hand can lead aperson to suffer pain, as nothing will satisfy their expectations. This canlead to deep emotions, i.e., feeling sorry for employees, pain for the poor,and in the extreme, feelings of depression and lethargic states, mootingthem as ineffective people. Awareness assists a person develop a deeper understanding within theirdomain of sensitivity than what the average individual would. Consequentlya sensitive person becomes aware and concerned about what is wrongwithin their area of sensitivity. This is where creativity begins, with thefinding of a problem. Only after sensing that there is a problem can a personput their attention to solving the problem. Creative people focus on what iswrong, out of place, missing, not complete, lacking something, knowingthat something needs to be changed for the better. Problem solving is notthe centre of creativity and not the process that actually creates theopportunity. It is the finding of the problem and the way a person mentallystructures it that creates the birth of a potential opportunity and originalthinking. 50
    • 13. Entrepreneurial opportunity and developing ideasAt the cognitive level our mind is full of mental imagery and other forms ofinformation stored in our memory in the form of schemata. Our schemaplay a paramount role in our beliefs, values, and how we make sense of theworld, influencing the way we think about things and make decisions.186Schemata provide a cognitive structure where algorithm-like sequencesassist the individual understand events and situations.187 Schemata alsoenable an individual construct scenes or vignettes in our mind,188 whichmanifest our thoughts, desires, and fantasies. Generally our schematamaintain the rigidity of our belief systems,189 which enables the individualto maintain their inspirational and behavioral trajectories forming theinformational basis of our thinking and decision making.190,191 Our schemataforms the basis of what could be called our dominant logic (or what theauthor likes to call dominant narrative), that encapsulates our identity.192 When new information is perceived, it may conflict with our existingdominant logic. This could arise from any number of displacements like theunexpected dropping of a set of keys onto the ground, or a much moredrastic event like the loss of a job or death in the family. Shocks ordisplacements bring attention to a state of disequilibrium where thedominant logic is challenged. If these challenges are not suppressed ordenied by our defense mechanisms, an individual may be able to think ofand develop solutions to these discontinuities to bring back stability193 andview alternative courses of action.194 These shocks will be accompaniedwith either positive or negative emotions which may generally influence thetrajectories we take.195 Shock or displacement may lead to a situation where the individualdoesn’t know how to respond and begins to use effectuation to handle thesituation, thereby making connections and constructions out of differentpieces of information the person has available within their memory at thetime. Existing schemata will integrate the person’s knowledge into the newthought vectors which brings congruency in thoughts and judgment.196 Aftera period of confusion these thoughts after some re-assessment begin to forma catharsis, which may lead to seeing new ideas. Concepts are the building blocks of ideas, very general abstract notionsthat can be built into specific ideas. Concepts are built upon images andperceptions. They tend to have vague and descriptive meanings, rather thanactionable notions. Concepts are descriptive views of something in theenvironment that exist, or something from the imagination that exists onlyin fantasy. These may not necessarily be in the form of language, but maybe images, symbols, spatial visages, or musical themes, etc. One or moreconceptualizations will usually be combined together to form an idea, which 51
    • can be refined, developed, enlarged, and elaborated upon to form somethingthat can be acted upon. A description of a restaurant is a concept that provides a list ofcharacteristics with little actionable meaning. Mexican food is anotherconcept that is also descriptive of something, but when they are combinedtogether they become a Mexican restaurant which becomes an idea that canbe elaborated upon, expanded, refined, developed, and action taken.Likewise the concept of a theatre company and the concept of a restaurantcan be combined together to form a theatre restaurant. In Melbourne,Australia, the concept of a tram running around the city was combined withthe concept of a restaurant to form the Colonial Tramway Restaurant.197 Thefirst airplane, the Wright Flyer 1 was invented from a number of conceptsincluding the basic concepts of aerodynamics (thrust, drag, lift, and gravity),the box kite, and a petrol engine powering a propeller to create thrust,balance, and stability. In each case individual concepts were observed,considered, assembled, synergized, and tested, to make a complete form. These emerging concepts must develop a critical mass of thought thatconnects snippets of information that merge into meaning that both thethinker and society can share. Entrepreneurial opportunities may bedeveloped through effectuative imagination (thought experiments), andinvention by experimental engineering. Concepts can be formed from information where ideas can be developedby fusing the different pieces together. For example:Information (1): the population in many developed countries is aging.Information (2): As there are less people at study age, universities aredeveloping excess capacity.Information (3): Universities are subject to funding cuts.Information (4): Many developing countries have young populations atstudy age who wish to gain an education.These threads of information can be developed into the idea of takingforeign fee paying students into developed country universities that haveexcess capacity. Similarly,Information (1): the costs of running a service department in a firm within adeveloped country are very high.Information (2): Operational costs in countries like India are much lower.Information (3): Countries like India have abundant and highly educatedpeople, who speak English very well.Information (4): Voice over internet protocol (VOIP) allows direct andcheap communication around the world. 52
    • Therefore this information can be developed into the idea of a customerservice centre located in Mumbai to service customers over the phone in theUnited States. Each concept is situational to a particular time and place, as words,images, objects, signs and symbols. The individual concepts must bearranged in a manner that creates some form of shared and valued meaning.Narrative is a store and carrier of knowledge, particularly within socialcontexts. An idea becomes a narrative of meaning which members of thecommunity can embrace and benefit from the revelation of another’simagination.198 Narrative conveys ideas through conversation, action, andsymbols to others who in turn become able to share experiences andperceptions through the same stories. The new narrative must triggerpeoples’ memory199 and transplant an appreciation them into the story200that inserts emotion which plays a major role in creating theseassociations.201 The process of developing a narrative is critical to creating anew idea and the identity of the idea is critical to the legitimacy it receivesfrom stakeholders.202 Narrative, symbols, and images of successful ideasbecome embedded within our social knowledge structure. Social change canbe seen as new themes running through the community that binds peoplethrough common perceptions and tacit agreement. Developing concepts into ideas is very much a learning process thatcreates a linkage or nexus between real world experiences and theconceptual world of how we see the world ought to be. The first step of thisprocess is to identify concepts. An idea that can’t be physically tested maybe developed through the socio-cognitive process of ‘talking through’ theissues as a means of thinking and articulating them to create clarity203-developing an idea as a narrative. An invention can be tested in the realworld, crafting concrete experiences and then reflecting upon the outcomes.Unsatisfactory results will trigger further reflection and another round ofexperimentation, refining the idea further. This process may continue anumber of times until ideas are refined. If after continued experimentationthe results are still not satisfactory, then a complete evaluation seekingfurther information may be required before further testing andexperimentation. Eventually new divergent knowledge is created. Thisprocess of trial and error is how Orville and Wilbur Wright learned how tobuild a powered airplane and fly it. This learning process is seen on the lefthand side of figure 7. This is also the way many entrepreneurial ideas areconstructed. Individuals develop knowledge and wisdom through the learningprocess.204 Some people will learn better through actively testing their ideasin the real world, while others learn better through reflection upon thedifferent attributes of their experience and ideas. Some people’s learningstyles may be more suited to different challenges through the 53
    • entrepreneurial process during venture development.205 According to Wardpeople have their own preferred ways of learning where each cognitiveapproach to learning will utilize emphasize different types of information indeveloping idea constructs.206 Images and Connections Vision Platform - Perception Time & Space Potential Concept Generator – Making Connections Concepts Learning: Conceptual World Real World Sources of Opportunity Identifying Experimentation concepts & Testing Evaluation after experience “A Narrative” Ideas Complete re- evaluation (seek further information) Structure common to all Evaluated and opportunities Elaborated Upon Vision – Outcomes Time & Space Opportunity Resources Networks Skills, Competencies & Capabilities Competitive Environment Strategy – scope & depthFigure 7. The opportunity creation processSome people may prefer the method of assimilation and grasp experienceby thinking and theorizing, then transforming the information by watchingand reflecting. Assimilators conceptualize in abstract and undertake 54
    • reflective observation. People with assimilative learning preferences willtend to stew over potential solutions to problems and directions to take.207Assimilators are excellent at pulling together disparate observations andbuilding these separate information strands into coherent ideas.208 In theirideas, assimilators will tend to be logically precise putting more emphasison the theory behind the concept than the practical side. The converger grasps by thinking and theorizing and then transformingthe information by doing and applying. Convergers rely on abstractconceptualization and experimentation. While convergers may not be doingsomething all the time, they never stop thinking about problems and theirsolutions.209 They will build up their technical knowledge and platform,ready to utilize it on developing solution and products once they understandall the issues involved.210 They tend to be more technical rather thansocially orientated.211 The diverger grasps by feeling and doing and then transforms theinformation by watching and reflecting. Divergers have the oppositestrengths to convergers. They have a strong imagination and ability to readpeople and situations through their social awareness abilities. They are ableto look at situations from many perspectives and organize manyinterrelationships into a meaningful gestalt. They are strong at evaluatingconcepts through the market, financial, and operational issues, etc., throughrich personal networks they build up.212 The accommodator grasps experience by feeling and doing and thentransforms the information by doing and applying. Accommodators tend tohave the opposite strengths to assimilators. Accommodators prefer concreteexperiences and active experimentation. They prefer to do rather than totheorize. They are opportunity seeking and like to act rather than spend along period of time evaluating the opportunity. They are able to implementplans extremely well and their strength is towards opportunity exploitation.Robinson and Rose postulated that we tend to learn from personaldisturbances which bring chaos and then allow us let go of existingknowledge to replace it with new knowledge.213 This is consistent with theentrepreneurial process where a trigger like losing a job or seeing a shopvacant for rent may launch a person onto taking new trajectories likepursuing an opportunity.214 Robinson and Rose postulated that emotionalawareness will facilitate the transition from disturbance to chaos in order tobegin critical reflection to facilitate the transition to ‘letting go’ of pastbeliefs, to enable the learning of new knowledge. This process involvessynthesis in thinking rather than linear thinking and is a deep emotionalexperience.215 Learning can be hindered or distorted by a number of cognitivemechanisms.216 For example many entrepreneurs are flawed in theirthinking due to the use of small samples, and display overconfidence in 55
    • their abilities when evaluating opportunities. Other cognitive biases such as‘obstacle thinking’ leads an individual to focus on the negative aspects of anopportunity, providing reasons for giving up and abandoning an idea.217 People have cognitive structures that limit their field of vision allowingonly selective perception and interpretation.218 This plays an important rolein what people become interested in and what they see in the environmentand behave in response.219 Individuals are steered by their dominant logicwhich acts as a lens through which they view the environment and seeemerging opportunities.220 These interpretive schemata act as mindsets ormental maps that create a particular world view for any individual.221 Thusdominant logic makes a person’s perception and responses unique.According to March the commitment brought through a person’s dominantlogic is more important in action than a person’s thoughtfulness,222 thusmotivation, drive, and passion are central to the development of ideas. Evolving ideas become a personal narrative of the entrepreneur, aconceptual framework with a motivated objective. The idea is attached toexcitement and a set of other emotions becoming the individual’s gestalt, ‘atheory of success,’ or a new mantra for the future. Narrative becomesabsorbed within the person becoming a source of drive and momentum.223New narratives call the present into question, replacing it with an alternativefuture. Through narrative, ambiguity is eliminated and replaced with a clearand guiding path of action, a new trajectory which becomes the newmeaning for the entrepreneur and venture, exerting influence on thoseinvolved to accomplish it.224 New narratives are introduced into societywhere they are tried, some rejected, and some accepted, emerging as ashared meaning to all. As we see, many narratives are archetypal withcommon structures, allusions, and metaphors to convey to society throughpublic discourse by our corporations today. We can see common themes ofresponsibility, transparency, sustainability, accountability, and caring, etc. Entrepreneurs develop their ideas from personal rather than abstractperspectives where possibilities are explored within their own personalconstructs and constraints.225 With a map of the future by which to navigate,the vision is set out so the idea can take on a framework where structure canbe added by assembling skills, competencies, organizational capabilities,and resources together, and identifying which parts of the entrepreneur’snetworks are required, or what new networks need to be created, and whataction is required within the competitive environment through a formulatedstrategy. Once an idea has structure the process of action can commence. The assembly of various components to enact an idea into action andreality requires retrospective reasoning to assemble all the componentsthrough our strategic imagination. This process may take a long period oftime to develop into something that action can be taken upon and may evencontinue after the entrepreneurial start-up is in operation. This is not any 56
    • predictable staged or linear process and it is haphazard and somethingunique to each individual. The narrative that the entrepreneur develops about any opportunityprovides insight into his or her future effectiveness.226 How the opportunityis described, what histories, analogies, and metaphors used will provideinsight into the meaning and commitment towards the opportunity. There isnothing mysterious about creating ideas, it is a ‘mind-flow’ of thought thateventually reaches a critical mass and through rearrangement andrecombination the resulting narrative becomes the basis for action. Someideas drift away while others continue to be built upon like Darwin’sconcept of ‘natural selection’ and the Orville and Wilbur Wright’s quest forpowered flight. There is rarely any eureka moment, although insights aregained along the way, as most ideas travel along a slow path ofdevelopment, which on the whole maybe mundane and boring to most.227This eventually leads to the construction of new knowledge that developsinto the narrative of a new invention, idea, opportunity, or venture. Withinthe process of effectuation, some narratives are picked up and othersdropped as ideas develop and are refined. From the entrepreneurship perspective, an opportunity can beconstructed from the imagination where products, themes, and brands createa story of new experience. Alternately there maybe the discovery of apotential incongruence where perceived latent demand exists in which casethe primary narrative will be aimed at satisfying these perceived needs.228As this process emerges our ideas manifest as stories, new opportunities andideas are very much a socially constructed process where the outcomesdevelop new knowledge which provides new shared meanings.229 Thenarrative of new ideas, entrepreneurial opportunity, and invention is about‘what might be’ and ‘how the world might look and act’ as they are createdand developed.230 Imagination and the resulting stories are turned fromfantasy and fiction into reality.14. Creative Intelligence and EthicsAt the beginning of this paper a number of impending issues and potentialcrises were listed. These relate to the environment, ecology, climate,poverty, economy, mega-cities, education, racism, hate, rising food pricesand the like. All these issues and problems mentioned are ethical problems,or at least have major ethical components. The complexity of most of theseissues is so overwhelming that people give up and stay with the presentsituation, even knowing that less than optimum utilities exist and potentialdisaster may be imminent. Solutions for various reasons are too hard, suchas the difficulty in getting common agreement and consensus. Many 57
    • solutions require massive changes in habits which are not acceptable topeople. So the action taken is to defer taking action. The solutions for manyof our problems today are yet to be thought out. In addition, there seem to be a lot of poor ethical decisions going onaround us. Companies still cheat on food ingredients, suspected carcinogensare still used in a number of products, luxury goods still coming out of theexploited sweatshops of Asia,231 company directors still withholding anddistorting information to shareholders through the way they present it,232and stories about the egotistical, greed, fear, and self-preserving decisionsUS financial institutions took during the 2008 crisis are becoming publicknowledge.233 There are no international agreements being made about theissues that matter most to the Earth, leading to criticisms about the lack ofpolitical leadership today. Political and corporate leadership is just asconfused today as political leaders were confused in Europe during 1938.Leaders have learned to appease, just as Kyoto provided bidding time. Theworld has not acted in unison for a long time, but rather acted in favor oftribal interests, as everyone appears to be heading in their separatedirections.234 Society’s issues can be extremely complex, and often break down into ahost of other complex sub-issues that need consideration. For exampleprivatizing public utilities was popular during the 1980s as a means ofmaking government smaller, more efficient, and bringing fiscal windfalls tobudgets, something seen as a win-win situation through returning to the truevalues of capitalism.235 However privatization brought questions aboutmedium term consequences which at the time were conveniently solvedthrough contractual agreements, i.e., who has the responsibility forreinvestment in and maintaining quality in infrastructure.236 The long termconsequences of public utilities under control of unanswerable privatecorporations are just only beginning to emerge today.237 Corporations arelaying down consumer by-laws without the public having recourse tonatural justice. Some corporations are so big that they can afford to flauntthe law and pay the penalties as a means of meeting their objectives.238 Theethics of any situation and subsequent actions taken don’t necessarily yieldpredictable results. Courses of action are usually decided according to theprevailing values and emotions of the times.239 Today’s issues and problems have so many factors and variables toconsider, non-linear approaches are required. Making decisions according toguidelines, e.g., societal rules, current philosophical trends, leadershipvisions, or various scholarly writings, run us into difficulties. Cause andeffect is ambiguous and the guidelines we use most often are conflicting andlead to confusion, which won’t easily provide satisfactory outcomes. Theway we approach solving problems through incremental solutions influenceother factors that we cannot easily foresee. These issues may actually be 58
    • beyond our cognitive limits, and thus impossible to truly understand ourpredicament as we are dealing on scales that humanity has never had to dealwith before. We are in the position of being ‘a lab-rat trying to understandthe technicians in white coats working in the laboratory’. Unlike any previous time in history we have become separated from theenvironment. We are living in the illusion that we can control theenvironment through our knowledge and technology which has generated asense of disconnection, as we don’t see ourselves belonging to the Worldwe live in. With the use and reliance on oil and gas for energy, we havedeveloped a socio-economic, cultural, financial, and politico-militaryconstruct that we are psychically locked within.240 Yesterday’s generals were actually on the battlefield while today’sgenerals may not even be in the country were military action is taking place.UAV drone technology is also turning the 21st century warrior into a “9 to5” executive, detached from the warzone, who reports to work conductsmissions, fires at live targets, and goes home for dinner with the family, notfeeling a thing. Economists are not walking around society; they areexamining computerized simulations in a comfortable office, whilepoliticians are translating these “guess-theories” into politically acceptableand appeasing remedies. The mythical grandeur we have created about ourown species is blocking the view. Our beliefs in ‘who and what we are’create one large dysfunctional heuristic that is no more than humanisticchauvinism, a species overconfidence bias that has encouraged us to believethat because all things in the past have been solved then all things in thefuture will also be solved. We are being told by the ‘spiritual’ and ‘management’ gurus that newparadigms are required in managing our affairs and enterprises. There areplenty of ‘acclaimed’ and ‘best selling’ positivist and instrumentalist adviceabout ‘the seven ways’ or ‘ten points’ that lead to success and enlightenmentthat have become the vanguard of our contemporary social dogma. It is‘politically correct’, ‘responsible’, and a way of ‘doing something for theenvironment’ to recycle paper, switch off the lights over lunch, or maintainthe air conditioning at a slightly higher temperature to cut down onelectricity consumption. But are using bio-fuels and hybrid carsenvironmentally ethical? Have we really thought about howenvironmentally ethical these measures really are?241 Is environmentalappeasement enough, or do we really need a sustainable retreat, especiallywhen we don’t really understand the Earth as an eco-system. For example,renewable energy appears a valid and benign option, but what would be theeffect of a massive number of turbines on the vortices within theatmosphere?242 The increase in the planting of bio-fuel crops is accused bymany of putting upward pressure of food prices.243 Solving complexproblems requires wisdom and ingenuity. 59
    • When serious paradigm shifting solutions come to the table like E.F.Schumacher’s ideas of how to organize our economy and society in a moresustainable way,244 it becomes a trendy talking point, something nice,attracting curiosity, espoused, but rejected in action because it means realchange in our comfortable habits which the majority won’t accept. We are acompliant society. The majority of businesses are started because of financial need orperceived economic opportunities,245 and ethics are not usually a majorconsideration in these nascent ventures. The usual primary objectives of anentrepreneur are to survive, grow, make a profit, and/or maintain or build alifestyle.246 Ethics and profits can be seen as conflicting objectives, just ascost and profit, individual verses society interest, knowing when to bediplomatic verses being honest, personal loyalty verses responsibility forwhat is right, and considering the short verses the long term. These paradoxes are usually seen as being mutually exclusive, wherethere is a need to select one or the other, not necessarily dispositions thatcan go together. Thus this is the old paradigm challenge for ethics. Ethicsappears to be about making choices, between these types of alternatives.Sound ethical choices require emotional awareness and consciousness aboutthe swaying influence any set of emotions may exert over our decisions. Wemay have a sense of ethics but little idea about how to apply them insituations of marginality and ambiguity, especially where we lackknowledge and experience. Good ethical choices are about synergizingthoughts and coming up with ideas where the consequences ofimplementation are understood. Ethics requires creativity and wisdom toimplement decisions. A strong sense of ethical code is not enough in a society with complexproblems. Ethics are generally subservient to our objectives and applied towhat we do in the absence of wisdom, i.e., foreseeing the potentialconsequences of any action. Therefore action may lead to unsatisfactoryresults through naivety, design or, the influence of psychotic afflictions.247We live in a society of ethically compromising behavior. Internetcompanies are using tracking cookies to mine data from our computersabout our internet habits.248 Microsoft use sophisticated tracking cookies toprofile our personal computers for unlicensed software without the userknowing under the guise of software updates. While many would argue thatthis is an invasion of privacy, Microsoft would argue that they aresafeguarding their intellectual property.249 Some multinational retailers aredesigning their house brand packaging in ways that their products resemblepremium brands.250 Banks are regularly criticized for following minimumlegal requirements and undertaking predatory lending practices rather thanproviding ethical customer service. Microcredit is seen by many as apowerful way of alienating poverty. However studies have found that many 60
    • women are not emancipated by the loan, but actually put into more debt asthey don’t control the repayments.251 Interest rates are not low which oftenleads to repayment difficulties. Many stories exist about agents causinggreat community disruption and families being worse off than before theloan.252 There appears to be a fine ethical line that is very ambiguous andeasy to cross without the public actually knowing about it. Ethics is a relative concept to many corporations. What policies andbenchmarks Tesco, Nike, Apple, and Google practice in one country may bedifferent from what these same organizations practice in another country.These decisions may be taken incrementally without deep thought orintentionally, showing where the firm’s values really are. These values andresulting behavior inhibit a corporation’s ability to be ethical – the paradoxof being principled or pragmatic. The author in a previous paper postulated that ethics are part of our trueself.253 Cognitive research on the effect of brain damage to the prefrontalcortex on moral judgment seems to confirm this. Our sense of moralityoriginates from the same place that our empathy and other higher orderemotions are generated. Studies have shown that although those with adamaged prefrontal cortex are able to have an abstract ‘utilitarian’ moralsense, they find great difficulty applying these abstract notions to real lifesituations.254 It is our true self that possesses innate qualities that manifest ashumility, integrity, responsibility, compassion and forgiveness.255 Thesequalities exist under the layers of our emotions and desires constructing ouridentity which we know as “I’ or “me”. The “I” and “me” persona is thefalse self that performs the role as a macro-defense mechanism maintainingour survival and suppressing the innate qualities of our true self. If we canescape the influence of our emotions, we begin through our innate empathydeveloping an understanding of our self, others, and the environment.256And this is where we can see connections that we have never seen before.We are connected as one system and see the interrelationships andinterdependencies around us. We have a connection to the collectiveunconscious, which Jung posed as a collection of information, includingmyths, stories, images, universal symbols that are understood across allcultures.257 And within this collective unconscious many philosopherspostulate that universal principles are common across cultures andconsistent through time.258 Traditional societies have endured in all sorts of conditions and thosethat have followed ecological ethics have survived,259 while those that choseto ignore and flaunt these ethics disappeared, becoming extinctcivilizations.260 Failed civilizations throughout human history have shownthe consequences of what we collectively do eventually will come back andoverwhelm society.261 Everything interrelates, where changes influence 61
    • other parts of the eco-system in ways that are difficult to determine inadvance. Deforestation in Africa has enabled malaria carrying mosquitoesto breed in open sun-drenched land, where some people survive because ofthe make-up of their blood.262 It’s human behavior which tips the eco-system into directions that carry grave consequences for society. Ethics are bounded by society’s values, culture, history, at the societylevel, and personal values, experience and upbringing at the personal level.As we have seen with the banking crisis, externally imposed ethics throughlaws and regulations cannot foresee the ambiguity of interpretation. Thereare always ways and means to get around law and regulation and manyindustries are good at this. Ethics must be internalized within us like theFreudian metaphor of the superego, keeping the id and ego in check. This iswhy we pay our taxes, don’t speed and stop at red lights when there are noother cars or pedestrians around, and return lost property to owners withoutthe need of a reward. In fact recent research has shown that beingconsiderate for others can actually reduce stress levels and improve ourhealth.263 This requires being aware of the influence of our negativeemotions, where few people have the ability recognize this. There can be noethics without an awareness of our emotions. Applying ethics relies on utilizing our creative intelligence and theprocesses are exactly the same as solving any problem or developing a newidea. Seen this way ethics are an application of creativity. Through thevarious forms of imagination described earlier in the paper, one will takenumerous issues and regional interests to evolve vision of a potentialsolution. Imagination will assist a person run through numerous scenarioseach with different and unique value judgments and dilemmas, withquestions not easy to answer. Paradoxes or contradictions usually block the way to a new future.However new and innovative solutions can be found within the mostcomplex paradoxes. For example, US industry considered cost and qualityto be at different ends of the spectrum. A product of low quality could beproduced at a lower cost than a product of a higher quality. Thus cost andquality were considered mutually exclusive. You either produced a productfor a low cost or you produced a product for quality at a higher cost. Thephilosophy of Total Quality Management (TQM) changed the paradigmpostulating that cost and quality were not mutually exclusive and actually afirm can reduce cost and improve quality at the same time.264 As we sawwith the abundance of literature on Japanese management in the 1980s, thisnew paradigm came as a revelation to US managers.265 The ability to seecomplementary relationships in opposing tendencies allows escape from the‘zero-sum’ approaches to paradoxical problems. The ability to benefit fromthese paradoxes is the concern for change people have within the situation.Every organization and industry will have a set disposition for change and 62
    • stability, which will define how paradox and change is approached.266Potential new futures that change the rules of the game always createopportunities within the status quo. Ethical thinking takes place within the metaphorical model of creativeintelligence outlined earlier in this paper. Within our prior knowledge areethical schemata which stores concepts of integrity, responsibility,compassion, forgiveness, generosity, courage, justice, self discipline, andhumility. These universal principles without lower level emotionalinterference become the values by which we think, make decisions, andbehave. Our imagination and particularly empathy gives us the ability toapply these concepts to everyday life. Higher awareness enables us tounderstand our emotions behind our thoughts. Strong and uncheckedemotions can very easily suppress our ethical values. The awareness of ouremotions brings wisdom to intuition. It is our experience and resulting wisdom that enables us to apply ethicsto problems. The most difficult aspect of ethical thinking is navigationthrough various paradoxes mentioned above. Thus wisdom in the case ofethics is the ability to apply personal principles into action. Thiscompetence develops over time as applying ethics requires experience,particularly in dealing with constraints and potential consequences that aredifficult to foresee. For this reason ethical solutions are artful rather thansomething reasoned as feeling through empathy and maneuvering throughimagination is how solutions are constructed. Ethical behavior is not a soft option. Ethics are not about the pursuit ofharmony. Ethics require the courage to say “no” rather than makingpromises just to please people only to renege on that promise sometime inthe future, leading to a loss of integrity. Pleasing people is not necessarilyethical behavior as it may be based on a psychotic sense of fear or feelingsof low self efficacy. Truth requires a certain amount of diplomacy so thatpeople may accept what they are being told. Telling the truth can be used asa way to sadistically hurt people by those with narcissistic tendencies. Toomuch compassion can lead to depression. Knowing that something isharmful like smoking and doing nothing about it may be a sign of poor selfdiscipline and anxiety. As a consequence ethical behavior may sometimesmean taking unpopular actions in conflict with personal values such asgoing to war, raising taxes, or putting principle before loyalty, etc. Thus afinal ingredient of ethical thinking is will. 63
    • 15. Hindrances to Creativity and Original ThinkingThe way we perceive and think is influenced by so many types of cognitivetraps that channel and bias our conclusions. Some of these cognitive trapsinclude;• Defense mechanisms are psychological strategies that the psychdevelops to cope with emotions generated through our everyday life.267Defense mechanisms preserve a person’s self image and view of the worldthat helps protect our psych from anxiety, fear, and uncertainty. Normalityoften contains neurotic traits which can be triggered by anxiety anddominate one’s perception over a period of high emotion. In such situations,defense mechanisms can over compensate and develop distortions andmisrepresentations.268• Culture, particularly restrictive cultures, can be seen as a massivedefensive mechanism against change, uncertainty, and chaos. Culture is amechanism that creates certainty and familiarity that acts as a safety barrierthrough norms, values, and beliefs it supports, channeling attention to alimited set of goals and actions.269• Cognitive biases are errors of judgment based on misconceptions of thefacts, memory errors, probability errors, motivational factors and/or socialinfluences that lead to irrational reasoning.• Complacency is a characteristic that gradually sets into a person whobecomes very comfortable, bored, and tired of the mundane work he or sheis doing. Past success tends to bring high self confidence in people, wherethey are satisfied with their personal success and wish to ‘rest on theirlaurels.’ Leaders believe that they know everything there is to know abouttheir industry and cease to scan the environment for threats andopportunities, becoming ‘blind.’ Sometimes this overconfidence bringsarrogance. Within this scenario motivation will slowly decline and newideas, self discipline, general focus, and concentration will wane.• Groupthink is where groups come to a consensus without reallycritically analyzing all the various issues involved, with an objective ofstriving for unanimity, overriding the motivation to objectively appraisealternative courses of action.270• Motivational biases are a group of mechanisms that influence perceptionand decision making based upon what a person wants to see when a personhas an interest in reaching certain conclusions or things go a certain way.• “False urgency” where an organization is busy undertaking tasks forthings that are not important to the firm’s progress or survival.271 Oftenpeople undertake ‘pseudowork’ to look good; following rules rather strivingto achieve goals.272 64
    • • “Heuristics” are ‘short-cuts’, ‘rules of thumb’ decision rules ortemplates that aid quick decision making and are embedded within ourbelief system, sometimes reflective of our deep motivations and socialconditioning. They are intertwined with our knowledge structures andbecome a factor of influence in assessments, judgments, and decisions wemake.• Attribute substitution occurs when a person has to make a judgment (ofan attribute target) that is very complex. As a result of the complexity, themind substitutes a more easily calculated heuristic attribute to simplifycomplexity.273• Misconceptions are false, flawed or mistaken views, opinions orattitudes and are likely to occur when knowledge about a specific area isinadequate and supports only partial understanding. Thereforegeneralizations are utilized to develop understanding of a situation or event.• Fallacies are inconsistent arguments with weak premises that appear tosupport a conclusion.• Abstract inferences are abstractions or generalizations that simplifyconcepts so the mind can cope with the concepts.In the extreme these cognitive traps can lead to psychosis and neuroticbehavior. Existing psychotic conditions can also lead to the excessive use ofdefense mechanisms. However cognitive traps can also assist our thinking in making quickcategorizations of our perceptions to cut down on cognitive processing.Inferences based upon flawed logic can also lead to great insights aboutnovel ideas leading to entrepreneurial opportunities. For example theinference ‘buses are cheap and easy to catch’ may lead to a conclusion that‘airlines should operate like bus companies’. This may have little actuallogic but may be insightful enough to form the basis of a new opportunity,i.e., low cost airlines. Effectuation through inference is not a logicalprocess, and as we see in the example above it is not always logic thatproduces useful insights. Adults rarely test the boundaries of their realities and tend to stay withinthe familiarity of the status quo. As children we had the ability to usefantasy to escape reality and create new comfortable realities that we like todwell within, but we tend to lose this ability as we become adults. We tendto utilize our imagination for destructive purposes like creating reasons‘why something should not be done’ rather than ‘why not’ – building a senseof risk aversion within us. People have a tendency to brood over issues forlong periods of time and become depressed over them.274 We are embedded within our culture which has a great influence on ourability to think creatively. Cultures differ greatly in the pressures exerted for 65
    • conformity and openness to new and novel ideas. We live within theexpectations of our society and can only openly imagine within the limitsthat society imposes. In many societies this may be very limited, even postindustrial societies have become so rigid in the pressure for compliance toregulation. The compliance society becomes very uncreative. In additionpeoples’ aspirations are changing. In past generations children aspired to befiremen, airline pilots, and astronauts, but now they want to be reality TVstars with little interest in originality, just being seen in places where thereare people. The role models of our time are people who can’t act, play aninstrument, sing, dance, do any sport, or have any intellectual talents.275 Our education systems are becoming rigid again after the forays intoexperimental learning during the 1980s and 1990s. Brian Quinn coined theterm McDonaldization of the education system in describing how facilitieslike libraries are designed and equipped to handle customers like a fast foodrestaurant.276 Students are able to quickly obtain a repertoire of materialthey require from a standardized curriculum, and find the answers all at theend of the book. This has brought mass production and predictability intoeducation, where poor teaching is being blamed on declining academicstandards in Australian schools.277 Education is fast becoming a quantitativeexperience where we are yet to know the costs on creativity and originalthinking. Technology looks as though it is emancipating our lives. HoweverGeorge Ritzer paints a much more sinister picture of technology andpostulates that it is the means of controlling and ‘putting people altogether’in society.278 Although the internet and in particular social media hasopened up channels of communication between people, it is yet to be seenwhat effects it has on creativity. Social networking, news, films,pornography, games, and other information available on the internet hasbecome a major distraction.279 We communicate, but what is the quality ofwhat we are communicating? Instead of social media becoming the greatcollective consciousness, it has become a collective garbage dump. Peoplemeet physically but are predisposed with others, texting on their mobilephones. Many are consumed with internet games developing ‘avatars’creating relationships with others through their ‘cyber alter egos’. Actionvideo games were thought to assist in enhancing skills that many considerimportant in contemporary society.280 However recent research disputesthis, claiming flaws in previous studies ascribing that playing video gamesenhances cognitive development.281 Video game research is still in itsinfancy with no clear cut results on the positive and negative effects ofplaying such games.282 Maybe technology has done more than capitalism tocreate Herbert Marcuse’s One-Dimensional Man.283 The domains that we have been trained within, identify with, andpractice within most often lock us into bounded and channeled thinking. We 66
    • see things from the perspectives of our domain and become locked into theold ‘game theory’ paradigm that converts to failure overtime.284 In scienceand engineering journals this can be clearly seen in the structure ofacademic journal formats and editorial control. Cliquey academics aredefensive against outsiders which keep disciplines restricted to certainideas, not readily open to accepting new ideas.285 If we look at various domains we see almost innovative stagnation.Automobiles remain much the same today as they did twenty years agoexcept for accessories, ancillaries, and styling. The long range airlineindustry still uses the Boeing 747 as the major workhouse that wasdeveloped during the 1960s. The traditional sources of power generationcoal, gas, and hydro are still the major contributors of power today, withoutany clear cut new technologies on the horizon. New developments withinthe pharmaceutical industry are restricted by the demands of regulationrequiring exhaustive trials and dossiers on any new product. Even themobile phone industry is advancing by style rather than breakthroughs intechnology of late. Most advances within the industries mentioned abovehave come from outside, i.e., software, new composite materials, avionicsand electronics, etc. It appears we have been living on the breakthroughs ofthe past, even though we have great advances in knowledge.286 Much of oureconomic growth over the last 30 years has been through technologyreplication. The creative insights of the past have become the rigidities oftoday. Most new development work is undertaken within tightly budgetedproduct development processes that leave little room for speculativedevelopment. In addition, many product enhancements seem to beundertaken for the sake of making enhancements for consumer problemsthat don’t readily exist, like new browsers, viewers and applications, etc.Most creativity comes from dissenting people who are willing to work withfrustration and unpredictability.16. ConclusionHoward Gardner’s study of Freud and his contemporaries in his bookCreative Minds pointed to the importance of prior knowledge, highcuriosity, and intellectual strength based upon selective forms ofintelligence rather than specific thinking styles, i.e., Freud intrapersonal,Einstein spatial and mathematical, Picasso spatial and visual, Stravinskymusical, Eliot language, and Graham kinesthetic intelligence.Csikszentmihalyi emphasized the field, domain, peers, and whether newideas gained social acceptance about what is original. Thus all originalthinking is bound to our knowledge, culture, and society of which we 67
    • cannot escape, thus putting a limit on how far any original thinking canmove away from what is accepted as the current reality. Breakthroughs likeCopernicus’s pronouncement that the Earth and planets rotated around theSun287 rather than the Sun and planets rotating around the Earth requiredpeer and society acceptance to become the new reality. Charles Darwin’stheory of natural selection, although not actually discussing the evolution ofman, was seen for a number of years as a theological challenge to the verynotion that man was a divine species as Christian doctrine proclaimed. ThusDarwin was seen by some in the establishment as a threat to the power ofthe church rather than advancing our understanding of how species evolved.To escape the influence of the field and domain, one must have the abilityto withdraw from it, to escape the influence of current themes ofknowledge. This means ignoring the influence of others and putting in theeffort to think of original ideas. This takes a great energy and disciplinewhich is truly not appreciated. Peter Drucker’s sources of innovation in hisseminal book Innovation and Entrepreneurship published in 1984 iscertainly influenced by Schumpeter’s sources of innovative opportunitypublished in 1934.288 W. Chan Kim and Renée Mauborgne’s 2005 workBlue Ocean Strategy may have taken some inspiration from MichaelPorter’s ideas on segmentation and competitive advantage back in 1985.289One is anchored to the ideas of the domain where creativity can onlymanifest through extension in most cases. Many people promoted to the position of professor at a universityengage in activities with very heavy time commitments such as travel,appearances, meetings, conferences, preparing tedious semesterial reports,and other obligations leaving very little time for thinking. Due to pressure tomeet key performance index (KPI), many professors tend to engage insuperficial research that may be very situational and provide little realcontribution to the domain. The top echelons of the academic hierarchybecome an anti-intellectual environment.290 Complacency exists wherepositions become rewards for work previously done. In contrast both Freudand Einstein were both isolated during their creative periods, something notmany people are willing to do. In learning, humankind has performed very poorly as a species. Wehave not learned the lessons of war, continually repeating our destructivenature. Even the lessons from Vietnam were not learned with the invasionof Iraq some 40 years later.291 The disgust of the holocaust of World WarTwo has not prevented similar mass extermination of people in Africa,Asia, Central Asia, and the Balkans over the last 70 years. The shock of the2004 tsunami didn’t last long as most coastal early warning equipment inSouth-east Asia is not in working condition today and people keep buildingby the coast just waiting for another disaster to happen. The contrast 68
    • between Haiti and the Dominican Republic shows that ‘human’ interventionhas great impact upon the environment.292 In education, emphasis should be put on creative thinking rather than anorientation towards general intelligence as represented by Bloom’staxonomy. This was happening in higher education institutions in postindustrial societies, but there is now an emphasis on the quantitative due tothe rapid increase in the international education market. But highereducation within the developing world is still to a large degree based onrepetitive learning rather than creativity based curricula. The skills requiredfor original thinking are not being disseminated. General arts and sciencedegrees that provided grounding across a number of arts and sciencedisciplines were once popular but have been disappearing in favor ofdomain specialization based degrees. A return to these general degrees willintroduce people to a wide array of disciplines that may encourageinterdisciplinary thinking. Creativity and original thinking are most likely to occur where theenvironment metaphorically collides, where paradoxes co-exist, whereincongruities develop, where new technology is more efficient than oldertechnology, and where better ways of doing things can be discovered. Newtechnologies collide with an industry bringing new possibilities as we haveseen with the advent of mobile phones that are making landline networksalmost extinct, the internet, debit cards replacing cash transactions, and newmedical technologies enabling local clinics to perform a much wider rangeof medical procedures, etc. The domains of biotechnology, medicine,agriculture, nano-electronics, communications, computing, and imaging aresome of the areas where there are likely to be breakthroughs due to mergingdisciplines. Those people who are able to look at things from multipledisciplines and perspectives, and synthesize their knowledge in developingresponses to problems are the ones that will be most likely to achievebreakthroughs. So the age of the individual inventor may decline in favor ofhighly skilled trans-disciplinary teams. However, it almost goes withoutsaying that there will always be a place for individuals who are able to seethings that others can’t see like the recent discovery of a new planet byChris Holmes and Lee Threapleton.293 In this world of convergence where products and industries are mergingwith each other, trans-disciplinary knowledge and skills are required. Beinga domain specific engineer will not be good enough. In order to be creativethe engineer must have knowledge across a number of disciplines that canbe synergized into some meaningful expressions in the form of newinventions and product applications. This synergization may come from aninsight into some issues facing society to be solved, as shown in figure 8.Trans-disciplinary approaches increase the scope of knowledge, where newknowledge can evolve from a greater base, and although creativity may be 69
    • an individual phenomenon, innovation is more likely a collaborativeemergence under the trans-disciplinary paradigm. Any opportunity, invention, or innovation is bound to the past, present,and the field. To the past because any idea is bound to previous ideas andinventions. To the present because the idea or invention must solve today’sproblems, human needs, or aspirations. New ideas or products must fit intosociety’s institutions, industry supply chains, and trade channels. Thetolerance of our society puts limits upon the possible, and anything beyondthese tolerance levels will be doomed to failure. The difference betweenJules Verne’s fantasy of man landing on the moon and the Apollo 11 moonlanding is not vision, but available knowledge and technology, and a senseof national will and endeavor to achieve the goal. Application or New forms of Invention “Issues facing society to be solved” Expression Insight Expressed Other disciplines of knowledge Our Current knowledge “Deep Microbiology Trans-Disciplinary Insight” Synergy of Knowledge Engineering Biology Physics Agriculture Chemistry BiochemistryFigure 8. Trans-disciplinary knowledge in the green biotechnology field and theexpression of new knowledge as a new invention or product application.Most breakthroughs today are being made by moving into new domains.And it is not necessarily a requirement to be an expert within all technicalaspects of a new domain to succeed. It may be sufficient to share somecommon skills like marketing to be able to leverage entry. Thus an in-depthknowledge of aircraft and the airline industry wasn’t as critical to success asknowledge of a working business model for the birth of Virgin or Air Asia.Industries will continue to be disrupted by young ‘upstarts’ like Steve Jobsand Steve Wozniak who developed and launched the Apple computer in1976 outpacing the giant IBM in the new emerging personal computermarket. Time and time again, seeing opportunities and knowing how topromote an idea enables many entrepreneurs to enter new domains andquickly dominate them, while existing industry leaders are unaware of theopportunity and/or complacent. 70
    • One of the emerging themes of the early part of this century has been theemulation and mimicking of nature.294 Scientists are leaning towards theconcepts of nature as inspiration in developing new materials like self-repairing polymers, photosynthesis in the production of energy, non-Newtonian fluids for engineering applications, and artificial intelligence.Darwin’s concepts of natural selection and evolution are now finding aplace within contemporary management theory.295 In the real world, lifemust await the right conditions and moment before it can exist as what it ismeant to be. For example, plants adapt their structure and internal processesto available space, nutrients, changes in climate, and seasons. Our world isbiological rather than mechanical. Many philosophical ideas are not really original but are presented innew and powerful ways that render them persuasive ideas at the time. Onthe marketing front, Blue Ocean Strategy may be one such manifestationwhere the authors and promoters showed the relevance of the ideas totoday’s society. Thomas Edison is generally believed by many to be theinventor of the electric light bulb. Edison spent an enormous amount of histime promoting himself and his ideas. As we have seen from biographies ofthe great inventor/entrepreneurs of the 19th century, self promotion was amajor factor in gaining recognition.296 Science and rationality enables us to move foward, but it’s ourimagination and ethical standpoint that decides where that place will be.Our destination changes not because our fundamental ethics change but theway in how we apply them and imagine what could be. As Charles Darwinfound with his coral reef, mass attracts innovation and is the development oflarge population centers where people congregate, contemplate, incubate,and disseminate new ideas where creativity will grow. The emergence of mega-cities with extremely high population densityincreases the flow of useful ideas because of the concentration of people,talent, communications, capital, latent entrepreneurial opportunity, andtrading relations.297 However all these conditions will not produceinnovation unless creativity is allowed to flourish. Creativity and originalthinking is most likely to occur in diverse and dynamic environments wheredifferences are celebrated rather than suppressed. It is innovation and creative ingenuity that will be required to solve theproblems of this millennium. In paraphrasing what Howard Frederick saidabout the paradigm of sustainable entrepreneurship as if the earth mattered;it was an entrepreneur who caused the crisis (Henry Ford) and it will be anentrepreneur (perhaps the one who commercializes hydrogen cars) whomay help fix the crisis,298 emphasizes that the solutions to our problems willcome from creativity and innovation. We cannot assume all areas within countries are growing as statisticswould indicate. Parts of Africa, Asia, the Dominican Republic, and rural 71
    • Australia are declining in prosperity, mainly at the expense of urbanizationwhere easy solutions are not available. In each case we lack priorknowledge and experience to make wise decisions. What happens in onepart of the world will affect the rest of the world as we are seeing in theArab Spring, Afghanistan, and Iraq. We will see the globalization of theworld’s problems more and more in the future. Emigration will be morepronounced putting stress upon many countries. Single decisions within thebusiness arena can shape destinies as well. The decision of IBM to use an‘off the shelf’ operating system for their personal computer enabled BillGates to envision a near monopoly on PC operating systems around theworld for more than 30 years. Some of the urgent solutions required include;• Finding new economic models that can provide stability andemployment once again to developed and post industrial economies,• Redefine the structure of the banking system so it is controlled andfulfills its monetary and social role in society,• Find suitable ways to create energy and sustainable economic activitiesthat conserve resources for future generations,• Reconcile and solve water, ozone layer, food, and agriculture issues,• Learn how to redistribute the World’s wealth where there is growth insome places, redistributed sources of growth in other regions to solve issueslike poverty and over population,• Solve the problems of declining utilities infrastructure in mega-cities,• Find a new base to the currency system and a way to return to countrymonetary flexibility that mega-currencies (Euro) inhibited, and• Solve migration and security problems.Solutions must be co-created with the environment in mind. Most of ourproblems have been created by our intervention within the environment. Itis the nature of the environment paradox that must be solved, i.e., the verynature of competition itself is the basic force that prevents companiessurviving. The highly successful strategies of today might be the losers oftomorrow as successful strategies will be brought down by competitors.299Solutions require entrainment where things tend to become synchronized inunison, where compatibility develops.300 For example for brands to besuccessful, products must be entrained with consumers’ sets of positiveemotions to be successful.301 Co-evolution is based on the premise that wecannot control the environment and the environment changes without ourintervention anyway. That is why each time the world faces a financialcrisis, there are different underlying causes and new solutions have to belearned each time.302 72
    • We don’t evolve through planning and foresight, but rather through adhoc decisions that accumulate. Evolutionary change occurs more out ofchanging conditions rather than planning. For example, slavery ended not somuch out of a desire for equity and fairness of man but because coal andsteam power became more efficient than owning groups of slaves. It wasnot the free market mechanism that developed US industry; it was statecapitalism and the opportunity of US industry to fill the void of worldmarkets after most of Europe was devastated after the Second World War.The US had the advantage of economies of scale for many years, until rivalslike Japan could reemerge.303 Understanding is a static, knowing is what provides wisdom, wherecognitive connections develop intuition levels so that new realities can beenvisioned. One must contemplate that for every action there areconsequences. Even Peters and Waterman couldn’t provide us with thecorrect formula for action that would lead to success. In fact there are manysuccessful businesses like restaurants that we don’t know what the factorsof success really are. Most of us can’t see impending disasters coming just like a fish thatcan’t see the water they are swimming within. To be able to see requireswillingness to let go of the assumption we have all the solutions toeverything, the fear of not knowing, our delusion of control, a realizationthat our institutions are failing us, our reliance on false models, the dumpingof our beliefs in efficiency of markets, acceptance of the decline ofeconomic growth due to diminishing returns, and letting go of our pasthabits and fascinations, e.g., home ownership. The logic of many disciplinesare changing. For example, world economic evolution is creating newwinners and new losers where the concepts of specialization cannot beapplied as in previous decades. Assumptions about labor and capital need tochange to reflect new realities where the factors of production and means ofcapital accumulation are continually shifting. Development must bedistinguished from growth. There are no absolute solutions, as solutionsneed to be refined, tested and refined again before they might be effective,which is contrary to the quick fixes society expects. NOTES AND REFERENCES 1. Wells, H.G. (1946), The Mind at the End of its Tether. New York: Didier, 34. 2. See “The Creativity Crisis,” July 10th 2010, from Newsweek, The DailyBeast,http://www.thedailybeast.com/newsweek/2010/07/10/the-creativity-crisis.html 3. Heinberg, R., (2011), The End of Growth: Adapting to Our New EconomicOrder. Gabriola Island, BC: New Society Publishers, 2. 73
    • 4. Ritzer, G. (1993), The McDonaldization of Society: An investigation into thechanging character of contemporary social life, Thousand Oaks, CA, Pine Forgepress. 5. Nemeth, C., J., (1995), Dissent as Driving Cognition, Attitudes, andJudgments, Social Cognition, Vol. 13, No. 3, pp. 273-291. 6. See Marcuse, H. (1991), One-Dimensional Man: studies in ideology ofadvanced industrial society, London, Routledge, and McGilchrist, I., (2010), TheMaster and His Emissary: The Divided Brain and the Making of the Western World,London, Yale University Press. 7. Ehrenreich, B., (2009), Bright-Sided: How Positive Thinking is UnderminingAmerica, New York, Picador. 8. Michalko, M. (2011), ‘Why experts create few new ideas, Psychology Today,October 26th, http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/creative-thinkering/201110/why-experts-create-few-new-ideas 9. Lovelock, J. (2005), Gaia: Medicine for an ailing planet, London, GaiaBooks, P. 15. 10. Sachs, J., (2005), The End of poverty: How we can make it happen in ourlifetime, London, Penguin, pp. 2-3. 11. Most models only utilize a couple of variables to examine cause and effect.For example Weber’s models were concerned with power, Lakoff’s models wereconcerned with the social generation of truth, and Porter’s models with externalstructural forces, where on the other hand Mintzberg ignores the role of structuralconstraints upon management. These models correlated with certain actions orbehaviors in retrospect, but could not predict accurately in future scenarios. 12. Richard Florida of Carnegie Mellon University believes that creativity inorganizations and society depends upon the outcomes of technology, talent, andtolerance. Each is necessary but insufficient on its own. Florida sees an economicgeography canvass of creativity where the above conditions differ from place toplace. See Florida, R. (2002), The Rise of the Creative Class: And how itstransforming work, leisure, and community of everyday life, New York, Basicbooks. 13. Connelly, C. (2012), Time keepers to introduce leap second June 30 to keepin synch with mother earth, HeraldSun.com, January 6th,http://www.heraldsun.com.au/technology/time-keepers-to-introduce-leap-second-june-30-to-keep-in-sync-with-mother-earth/story-fn7celvh-1226238221924 14. Poor resource management in Australia has resulted in higher salinity levelswhere land is now very unproductive. Larger land areas in Australia are needed toget the same yields as other parts of the world. As a consequence Australianagriculture needs higher input levels of fertilizers and fuel, where production costsare higher. Uncompetitive industries include the citrus industry, where orange juiceis cheaper from Brazil, the frozen vegetable industry, where imports are cheaperfrom China, and the eucalyptus industry, where imports are cheaper from other partsof the world. Much of Australia’s land is now low marginal pastoral land. JaredDiamond suggests that Australia’s import culture set the country’s destiny for failureas sheep farming was not really suitable on the continent and questions whykangaroo wasn’t developed as an industry. Australia faces a declining ability tosupport its population with food and water, with more desalination plants needed in 74
    • the future. See: Diamond, J. (2006), Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail orSurvive. London: Penguin, 320-21. 15. Norse, E. A., et al. (2012), Marine Policy, Vol. 36, 307-320. 16. Winston, R. (2010), Bad Ideas? An Arresting History of Our Inventions.London: Bantam Books, 78. 17. For example, see: Meier, G. M. (1984), Leading Issues in EconomicDevelopment, 4th Edition. New York: Oxford University Press, and Thirlwall, A. P.(1983), Growth & Development: With Special Reference to Developing Economies,3rd Edition. London: MacMillan. 18. Utility refers to the total satisfaction gained from consumption, thus worldaggregate utility would refer to the total satisfaction world consumers would gainfrom consumption. Thus the economic aim in this case is to maximize utility for allon Earth as a means to eliminate poverty. 19. Posner, M. I., DiGirolamo, G. J., and Fernandez-Duque, D. (1997), “BrainMechanisms of Cognitive Skills,” Consciousness and Cognition 6: 267-290. 20. Reed, S. K. (2007), Cognition: Theory and Applications, 7th Edition.Belmont, CA: Thomson-Wadsworth. 21. Smoot, G., (1994), Wrinkles in Time. New York: Avon, 284. 22. Gardner, H. (1993), Creating Minds: An Anatomy of Creativity Seen throughthe Lives of Freud, Einstein, Picasso, Stravinsky, Eliot, Graham, and Gandhi. NewYork: Basic Books, 20. 23. Original thinking is not limited by the style of thinking. It may involveanalytical, interpretive, contemplative, inductive, intuitive, deductive, creative, andelaborative thinking styles. Relying upon one’s instincts or gut feelings (intuition)can be more progressive than relying on grounded logic and rational reasoning.Motivation may also play a role where we intrinsically care about certain issues andproblems. Empathy thus has a role in generating original thinking. 24. Gallager, K. & Ackerman, F. (2000), “Trade Liberalization and PollutionIntensive Industry in Developing Countries: A Partial Equilibrium Approach,” inAssessing the Environmental Effects of trade Liberalisation Agreements:Methodologies. Paris: OECD, 267-277. 25. Gropp, R. & Kostial, K. (2000). The Disappearing Tax Base: Is ForeignDirect Investment Eroding Corporate Income Taxes?, Working Paper No. 11,Frankfurt, European Central Bank,http://www.ecb.europa.eu/pub/pdf/scpwps/ecbwp031.pdf 26. However firms are subject to the laws of evolution just like anything else. Afirm has a finite lifecycle from start-up, rise, growth, maturity, decline, and death,where maybe sometime during the firm’s life, periods of excellence existed. 27. Schramm, C.J. (2010), “Expeditionary Economics: Spurring Growth AfterConflicts and Disasters,” Foreign Affairs 89: 92. 28. W. Brian Arthur (1994), “On the evolution of complexity,” in Cowan, G.,Pines, D., & Meltzer, D. (eds.), Proceedings Complexity: Metaphors, Models, andReality, Studies in the Science of Complexity, Vol. 19. Reading Mass, ProceedingsSanta Fe Institute, 65-78. 29. Kirzner, I., M., (1973), Competition and Entrepreneurship. Chicago, IL:University of Chicago Press, and Hills, G.E., & Shrader, R.C., (1998), “Successful 75
    • Entrepreneurs’ Insights into Opportunity Recognition,” in Frontiers ofEntrepreneurship research 1998. Wellesley, MA: Babson College, 30-43. 30. De Koning, A., J., (2003), “Opportunity Development: A Socio-cognitivePerspective,” in Cognitive Approaches to Entrepreneurship Research: Advances inEntrepreneurship, Firm Emergence and growth, Vol. 6. New York: Elsevier. 31. Sarasvathy, S., D., (2001), “Causation and Effectuation: Toward aTheoretical Shift from Economic Inevitability to Entrepreneurial Contingency,”Academy of Management Review 26(2): 243-263. 32. Fletcher, D. E., (2006), “Entrepreneurial Processes and the SocialConstruction of Opportunity,” Entrepreneurship and Regional Development 18(5):421-440. 33. The ebb and flow of the possible is the set of opportunities that are createdand destroyed by the randomness and unpredictability of the environment. This isgoverned by intertwined social, economic, regulatory, and technological factors.Opportunities are seen, discovered or constructed by individuals within theseenvironments. See Hunter, M. (2012), Opportunity, Strategy, & Entrepreneurship: AMeta-Theory, Vol. 1. New York: Nova Scientific Publishers, 353. 34. James, M., & Jongewood, D., (1971), Born to Win. Cambridge, MA:Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 169. 35. We define the size of the grey inner circles through relativity, i.e., we areinfluenced by what is surrounding the object. So in this example the two grey circlesappear to be different sizes because of their respective relative positions to thecircles of different sizes. This also gives context as all meanings are contextual,which can lead to different outlooks, i.e., a big fish in a small ocean and a small fishin a large ocean will need to adopt different survival habits based on their relativecontexts. 36. Margulis, L., & Sagan, D., (1995), What is Life? New York: Simon &Schuster, 22. 37. Capra, F., (1996), The Web of Life. New York: Doubleday, 80. 38. Spinelli, E., (2007), Practicing Existential Psychotherapy: The RelationalWorld. London: Sage, 12. 39. Schmittner, A., Urban, N., M., Shakun, J. D., Mahowald, N. M., Clark, P.,U., Bartlein, P., J., Mix, A., C., & Rosell-Melé, A. (2011), “Climate SensitivityEstimated from Temperature Reconstructions of the Last Glacial Maximum,”Science 334(6061): 1385-1388. 40. See: Robbins, J., S., (2010), “An Inconvenient truth: The Ice Cap IsGrowing,” The Washington Times, January 10,http://www.washingtontimes.com/weblogs/watercooler/2010/jan/10/inconvenient-truth-ice-cap-growing/, Schmid, R. E. (2011), “Antarctic Ice Sheets Grow Frombottom Up, Scientists Discover,” Huff Post Green, March 3rd,http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/03/03/antarctica-ice-sheets-gro_n_830976.html 41. See for example Climate sensitivity and Climategate 2.0, Australian ClimateMadness, 25th November, 2011,http://www.australianclimatemadness.com/2011/11/climate-sensitivity-and-climategate-2-0/ 76
    • 42. “In its first 18 months, the MVP’s five main objectives were to: (i) Provideuniversal access and free distribution of long-lasting, insecticide treated bed nets tofight malaria; (ii) Achieve significant increases in staple crop yields; (iii) Ensureuniversal access to functioning health clinics; (iv) Increase primary schoolenrollments; and (v) Provide community access to improved and year-round waterfor consumption. In addition, the MVP emphasized cross-cutting interventionsfocused on addressing gender inequality; on community mobilization, participationand leadership; and on infrastructure for transport, energy, and information andcommunications technologies (ICT).” “The Millennium Villages seek to endextreme poverty by working with the poorest of the poor, village by villagethroughout Africa, in partnership with governments and other committedstakeholders, providing affordable and science-based solutions to help people liftthemselves out of extreme poverty.” http://www.unmillenniumproject.org/ 43. See The Millennium Villages Project: The Next Five Years 2011-2015,http://millenniumvillages.org/files/2011/12/MVPReport_FINAL_rev.pdf 44. Wanjala, B. M., & Muradian, R. (2011), “Can Big Push Interventions TakeSmall-scale Farmers out of Poverty? Insights from the Sauri Millennium Village inKenya,” CIDN Working Paper 2011-1 Nijmegen: CIDIN,http://www.ru.nl/cidin/general/recent_publications/@831810/bernadette-wanjalaa/?IdxIdt=681530, also see Economics Focus: The big push back:Randomised trials could help show whether aid works, The Economist, December3rd, 2011, http://www.economist.com/node/21541001/comments#comments 45. Batros, J. (2011), “The Relational Group World: An Existential Leap,” paperpresented to the OD Professionals Conference Stories from the Field, Working withGroups. Melbourne Convention Centre, Melbourne, 16th September. 46. Weber, M., (1968), Economy and Society. Totawa, NJ: Bedminster Press. 47. McGilchrist, I. (2009), The Master and His Emissary: The Divided Brainand Making of the Western World. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. 48. Scotti, C. (2011), “Why economists won’t help fix the economy,” The FiscalTimes, October 9th, http://www.thefiscaltimes.com/Articles/2011/10/09/Why-Economists-Wont-Help-Fix-the-Economy.aspx#page1 49. Ariely, D. (2008). Predictably Irrational: The Hidden Forces that ShapeOur Decisions. New York: HarperCollins, 96. 50. Specific opportunities exist within a set time and space, a time and place it istechnically, socially, and commercially feasible to exist. Evolving technology overtime made Jules Verne’s imaginative novel From the Earth to the Moon in 1865become reality with the Apollo Moon landing in 1969. Place makes the differencebetween success or failure of say for example, a West End play, a McDonalds outlet,a high end coffee lounge, and a sandwich bar. 51. The concept of the adjacent possible postulates that any new idea, inventionor innovation must be an adjacent emergence of new knowledge next to whatalready exists. See Johnson, S. (2010), Where Good Ideas Come From: The SevenPatterns of Innovation. London: Penguin. 52. Ibid., Chapter 18. 53. See Sperry, R.W. (1963), “Cerebral Organization and Behavior: The SplitBrain Behaves in Many Respects like Two Separate Brains, Producing New 77
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    • 83. Symons, D. (1993), “The Stuff that Dreams Aren’t Made of: Why Wake-state Sensory Experiences Differ,” Cognition 47: 181-217. 84. Eich, E., Macauley, D. and Ryan, L. (1994), “Mood Dependent Memory forEvents of the Personal Past,” Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 123:201-215. 85. Pinker, S. (2009), How the Mind Works. New York: W. W. Norton &Company, 296. 86. Dewey, J. (1938), Experience and Education. New York: MacmillanCompany. 87. Roschelle, J., and Clancey, W. J. (1992), “Learning as a social and neural,”Educational Psychologist 27: 435-453. 88. Ariely, D. (2008), op. cit., 36-37. 89. Hastie, R. and Pennington, N. (2000), “Explanation based decision making,”in Connolly, K., Arkes, H. R., & Hammond, K. R. (eds.), Judgment and DecisionMaking: An Interdisciplinary Approach, 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge UniversityPress, 212-228. 90. Pang, J. (1972), “Towards a Certain ‘Contextualism’ II (Foresight vs.Hindsight) vs. Insight,” Philosophia Mathematics s1-9(2): 158-167. 91. Hunter, M. (2012), op. cit., 219. 92. Vision among a host of other factors mentioned later is of vital importance tocreativity and original thinking. For example people will tend to think differently ifthey are working just to survive and cover their basic needs, work because theyenjoy consuming goods and keeping a particular lifestyle, or work for thesatisfaction and challenge the work provides to the person. 93. Matthews, G. B. (1969), “Mental Copies,” Philosophical Review 78: 53-73. 94. Gunderman, R. B. (2000), “Strategic Imagination,” AJR 175: 973-976. 95. Kearney, R. (1998), Poetics of Imagining: Modern to Postmodern. NewYork: Fordham University Press, 1. 96. Jensen, R. (1999), The Dream Society. New York: McGraw-Hill. 97. Wiener, N. (1993), Invention: The Care and Feeding of Ideas. Cambridge,MA: MIT Press, 7. 98. Levitt, T. (1986), The Marketing Imagination, New Expanded Edition. NewYork: Free Press, 127. 99. Brown, S., & Patterson, A. (2000), “Figments for Sale: Marketing,Imagination and the Artistic Imperative,” in Brown, S. & Patterson, A. (eds.),Imagining Marketing: Art, Aesthetics and the Avant-Garde. London, Routledge, 7. 100. Singer, J.L. (1975), The Inner World of Daydreaming, New York: Harper& Row. 101. This sensation can be experienced when a person is reading a book andabsorbing nothing, going through the motions of running the eyes through the text,reading but not absorbing what is being read while the mind’s attention issomewhere else, often not within our conscious awareness. 102. Thatcher, R.W., North, D.M., & Biver, C.J. (2009), “Self-OrganizedCriticality and the Development of EEG Phase Reset,” Human Brain Mapping30(2): 553-574. 103. Hunter, M. (2012), op. cit., 418. 80
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    • 125. Quirin, M., Kazen, M., & Kuhl, J., (2009), “When Nonsense Sounds Happyor Helpless: The Implicit Positive and Negative Affect test (IPANAT),” Journal ofPersonality and Social Psychology 97(3): 500-516. 126. Fenton-O’Creevy, M., Soane, E., Nicholson, N., & William, P. (2011),“Thinking, Feeling and Deciding: The Influence of Emotions on the DecisionMaking and Performance of Traders,” Journal of Organization Behavior 32(8):1044-1061. 127. Chodorow, N. (1999), The Power of Feeling: Personal Meaning inPsychoanalysis, Gender, and Culture. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. 128. Hunter, M. (2012), op. cit., 250. 129. Root-Bernstein, R. S., & Root-Bernstein, M. M., (2001). Sparks of Genius:The Thirteen Thinking Tools of the World’s Most Creative People. Boston,Houghton Mifflin. 130. Many people mistake their aspirations for opportunity. For example peopleput their money and effort into a boutique, restaurant, or spa for the wrong reasonsbecause they like fashion, shopping, food and cooking, or aromatherapy andmassage, only to close down a few months later because there was no realopportunity. 131. However a future orientation in imagination may be the actual position thata science fiction writer may cherish. 132. Domicile outlook can be defined as the beliefs, attitudes and views onedevelops from the position they live and social status. The concept brings togetherfactors like social status, income, location, state of employment and immigrantstatus. Together these factors contribute to a person’s basic beliefs, attitudes andoutlook towards opportunity and their potential to exploit it. 133. Zimbardo, 7; Boyd, J. (2009), The Time Paradox: The New Psychology ofTime that Will Change your Life. New York: Simon & Schuster. 134. Andreski, S. (ed.) (1983), Max Weber on Capitalism, Bureaucracy, andReligion. London: Allen & Unwin. 135. This is an area that will probably be given much more attention in the nearfuture, particularly in the discipline of entrepreneurship. 136. Lykken, D. T. (2005), “Mental Energy,” Intelligence 33(4): 321-335;O’Connor, P. J. (2006), “Mental Energy: Assessing the Mood Dimension,” NutritionReviews 64(7): 7-9. 137. Emotional energy could be a primal defense against danger. For examplesomething strange has been seen or heard in the distance and the mind has anopportunity to consider the response to the potential sign of danger. There is anormal reflexive response to freeze and then consider what to do next. The responsewill be emotional rather than reasoned, as emotions are much quicker to generatethan thoughts and reasoning. 138. For a superb account of how our cognitive, emotional and physical systemsfunction see chapter 5 of Michael A. Jawer, and Marc S. Micozzi, (2009), TheSpiritual Anatomy of Emotion: How Feelings Link the Brain, the Body, and the SixthSense. Rochester : Park Street Press. 139. There are many definitions and descriptions of the concept of Qi. Qi is aconcept describing our life-process, our bodily flow of energy that sustains our life.According to the principals of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), Qi circulates 82
    • around our body where metaphorically it could be viewed as a biological plasmathat maintains our general functioning and health. However like emotional andmental energy Qi cannot be detected through any form of scientific instrumentation. 140. A mood is a long lasting emotional state that is less intense that theemotions they are based on. Unlike emotions, moods are not necessarily triggered bycrisis events. A mood will usually have a positive or negative feeling orientation,such as a good or bad mood. 141. Rather than look at a situation and run through a series of potential optionsto find the optimum action, we tend to judge everyday things based on our emotions. 142. Psychotic disorders are actually emotional disorders that arise throughsituational and social conflict dealing with issues of anxiety, low self esteem,feelings of hopelessness, resentment or persecution, etc. 143. Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1996), Creativity: Flow and the Psychology ofDiscovery and Invention. New York: Harper Perennial, 122. 144. Lieberman, H. R. (2007), “Cognitive Methods for Assessing MentalEnergy,” Nutrition Neuroscience 10(5-6): 229-242. 145. Festinger, L. (1957), A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance. Stanford, CA:Stanford University Press. 146. The traditional measure of intelligence was the IQ test to predict schoolperformance and vocational potential. 147. This can be seen in tests which measured more than a single variable likethe Scholastic Aptitude test (SAT), which gives a verbal and mathematic score.Another test, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children gives 11 subtest scores ofwhich 6 are concerned with verbal abilities and 5 with non-verbal abilities. 148. Gardner, H. (2003), “Multiple Intelligence after Twenty Years,” paperpresented to the American Educational Research Association, Chicago, Illinois, 21stApril. 149. Gardner, H. (2004), op. cit., 60-61. 150. Gardner, H. (1999), Intelligence Reframed: Multiple Intelligences for the21st Century. New York: Basic Books, 45. 151. Zohor, D., and Marshall, I. (2000), Spiritual Intelligence: The UltimateIntelligence. London: Bloomsburg Publishing. 152. Dulewicz, V., and Higgs, M. (1998), “Emotional Intelligence: ManagementFad or Valid Construct,” Working Paper 9813, Oxford, Henley ManagementCollege. 153. Austin, E.I., Farrelly, D., Black, C., & Moore, H., (2007), “EmotionalIntelligence: Machiavellianism and Emotional Manipulation: Dies EI Have a DarkSide?” Personality and Individual Differences 43: 179-189. 154. Whiten, A., & Byrne, R. (1997), Machiavellian Intelligence II: Extensionsand Evaluations. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 155. Byrne, R. (1997), “Machiavellian Intelligence,” Evolutionary Anthropology5: 172. 156. Kirton, M. J. (1994), “Five Years On,” Preface to the second edition, inKirton, M. J. (ed.), Adaptors and Innovators: Styles of Creativity and ProblemSolving, 2nd edition. London: Routledge, 1-33. 157. Homer-Dixon, T. (2000), op. cit., 395. 83
    • 158. For example many notable thinkers and entrepreneurs that dropped out ofschool or were self taught include Abraham Lincoln, Amadeo Peter Giannini,Andrew Carnegie, Andrew Jackson, Barry Diller, Ben Kaufman, Benjamin Franklin,Carl Linder, Charles Culpeper, Christopher Columbus, Coco Chanel, ColonelHarlen Sanders, Dave Thomas, David Geffen, Dave Karp, David Ogilvy, DeWittWallace, Frederick Laker, Frederick hennery Royce, George Eastman, IngarKamprad, Isaac Merrit Singer, Jay Van Andel, Jerry yang, John D. Rockefeller,Joyce C. hall, Larry Ellison, Michael Dell, Ray Kroc, Richard Branson, ShawnFanning, Steve Wozniak, Thomas Edison, and Walt Disney. 159. Gardner, H. (2004), Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligence(Twentieth Anniversary Edition). New York: Basic Books, 4. 160. Alloway, T. P. (2009), “Working Memory, but not IQ, Predicts SubsequentLearning in Children with Learning Disabilities,” European Journal ofPsychological Assessment 25(2): 92-98; Alloway, T. P. & Alloway, R. G. (2010),“Investigating the Predictive Roles of Working Memory and IQ in AcademicAttainment,” Journal of Experiential Child Psychology 106(1): 20-29. 161. Hicks, M. J. (2004), Problem Solving and Decision Making: Hard, Soft andCreative Approaches. London: Thomson Learning, 337. 162. Sternberg, R. J. (2002), “Successful Intelligence: A New Approach toLeadership,” in Riggio, R. E., Murphy, S. E, and Pirozzolo, F. J. (eds.), MultipleIntelligences and Leadership. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 9-28. 163. Tacit knowledge is generally acquired on one’s own, usually unspoken andimplicit, procedural in natural, not readily articulated and directly related to practicalgoals that people value (Sternberg, ibid., 11). 164. Cropley, A. J. (1994), “Creative Intelligence: A Concept of TrueGiftedness,” High Ability Studies 5(1): 6-23. 165. Khandwalla, P. N. (2004), Lifelong Creativity: An Unending Quest. NewDelhi: Tata McGraw-Hill. 166. Rowe, A. J. (2004), op. cit. 167. Rowe, A. J. (2004), ibid., 3. 168. Khandwalla, P. N. (2004), op. cit., 213. 169. Singer, W. (2009), ibid., 326. 170. An example of how assembly coding enables the identification of novelobjects through flexible recombination can be understood by seeing how a smallchild may identify a cow for the first time, if they have no previous experience orunderstanding of what a cow is. The child upon seeing the cow at the zoo identifiesthe cow (a novel object) as a large version of the dog, he or she has at home. It isonly after the parents explain that a cow is a different animal to a dog, that the childcan refine his or her identification of the cow as a separate animal to a dog. Readingis another activity that shows how the brain can understand the recombination ofletters making up different words, sentences and paragraphs into unique meaning. 171. Singer, W. (2009), “The Brain, a Complex Self-Organizing System,”European Review 17(2): 321-329. 172. Singer, W. (2009), ibid., 325. 173. Many creative enhancement tools exist which include Brainstorming,attribute listing, absurd solutions, analogies, checklists, excursions, morphologicalanalysis, Synectics, and thinking frames, etc. 84
    • 174. Hicks, M. J. (2004), op. cit., 45. 175. Dewing, K. and Battye, G. (1971), “Attentional Deployment and non-verbal Fluency,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 17: 214-218, Dykes,M. and McGhie, A. (1976), “A Comparative Study of Attentional Strategies inSchizophrenics and Highly Creative Normal Subjects,” British Journal of Psychiatry128: 50-56, Mendelsohn, G. A. (1976), “Associative and Attentional Processes inCreative Performance,” Journal of Personality 44: 341-369. 176. Miyamoto, Y., Nisbett, R. E., & Masuda, T. (2006), “Culture and thePhysical Environment,” Psychological Science 17(2): 113-119. 177. Hunter, M. (2011), op. cit. 178. Hunter, M. (2011), op. cit., 102-112. 179. Mindfulness is a state of open acceptance of one’s own perceptions andsensibilities that helps our experience of being calm, relaxed and alert state of mindand be aware of our thoughts without identifying with them Ladner, L. (2005),“Bringing Mindfulness to Your Practice,” Psychology Networker July/August: 19. 180. Tashi Tsering, Geshe (2006), Buddhist Psychology: The Foundation ofBuddhist Thought, Vol. 3. Somerville, MA: Wisdom Publications, 46. 181. Jang, J.H., Jung, W.H., Kang, D-H, Byun, M.S., Kwan, D-H, Choi, C-H, &Kwan, J.S. (2011), “Increased Default Mode Network Connectivity Associated withMeditation,” Neuroscience Letters 487(3): 358-362. 182. Different schools of thought have tried to answer questions like “why dosome people see opportunities and other people don’t?’ These have includedpersonality traits, propensity to take risk, entrepreneurial intentions, behavioural andcognitive approaches. 183. Hunter, M. (2012), op. cit., 322-325. 184. Creative sensitivity is the empathetic relationship between ourselves andthe environment and our ability to perceive and understand complex situations weobserve and are involved in. High creative sensitivity implies that we are observantand aware of the things around us and feel comfortable with the complexity withinthe environment. To find out what aspect your sensitivity exists, think about whatissues your find repulsive, irritating and distressful. 185. For example, a person may be spiritually sensitive and as a consequencebecome devoted to a particular religion or philosophy. One will have changinglevels of commitment to their spirituality as life progresses and certain eventshappen. 186. Gioia, D.A. & Poole, P.P. (1984), “Scripts in Organizational Behavior,”The Academy of Management Review 9(3): 449-459. 187. Lord, R.G. & Kernan, M.C. (1987), “Scripts as Determinants of PurposefulBehavior in Organizations,” The Academy of Management Review 12(2): 265-277. 188. Wyer, R.S. & Carlston, D.E. (1979), Social cognition, Inference, andAttribution. New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 189. Abelson, R.P. (1981), “Psychological Status of the Script Concept,”American Psychologist 36(7): 715-729, and Beach, L.R. & Connolly, T. (2005), ThePsychology of Decision Making: People in Organizations, 2nd Edition. ThousandOaks, CA: Sage Publications. 190. Beach, L.R. & Mitchell, T.R. (1987), “Image Theory: Principals, Goals,and Plans in Decision Making,” Acta Psychologica 66: 201-220; Beach, L.R. 85
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    • 236. One case of point is the sell-off of the British Railway system into smallerpackages which made planning, coordination, and safety very difficult. 237. The global banking crisis of 2008 which started in US mortgage defaultscan be partly attributed to a deregulated market that cannot correct itself due to theabsence of checks and balances. 238. For example Microsoft faced a number of antitrust lawsuits pursuant to theSherman Antitrust Act of 1890 over a number of issues relating to the abuse ofmonopoly power on Intel chip based personal computers, operating system and webbrowser sales in the late 1990s. Although it lost many of these cases, Microsoft wasstill able to cement a near monopoly position in the marketplace. 239. The big government of the 1950’s was partly the result of the SecondWorld War and Keynesian philosophy of fiscal control to manage the economy. 240. Bajrektarevic, A., (2012), “Why Kyoto Will Fail Again (On the Day afterthe Durban Summit – Technology, Geopolitics, and the Hydrocarbon Status Quo),”Geopolitics of Energy 34(1): 4. 241. The cultivation of bio-fuels was partly blamed for the food crisis in 2007and charging hybrid electric cars still require electricity that is on the wholeproduced through traditional energy generation means like coal that producegreenhouse gases anyway 242. Lovelock, J. (2005), op. cit., 9. 243. Rosenthal, E. (2011), “Rush to Use Crops as Fuel Raises Food Prices andHunger Fears,” The New York Times, April 6th,http://www.nytimes.com/2011/04/07/science/earth/07cassava.html 244. Schumacher, E.F. (1974), Small is Beautiful: A Study of Economics as ifPeople Mattered. London: Abacus. 245. Kelley, D. J., Singer, S. M., & Herrington, M. D. (2012), The GlobalEntrepreneurship Monitor: 2011 Global Report. London: Global EntrepreneurshipResearch Association (GERA), 13,http://www.gemconsortium.org/docs/download/2201 246. Parker, S. C. (2007), “Entrepreneurship as an Occupational Choice,” inMinniti, M. (ed.), Entrepreneurship: The Engine of Growth, Volume 1: People.Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 81-100. 247. Kets de Vries, M.,F.,R., & Millar, D., (1984), The Neurotic Organization:Diagnosing and Changing Counterproductive Styles of Management. San Francisco,Jossey-Bass, Inc. 248. Angwin, J., & Valentino-DeVries, J. (2012), “Google’s iPhone Tracking,”The Wall Street Journal, February 17th,http://online.wsj.com/article_email/SB10001424052970204880404577225380456599176-lMyQjAxMTAyMDEwNjExNDYyWj.html?mod=wsj_share_email#articleTabs%3Darticle 249. Evers, J. (2006), “Fighting Microsoft’s Piracy Check,” CNET News, June20th, http://news.cnet.com/Fighting-Microsofts-piracy-check/2100-1029_3-6085853.html 250. Kidman, A. (2011), “Sneaky Ways Supermarket House brands Look likePricier Alternatives,” Lifehacker Australia, Sept. 26th, 89
    • http://www.lifehacker.com.au/2011/09/sneaky-ways-supermarket-house-brands-look-like-pricier-alternatives/ 251. Develtere, P., & Huybrechts, A. (2005), “The Impact of Microcredit on thePoor in Bangladesh,” Alternatives 39: 165-189, and Cons, J. & Paprocki, K. (2008),“The Limits to Microcredit – A Bangladeshi Case,” Food First Backgrounder(Institute for Food and Development Policy) 14(4). 252. See Gina Neff Blogspot http://ginaneff.blogspot.com/ 253. Hunter, M. (2011), op. cit., 122. 254. Anderson, S., W., Bechhara, A., Damasio, H., Tranel, D., & Damasio, A.R. (1999), “Impairment of Social and Moral Behavior Related to Early Damage inPrefrontal Cortex,” Nature Neuroscience 2(11): 1032-1037; and Koenigs, M.,Young, L., Adolphs, R., Tranel, D., Cushman, F., Hauser, M., & Damasio, A.(2007), “Damage to the Prefrontal Cortex Increases Utilitarian Moral Judgments,”Nature 446: 908-911. 255. These qualities that Doug Lennick and Fred Kiel postulate arecharacteristics of what they call our moral intelligence. See Lennick, D., & Kiel, F.(2008), Moral Intelligence: Enhancing Business Performance & LeadershipSuccess. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Wharton School Publishing. 256. Empathy probably plays a major role in our ethical morality through theability to feel what others feel and thereby experience the emotions of compassionand humility. Research has shown that a neglected upbringing of a child may retardgrowth of the cortical and sub-cortical areas of the brain important for connection toothers, our empathy. Perry, B. D., & Pollard, D. (1997), “Altered BrainDevelopment Following Global Neglect in Early Childhood,” Society forNeuroscience: Proceedings from Annual Meeting, New Orleans,http://www.cchdnewengland.com/files/brain-general-development-explained.pdf. 257. This could be a metaphoric collective unconscious which is the sum of allour social learning and genetic inheritance within our prior knowledge. 258. Anthropologist Donald Brown postulates that all cultures and societies havecommon universals which include the ability to distinguish between right andwrong. Kinnier et al. analyzed the tenants of moral codes across religions and cameup with a common list, and Peterson et al. identified six universal values commonacross all cultures, wisdom, courage, humanity, justice, temperance, andtranscendence. Brown, D. E. (1991), Human Universals. New York: McGraw-Hill;Kinnier, R. T., Kernes, J. L., & Dautheribes, T. M., (2000), “A Short List ofUniversal Moral Principles,” Counseling and Values 45: 4-16, and Peterson, C. &Seligman, E. P. (2004), A Handbook and Classification. Oxford, UK: OxfordUniversity Press. 259. Goleman, D. (2009), Ecological Intelligence: The Hidden Costs of WhatWe Buy. New York: Broadway Books, 41. 260. Diamond, J. (2006), op. cit. 261. This concept is well embedded in eastern philosophy and culture. Hindu,Jain, Buddhist, and Sikh philosophies deeply behold the concept of karma. Althoughthe meaning of Karma differs between the philosophies, it describes the law ofcausation. This is basically where one would experience the consequences of whatone does at some future time in this or after life. Karma thus returns theconsequences of what one does – a force of responsibility. Karma relates to both 90
    • good and bad deeds. The concept of Karma is embedded within many South-eastAsian societies. For example the Malay culture that has Hindu roots but practicescontemporary Islam has a deep belief within society that what one does towardsothers will eventually come back to them. Therefore this belief is one of the ultimateguiding morals for Malay society. See Asrul Zamani (2002), The Malay Ideals.Kuala Lumpur: Golden Books. 262. Jablonka, E. & Lamb, M. J. (2000), Evolution in Four Dimensions:Genetic, Epigenetic, Behavioral, and Symbolic Variation in the History of Life.Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 297. 263. See a report on research undertaken by Dr. David Lewis at the Universityof Sussex’x Mindlab at http://healthmad.com/mental-health/doing-good-deeds-for-other-could-improve-your-health/ 264. See Crosby, P. (1984), Quality is Free: Quality without Tears. New York:McGraw-Hill. 265. However the solution is often very complex because conditions may bedifferent, which prevented the successful adoption of Japanese automobilemanufacturing techniques in America. 266. Gharajedaghi, J. (2006), Systems Thinking: Managing Chaos andComplexity: A Platform for Designing Business Architecture, 2nd edition.Amsterdam: Elsevier, 41-42. 267. Larsen, R. J. (2000), “Toward a Science of Mood Regulation,”Psychological Inquiry 11: 129-141. 268. Cramer, P. (2000), “Defense Mechanisms in Psychology Today: FurtherProcesses for Adaptation,” American Psychologist 55: 637-646. 269. Csikszentimihaly, M. (1990), The Psychology of Optimal Experience. NewYork: HarperPerennial, 81. 270. Janis, I.L. (1972), Victims of Groupthink: A Psychological Study of ForeignPolicy Decisions and Fiascos. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 9. 271. Kotter, J. (2008), A Sense of Urgency. Boston, MA: Harvard BusinessPress. 272. Bardwick. J. M. (1995), Danger in the Comfort Zone: From the Boardroomto the Mailroom – How to Break the Entitlement Habit That’s Killing AmericanBusiness. New York: American Management Association. 273. Kahneman, D. and Frederick, S. (2002), “Representativeness Revisited:Attribute Substitution in Intuitive Judgment,” in Gilovich, T., Griffin, D.,Kahneman, D. (eds.), Heuristics and Biases: The Psychology of Intuitive Judgment.Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 49-81. 274. Teasdale, J. D. (1983), “Negative Thinking in Depression: Cause, Effect, orReciprocal Relationship?” Cognitions and Mood 5(1): 3-25. 275. See “The Reality of the Celebrity Money Machine,” BBC News Magazine,Nov. 17th 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-15750260 276. Quinn, B. A. (2007), “The McDonaldization of Academic Libraries?”Texas Tech University, http://esr.lib.ttu.edu/lib_fac_research/12 277. Tatnell, P. (2012), “More Dollars but Less Sense Training our Teachers andKids,” Herald Sun, February 18th, http://www.heraldsun.com.au/news/more-news/bottom-of-the-class-for-aussie-students/story-fn7x8me2-1226274202152 91
    • 278. Ritzer, G. (1993), The McDonaldization of Society: An Investigation intothe Changing Character of Contemporary Social Life. Thousand Oaks, CA: PineForge Press. 279. The internet may have cut down our reading time and distracted us but nowwe have a much greater ability to connect with others much quicker than previouslyin so many ways. This may enable us to combine hunches much quicker thanpreviously and take advantage of the synergy of more than one person thinkingabout something. The internet also enables us to stumble across new pieces ofinformation we previous were unaware of. 280. Green, S. C., Pouget, A., & Bavelier, D. (2010), “Improved ProbabilisticInference as a General Learning mechanism with Action Video Games,” CurrentBiology 20(17): 1573-1579. 281. Maclin, E., Mathewson, K., Low, K. A., Boot, W. R., Fabiani, M., Gratton,G., & Kramer, A. F. (2011), “Learning to Multitask: Effects of Video Game Practiceon Electrophysiological Indices of Attention and Resource Allocation,”Psychophysiology 48: 1173-1183. 282. Bavelier, D., Green, S. C., Han, D. H., Renshaw, P. F., Merzenich, M. M.,& Gentile, D. A. (2011), “Brains on Video Games,” Nature Reviews Neuroscience12: 763-768. 283. Marcuse, H. (1991), op. cit. 284. Firms can also change the way the game is played within their competitivefields. Alfred Sloan’s divisionalization assisted the way corporate America grew.Taiichi Ohno, the chief engineer at Toyota developed lean manufacturing systemwhich enabled the changing of a machine dye in 3 minutes compared to 3 days inthe US, changing the way automobiles were manufactured. When a firm is unwillingto follow the changes in game rules, it runs the risk of becoming irrelevant. FletcherJones wanted to restrict production to Australia of his suits and have employees ownthe company when his competitors were all producing in China. Fletcher Jones wentbankrupt. 285. However as a counter trend, more people are publishing than ever before.There is an exponential jump in the number of people publishing new ideas, amassive jump in the number of journals, and many more new business ideas andtheories. While the author was at university during the 1970s there were a limitednumber of familiar business and management journals. The acceptance of work intoa journal is so much easier now than before (some of this is checkbook academia),however so much of these works never get read by those who are opinion leaders. 286. Harford, T. (2011), Adapt: Why Success Always Starts with Failure.London: Little Brown, 94. 287. Interesting is that Aristarchus seventeen centuries earlier described the solarsystem where the Sun was at rest and the planets revolved around it in circularorbits. 288. See Drucker, P.F. (1984), Innovation and Entrepreneurship: Practice andPrincipals. New York: Harper; and Schumpeter, J. (1934), Capitalism, Socialism,and Democracy. New York: McGraw-Hill. 289. Chan Kim, W., and Mauborgne, R. (2005), Blue Ocean Strategy: How toCreate Uncontested Market Space and Make Competition Irrelevant. Boston:Harvard Business School Press, and Porter, M. E. (1985), Competitive Advantage: 92
    • Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance. New York: Free Press, see Chapter7. 290. See Clayton, M. (2003), “Deep Thinkers Missing in Action,” ChristianScience Monitor, January, 21st, http://www.csmonitor.com/2003/0121/p17s02-lehl.html, Michael Markow, “Anti-intellectualism in Schools and Universities,”http://www.viewshound.com/politics/2011/6/25/anti-intellectualism-in-schools-and-universities 291. However this is my value judgment as attitudes and values change overtime history may look very differently upon the Iraq saga. 292. Diamond, J. (2006), op. cit., 339. 293. See U.K. Amateur astronomers find new planet, UPI.Com,http://www.upi.com/Science_News/2012/01/20/UK-amateur-astronomers-find-new-planet/UPI-78541327104776/ 294. Benyus, J. M. (2002), Biomimicry: Innovation Inspired by Nature. NewYork: HarperPerennial. 295. Hardford, T. (2011), op. cit. 296. Schweikart, L., & Doti, L. P. (2010), American Entrepreneur: FascinatingStories of the People who Defined Business in the United States. New York:AMACOM. 297. Homer-Dixon, T. (2000), The Ingenuity Gap: How Can We Solve theProblems of the Future? New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 26. 298. Frederick H. H., & Kuratko, D. F. (2010), Entrepreneurship: Theory,Process, Practice, 2nd Asia-Pacific Edition. Melbourne: Cengage Learning, 3. 299. Beinhocker, E. D. (2006), The Origin of Wealth: Evolution, Complexity,and the Radical Remaking of Economics. New York: Random House, 230-1. 300. In the 17th century the Dutch physicist Christian Huygens discovered thathis pendulum clocks were all ticking in unison within his laboratory. Knowing thatclocks could not be precise, Huygens hypothesized that the clocks weresynchronized through minute vibrations travelling throughout the building. Thisphenomenon can be seen through planetary systems, electronics, the human body,and even menstrual tensions within families. 301. Hill, D. (2010), Emotionomics: Leveraging Emotions for Business Success,2nd edition. London: KoganPage, 49-50. 302. Norberg, J. (2009), Financial Fiasco: How America’s Infatuation withHome Ownership and Easy Money Created the Economic Crisis. Washington: CatoInstitute. 303. King, S. D. (2010), Losing Control: The Emerging Threats to WesternProsperity. New Haven & London: Yale University Press, see chapter 2. 93