Scaling web applications with cassandra presentation

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  • 1. introduction to cassandra eben hewitt september 29. 2010 web 2.0 expo new york city
  • 2. @ebenhewitt• director, application architecture at a global corp• focus on SOA, SaaS, Events• i wrote this
  • 3. agenda• context• features• data model• api
  • 4. “nosql”  “big data”• mongodb• couchdb• tokyo cabinet• redis• riak• what about? – Poet, Lotus, Xindice – they’ve been around forever… – rdbms was once the new kid…
  • 5. innovation at scale• google bigtable (2006) – consistency model: strong – data model: sparse map – clones: hbase, hypertable• amazon dynamo (2007) – O(1) dht – consistency model: client tune-able – clones: riak, voldemort cassandra ~= bigtable + dynamo
  • 6. proven• The Facebook stores 150TB of data on 150 nodes web 2.0• used at Twitter, Rackspace, Mahalo, Reddit, Cloudkick, Cisco, Digg, SimpleGeo, Ooyala, OpenX, others
  • 7. cap theorem• consistency – all clients have same view of data• availability – writeable in the face of node failure• partition tolerance – processing can continue in the face of network failure (crashed router, broken network)
  • 8. daniel abadi: pacelc
  • 9. write consistencyLevel DescriptionZERO Good luck with thatANY 1 replica (hints count)ONE 1 replica. read repair in bkgndQUORUM (DCQ for RackAware) (N /2) + 1ALL N = replication factor read consistencyLevel DescriptionZERO Ummm…ANY Try ONE insteadONE 1 replicaQUORUM (DCQ for RackAware) Return most recent TS after (N /2) + 1 reportALL N = replication factor
  • 10. agenda• context• features• data model• api
  • 11. cassandra properties• tuneably consistent• very fast writes• highly available• fault tolerant• linear, elastic scalability• decentralized/symmetric• ~12 client languages – Thrift RPC API• ~automatic provisioning of new nodes• 0(1) dht• big data
  • 12. write op
  • 13. Staged Event-Driven Architecture• A general-purpose framework for high concurrency & load conditioning• Decomposes applications into stages separated by queues• Adopt a structured approach to event-driven concurrency
  • 14. instrumentation
  • 15. data replication
  • 16. partitioner smack-downRandom Preserving Order Preserving• system will use MD5(key) to • key distribution determined distribute data across nodes by token• even distribution of keys • lexicographical ordering from one CF across • required for range queries ranges/nodes – scan over rows like cursor in index • can specify the token for this node to use • ‘scrabble’ distribution
  • 17. agenda• context• features• data model• api
  • 18. structure
  • 19. keyspace• ~= database• typically one per application• some settings are configurable only per keyspace
  • 20. column family• group records of similar kind• not same kind, because CFs are sparse tables• ex: – User – Address – Tweet – PointOfInterest – HotelRoom
  • 21. think of cassandra as row-oriented• each row is uniquely identifiable by key• rows group columns and super columns
  • 22. column familykey nickname= user=eben The123 Situationkey icon= n= user=alison456 42
  • 23. json-like notationUser { 123 : { email:, icon: }, 456 : { email:, location: The Danger Zone}}
  • 24. 0.6 example$cassandra –f$bin/cassandra-clicassandra> connect localhost/9160cassandra> set Keyspace1.Standard1[‘eben’] [‘age’]=‘29’cassandra> set Keyspace1.Standard1[‘eben’] [‘email’]=‘’cassandra> get Keyspace1.Standard1[‘eben][‘age]=> (column=6e616d65, value=39, timestamp=1282170655390000)
  • 25. a column has 3 parts1. name – byte[] – determines sort order – used in queries – indexed1. value – byte[] – you don’t query on column values1. timestamp – long (clock) – last write wins conflict resolution
  • 26. column comparators• byte• utf8• long• timeuuid• lexicaluuid• <pluggable> – ex: lat/long
  • 27. super columnsuper columns group columns under a common name
  • 28. super column family <<SCF>>PointOfInterest <<SC>>Central <<SC>> Park Empire State Bldg10017 desc=Fun to desc=Great phone=212. walk in. view from 555.11212 102nd floor! <<SC>>85255 Phoenix Zoo
  • 29. super column family super column familyPointOfInterest { key: 85255 { column Phoenix Zoo { phone: 480-555-5555, desc: They have animals here. }, Spring Training { phone: 623-333-3333, desc: Fun for baseball fans. }, }, //end phx key super column key: 10019 { flexible schema Central Park { desc: Walk around. Its pretty.} , s Empire State Building { phone: 212-777-7777, desc: Great view from 102nd floor. } } //end nyc}
  • 30. about super column families• sub-column names in a SCF are not indexed – top level columns (SCF Name) are always indexed• often used for denormalizing data from standard CFs
  • 31. agenda• context• features• data model• api
  • 32. slice predicate• data structure describing columns to return – SliceRange • start column name • finish column name (can be empty to stop on count) • reverse • count (like LIMIT)
  • 33. • get() : Column – get the Col or SC at given ColPath read api COSC cosc = client.get(key, path, CL);• get_slice() : List<ColumnOrSuperColumn> – get Cols in one row, specified by SlicePredicate: List<ColumnOrSuperColumn> results = client.get_slice(key, parent, predicate, CL);• multiget_slice() : Map<key, List<CoSC>> – get slices for list of keys, based on SlicePredicate Map<byte[],List<ColumnOrSuperColumn>> results = client.multiget_slice(rowKeys, parent, predicate, CL);• get_range_slices() : List<KeySlice> – returns multiple Cols according to a range – range is startkey, endkey, starttoken, endtoken: List<KeySlice> slices = client.get_range_slices( parent, predicate, keyRange, CL);
  • 34. client.insert(userKeyBytes, parent, write api new Column(“band".getBytes(UTF8), “Funkadelic".getBytes(), clock), CL);batch_mutate – void batch_mutate( map<byte[], map<String, List<Mutation>>> , CL)remove – void remove(byte[], ColumnPath column_path, Clock, CL)
  • 35. //create param batch_mutateMap<byte[], Map<String, List<Mutation>>> mutationMap = new HashMap<byte[], Map<String, List<Mutation>>>();//create Cols for MutsColumn nameCol = new Column("name".getBytes(UTF8),“Funkadelic”.getBytes("UTF-8"), new Clock(System.nanoTime()););Mutation nameMut = new Mutation();nameMut.column_or_supercolumn = nameCosc; //also phone, etcMap<String, List<Mutation>> muts = new HashMap<String, List<Mutation>>();List<Mutation> cols = new ArrayList<Mutation>();cols.add(nameMut);cols.add(phoneMut);muts.put(CF, cols);//outer map key is a row key; inner map key is the CF namemutationMap.put(rowKey.getBytes(), muts);//send to serverclient.batch_mutate(mutationMap, CL);
  • 36. raw thrift: for masochists only• pycassa (python)• fauna (ruby)• hector (java)• pelops (java)• kundera (JPA)• hectorSharp (C#)
  • 38. rdbms: domain-based model what answers do I have?cassandra: query-based model what questions do I have?
  • 39. SELECT WHERE cassandra is an index factory<<cf>>USERKey: UserIDCols: username, email, birth date, city, stateHow to support this query?SELECT * FROM User WHERE city = ‘Scottsdale’Create a new CF called UserCity:<<cf>>USERCITYKey: cityCols: IDs of the users in that city.Also uses the Valueless Column pattern
  • 40. SELECT WHERE pt 2• Use an aggregate key state:city: { user1, user2}• Get rows between AZ: & AZ; for all Arizona users• Get rows between AZ:Scottsdale & AZ:Scottsdale1 for all Scottsdale users
  • 41. ORDER BYColumns Rowsare sorted according to are placed according to their Partitioner:CompareWith orCompareSubcolumnsWith •Random: MD5 of key •Order-Preserving: actual key are sorted by key, regardless of partitioner
  • 42. is cassandra a good fit?• you need really fast writes • your programmers can deal• you need durability – documentation• you have lots of data – complexity – consistency model > GBs – change >= three servers – visibility tools• your app is evolving • your operations can deal – startup mode, fluid data – hardware considerations structure – can move data• loose domain data – JMX monitoring – “points of interest”
  • 43. thank you!@ebenhewitt