St. Mary`s SchoolSt. Mary`s School
● Presentation development team:- Class ix
Editor 1. Al Muktadir Hussain
2. Tuman Paul
3. Promfila Chetry
4. Ankita Baishya
5. Raju Chetry
6. Nazisha Afreen
7. Saurav Saha
8. Biswajit datta
9. Sohail Ahmed
In a country like India which is extremely disaster prone, it
is needless to emphasize the important role that teachers and
students can play in creating awareness in communities and
reaching vital information to them. It is not uncommon to find
that a school teacher or student has become a model disaster
manager for a community that has faced a severe disaster in
the recent past. They have done appreciable work in
generating an awareness about local disaster vulnerabilities.
We as students can do many activities for reducing disasters
and taking preventive measures.
We, the members of
Community Emergency Response Team (i.e., an imaginary
committee associated by group 4 of class ix) have prepared a
report on landslides. We have also prepared a short note on
the recent accounts of landslides and also prepared their
impact on communities.
we would like to thank Sr. Solly, our
disaster management teacher for guiding in making his
presentation a better one.
Landslides in india
● Landslide, a frequently occurring natural hazard in the hilly terrains of India, shows
preponderance of activity during the monsoon period from July to September and after the snow
fall from January to March. The strong earthquakes also cause triggering of landslide,
particularly in regions marked by critically disposed and unstable slopes. On a rough estimate,
nearly 15% of India’s landmass or 0.49 million sq km area is prone to landslide hazard. This
includes 0.098 million sq km of the North Eastern Region, comprising the Arakan Yoma ranges,
and 0.392 million sq km of parts of the Himalaya, Nilgiri, Ranchi Plateau and Eastern &
Western Ghats. As many as 20 States of India are affected by different degrees of landslide
hazard. Of these, the States of Sikkim and Mizoram have been assessed to be falling under very
high to severe hazard classes. Most of the districts of the States of Jammu & Kashmir,
Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland and Manipur come under high to
very high landslide hazard classes. In the Peninsular Region, the hilly tracts of States like
Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Goa, Madhya Pradesh and Kerala
constitute low to moderate hazard prone zones.
What is Landslide?What is Landslide?
● Landslide refers to the downward sliding of huge quantities of land mass which occur along steep
slopes of hills or mountains and may be sudden or slow. Landslides or a landslip is a geological
phenomenon which include a wide range of a ground movement, such as rocks falls, deep failure of
slopes and shallow debris, flows which can occur in offshore, coastal and on shore environment.
Although the action of gravity is the primary driving for landslides to occur. Typically , pre-
condition factors build up specific subsurface conditional and make the area slope prone to failure,
whereas the actual landslide often requires a trigged before being relevealed.
A Landslide Is…A Landslide Is…
● A rapid shift in land mass
Typically associated with
periods of heavy rainfall
or rapid snowmelt.
Tends to worsen effects
of flooding that often
● All movement of land masses are referred as landslides, but differ in many respects,
therefore all types of landslides are categorized as Earth Movements.
● These are classified as
Classification of Earth Movements
Earth Flow Landslides Subsidence
Debris slide or
Main causes of LandslidesMain causes of Landslides
● Weak or sensitive materials
● Sheared, jointed, or fissured materials
● Adversely oriented discontinuity (bedding, schistosity, fault, unconformity, contact, and so forth)
● Contrast in permeability and/or stiffness of materials
● Tectonic or volcanic uplift
● Fluvial, wave, or glacial erosion of slope toe or lateral margins
● Subterranean erosion (solution, piping)
● Deposition loading slope or its crest
● Vegetation removal (by fire, drought)
● Freeze-and-thaw weathering
● Shrink-and-swell weathering
● Excavation of slope or its toe
● Loading of slope or its crest
● Drawdown (of reservoirs)
● Artificial vibration
● Water leakage from utilities
● The factors that cause most of the damaging landslides around the world are generally combination of these.
Areas Prone to LandslidesAreas Prone to Landslides
● Existing old landslides
● Bases of steep slopes
● Bases of drainage channels
● Developed hillsides where leach-field septic systems are used
Landslide effectsLandslide effects
● Natural calamities including earthquakes, landslides, avalanches, floods, cyclones, droughts and volcanic eruptions have been
affecting mankind since beginning of civilization.
● These are believed to account for up to 4% of total annual deaths
● Distribution of casualties due to natural disasters is, however, not evenly distributed around the globe.
● The impact of these disasters is more severe in developing countries which have higher population densities.
● Globally, the landslides, a prominent natural disaster, are estimated to cause approximately 1000 deaths annually apart from
damaging property worth millions of dollars
● The landslides can be rapid or slow and occur in varied geological environs including underwater.
● The landslides account for considerable loss of life and cause damage to human settlements, civil structures, hydro projects,
communication routes, and agricultural and forest land.
● The secondary effects of landslides could also be disastrous. These include the damage by impact of waves generated by
landslides entering water bodies, formation of landslide dams resulting from blockade of drainage courses and consequent floods due
● Coseismic landslides are induced by earthquakes. Assam Earthquakes of 1897 & 1950, Kangra Earthquake of 1905, Uttarkashi
Earthquake of 1991, Chamoli Earthquake of 1999 and Kashmir earthquake of 2005 induced widespread landslide activity that
severely affected the communication routes and human settlements to a large extent.
After LandslideAfter Landslide
● We should Stay away from the slide area. There may be danger of additional slides.
● Check for injured and trapped persons near the slide area. Give first aid if trained.
● Remember to help your neighbors who may require special assistance--infants, elderly people,
and people with disabilities.
● Listen to a radio or television for the latest emergency information.
● We should Stay away from the slide area. There may be danger of additional slides.
● Check for damaged utility lines. Report any damage to the utility company
● Check the building foundation, chimney, and surrounding land for damage
● Replant damaged ground as soon as possible since erosion caused by loss of ground cover can
lead to flash flooding.
Landslide warningLandslide warning
● Sticking or jamming of doors or windows
● Appearance of cracks in plaster, tile, brick, or foundations
● Pulling away from the building of outside walls or stairs.
● Slow development of widening cracks on the ground or on paved areas such as streets.
● Breakage of underground utility lines
● Appearance of bulging ground at the base of a slope
● Emergence of flowing ground water in new sites
● Sudden decrease in creek water levels though rain is still falling or just recently stopped
● Tilting or moving of fences, retaining walls, utility poles, or trees.
● Faint rumbling sound that increases in volume as the landslide nears. The ground slopes
downward in one specific direction and may begin shifting in that direction under your feet.
Things to RememberThings to Remember
● Mudflows tend to flow in channels, but will often spread out over a floodplain. They
generally occur in places where they have occurred before
● Landslides and mudflows usually strike without much appreciable warning. The force of rocks,
soil, or other debris moving down a slope can devastate anything in its path. Take the following
steps to be ready.
● Plant ground cover on slopes and build retaining walls.
● In mudflow areas, build channels or deflection walls to direct the flow around buildings
Remember: If we build walls to divert debris flow and the flow lands on a neighbor's
property, you may be liable for damages
Precautions to be taken during landslidesPrecautions to be taken during landslides
If inside a building:-
● Stay inside
● Take cover under a desk, table, or other piece of sturdy furniture
● Try and get out of the path of the landslide or mudflow
● Run to the nearest high ground in a direction away from the path.
● If rocks and other debris are approaching, run for the nearest shelter such as a group of
trees or a building
● If escape is not possible, curl into a tight ball and protect your head.
Incidents in IndiaIncidents in India
● Landslide incidence in Jammu & Kashmir – 18th April 2011
As per media reports five members of a family were killed and one injured in a landslide triggered by heavy rains in Doda
District, Jammu & Kashmir.
● Landslide incidence in West Bengal – 26-27th March 2011
Two people were killed and an equal number were injured in a landslide in Evoke area of Cursing, Darjeeling District, West
● Landslide incidence in Gujarat – 23rd March 2011
As per media report five persons were buried alive and two seriously injured in a landslide in Kharguli area of Gujarat.
● Landslide incidence in Hibachi Pradesh – 26th February – 5th March 2011
The incessant snowfall and rain in Kullu District resulted in landslides and blockage of Kullu-Manali road and Chandigarh- Manali
highway. It also caused collapse of terraced fields and a four storey building and uprooting of apple trees; the foundation wall of
Shiva Temple in Bran village was also damaged.
● Landslide incidence in Jammu & Kashmir – 14th February 2011
As per media report the Jammu-Srinagar National Highway was closed for traffic after flash floods and heavy rains triggered
landslides in Ramban District and damaged the highway. It resulted in stranding of over 1200 vehicles.
● Landslide incidence – 11th January 2011
As per media report a landslide took place in Altinho hill when its side was being cut.
● Landslide incidence in Uttarakhand – 17th December 2010
In Uttarakhand a landslide halted operations at the Tehri Dam on River Bhagirathi. The landslide also struck the under-
construction 400-MW Koteshwar Hydro Electric Project.
● Landslide incidence in Arunachal Pradesh – 22nd November 2010
The 330-year-old, Gaden Namgyal Lhatse Monastery in Tawang District, Arunachal Pradesh witnessed massive landslides. Some
electric posts and plantation around the monastery were damaged.
● Landslide incidence in Karnataka- 08th November 2010
One person died as boulders crashed into two coaches of the Mangalore-Mumbai Matsyagandha Express near Karwar, district
Uttar Kanara, Karnataka in the evening of 8th November 2010. In that incident one person got seriously injured and 14 more
● Landslide incidence in Western Ghats – 27th October 2010
As per media a minor landslide caused cracks in the ground near Neyyar Dam at the foot of Western Ghats.One person died as
boulders crashed into two coaches of the Mangalore-Mumbai Matsyagandha Express near Karwar, district Uttar Kanara,
Karnataka in the evening of 8th November 2010. In that incident one person got seriously injured and 14 more were hurt.
● Landslide incidence in J&K- 23rd October 2010
An army captain, a Lance Naik and a Sepoy died in landslides, triggered in district Uri, J&K by heavy rains. These hampered
traffic movement to Ladakh.
Landslide IncidencesLandslide Incidences
● Landslide incidence in Assam-12th September
Two persons were killed and about 300,000 displaced in flash floods and landslides triggered by heavy rains in the
districts of Lakhimpur, Dhemaji, Golaghat and Bongaigaon of Assam.
● Landslide incidence in Uttarakhand - 8th September
A student died after he got buried under the debris as a landslide hit the road while he was going to school at
Kotagi area in Rudraprayag district.
The 'Chardham Yatra' comprising pilgrimage to the four hilly shrines of Badrinath, Kedarnath, Yamunotri and
Gangotri was halted as heavy rains triggered a series of landslides at a number of areas in Garhwal Himalayas.
● Landslide incidence in Andhra Pradesh- 1st September 2010
As many as 10 houses suffered damages and one municipal primary school was razed to ground following landslides on
1st September. Several incidents of boulders falling on the households on the hill slopes were reported.
The landslides bulldozed at least four houses on the hill slope at Bramhanandareddy Nagar in Machavaram and three
at Ghulam Mohiuddin Nagar and another three at Chittinagar area. The inmates escaped with minor injuries. A
municipal primary school structure also collapsed in the incident.
● Landslide incidence in Mizoram - 6th August 2010
As per media report landslides on 6th August 2010 at Mamit town about 200km from Aizawl, in western Mizoram
have damaged three houses. Ten houses and shops in the town’s market zone have been identified as “unsafe” and the
residents have been directed to move to safer location.
● Uttar Pradesh & Uttarakhand
● A Geotechnical Report on the Investigation of Ground Subsidence and Cracks in Farrukhabad District, Uttar Pradesh
● A Note on the Development of Cracks in the Residential Building, Budaun Town, Uttar Pradesh
● A Report on the Landslides along Haripur-Koti Road at Ichari Dam, Dehradun District, Uttar Pradesh, during August 1
● A Report on Geotechnical Investigation of Lambagar Slide, Chamoli District, Uttar Pradesh
● A Report on the Study of the Bhagirathi Blockade between Dabrani and Loharinag in Uttarkashi District, Uttar Prades
● Himachal Pradesh
● A Note on the Subsidence Sink-Hole at Runjh, District, Mandi, Himachal Pradesh
● Progress Report No. 4 on Landslide Zonation in Mountainous Region of Himachal Pradesh
● A Geological Note on the Investigation of Landslide nearSataun Bridge along Paonta-Sataun Road, Dist. Sirmur,
● A Note on the Reconnaissance of the Markunda Flood Protection Scheme, Sirmur District, Himachal Pradesh
● Jammu & Kashmir
● Note on the Sinking Mada Village, Udhampur District, Jammu Province, Jammu and Kashmir State.
● Geological Report on the Landslides along the Jammusrinagar National Highway (1a), Jammu and Kashmir
● Inspection note on the Malori Slide on the Batote Bhadarwah Road, Jammu and Kashmir State
● Geological Survey of India
●The Presentation is an example of cooperation between a
Students to know about their professional society sharing common
interests. Therefore ,we would once again like to thank Sr.
Solly, our disaster management teacher for guiding in making his
presentation a better one.
St. Mary`s School, Class ix
( group 4)