Linkage of funding and decentralisation tha-jumpatong

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Linkage of funding and decentralisation tha-jumpatong

  1. 1. ThailandThailand Darunee JumpatongDarunee Jumpatong Linkage of FundingLinkage of Funding and Decentralization:and Decentralization: Still a ChallengeStill a Challenge Regional Policy Seminar on Education Finance and Decentralization in Asia: Implications for Service Delivery, 3-5 November 2010, Bangkok 1
  2. 2. Areas of DiscussionAreas of Discussion  Basic sector data Current practices: the linkage of funding and decentralization  Weaknesses Current educational priorities and concerns  Crucial projects  Changes 2
  3. 3. Basic DataBasic Data • Basic education = primary and secondary education • Gross Enrolment Ratio : (2009) - Kindergarten 73.8% - Primary 99 % - Lower Secondary 94.5% - Upper Secondary 67 % • Pupil-Teacher Ratio: - Primary schools 19:1 - Secondary schools 25:1 3
  4. 4. Basic DataBasic Data • 12 mil. of students - Public schools 66 % - Private schools 34 % •Public Expenditure on Basic Education 2007 22.7% 2008 22.0% 2009 21.7% 2010 23.7% 4
  5. 5. • Budget categories - Salaries 70.4 % - Subsidies 17.3 % per head, additional budget for the disadvantaged students (30% of all students) allocated directly to schools - Capital 4.9 % school constructions / renovations - Operation 6.6% training, material - Others 0.6% • Line item, incremental budgeting 5 Basic DataBasic Data
  6. 6. Current Practices • Subsidies - Per Head Budget (17.3%) The budget allocated directly to schools is on the basis of per head of students and levels of education: - Kindergarten - Primary - Lower secondary - Upper secondary / Vocational Ed (from 57 – 400 USD/head/yr) 6
  7. 7. Weaknesses in Current System • Little practice of decentralization and accountability • Salaries are quite high share of the budget • 44 % of all schools are small schools (less than 120 students); STR 12:1 • Low learning achievement 7
  8. 8. Achievements: Yr 8Achievements: Yr 8 Math & ScienceMath & Science ((TIMSS, 2007TIMSS, 2007)) ๕๗๒ ๔๒๗ ๓๙๗ ๔๗๑๔๗๔ ๕๗๐ ๕๙๗๕๙๓๕๙๘ ๔๔๑ ๕๖๑ ๕๖๗ ๕๓๐ ๕๕๔๕๕๓ ๔๗๔ ๓๕๐ ๔๐๐ ๔๕๐ ๕๐๐ ๕๕๐ ๖๐๐ ๖๕๐ จีน(ไทเป) สิงคโปร์ เกาหลีใต้ ญี่ปุ่น ฮ่องกง มาเลเซีย ไทย อินโดนีเซีย MATH SCIENCE Thailand China (Taiwan) Singapore S. Korea Japan HK Malaysia Indonesia 450 600 8
  9. 9. Achievements: 15 yrs of ageAchievements: 15 yrs of age Math, Science, ReadingMath, Science, Reading ((PISA, 2006PISA, 2006)) ๔๙๘ ๕๓๒ ๕๒๒ ๕๓๑ ๕๔๒ ๕๑๑ ๕๔๙ ๕๔๗ ๕๒๙ ๕๔๗ ๕๒๕ ๔๑๗ ๕๓๖ ๔๙๒ ๔๑๗ ๓๙๓ ๕๕๖ ๔๙๖ ๓๙๓ ๔๒๑ ๓๙๑ ๓๕๐ ๔๐๐ ๔๕๐ ๕๐๐ ๕๕๐ ๖๐๐ จีน(ไทเป) เกาหลีใต้ ญี่ปุ่น ฮ่องกง มาเก๊า ไทย อินโดนีเซีย MATH SCIENCE READING Thailand 400 550 9 China (Taiwan) S. Korea Japan HK Malaysia Indonesia
  10. 10. Current Priorities and ConcernsCurrent Priorities and Concerns • Achievements - the quality of learning for critical thinking/ project based learning • New Generation of Teachers - quality and quantity • Schools - well equipped with instructional materials and facilities • Educational Management - decentralized system - accountability - community involvement 10
  11. 11.  Small School Project  15 - Year Free Education Project 11 Crucial ProjectsCrucial Projects
  12. 12. Small School Project 12 Crucial ProjectCrucial Project
  13. 13. Crucial ProjectsCrucial Projects • Small schools: - Schools with less than 120 students. - Student-Teacher ratio: 12:1 - There are 13,915 small schools (44 %) - There are 12 % of students attending in those small schools. 13
  14. 14. Quality: Low achievement is critical: two reasons 1) smaller amount of budget they receive (per head and top up) 2) students from affluent families likely to go to schools in cities 14 Crucial Project:Crucial Project: Small schoolsSmall schools
  15. 15. Efficiency: • Low rate of student-teacher ratio • ‘There are too many, and they are too small’. Furthermore, the number has been increasing over time. • There are only 12% of all students attending in those small schools of 44 %. 15 Crucial Project:Crucial Project: Small schoolsSmall schools
  16. 16. Goals: • Raise the bar of learning achievement • Raise the student-teacher ratio 16 Crucial ProjectsCrucial Projects Small schools:Small schools:
  17. 17. • Multi-grade Teaching: besides intimate and personalized learning environment, it raises the student-teacher ratio. • School Network: work, help and learn together • Instructional Media: educational TV and ICT • Closing down and bussing 17 Crucial Project:Crucial Project: Small schoolsSmall schools
  18. 18. Results • Higher learning achievement than the medium - sized schools (National Test, 2010) • No significant difference in student -teacher ratio 18
  19. 19. 19 Crucial Project:Crucial Project: 15 Years Free Education15 Years Free Education
  20. 20. • Every child could access to basic education: - Higher enrolment - Less drop-out - Ready to learn 20 Crucial Project:Crucial Project: 15 Years Free Education15 Years Free Education
  21. 21. • Budget allocation directly to schools and students for: - tuition fee - textbooks 7-26 USD/head/year - stationary 7-12 USD/head/year - uniform 10-35 USD/head/year - school excursions 7-13 USD/head/year 21 Crucial Project:Crucial Project: 15 Years Free Education15 Years Free Education
  22. 22. Results • 98 % of Thai people were satisfied and encourage the government to continue the project. • There is no report on the assessment that the project could promote enrollment or lessen drop-out rate. 22
  23. 23. Changing to… • Change the way the budget is made: - Move away from line item budgeting - Give more predictability and stability to schools and LEA’s • Change the way the budget is distributed: - Make allocation in bigger ‘blocks’ • Change the way performance is judged: - More focus on results • Change the way manager manage: - Accountable for results 23
  24. 24. Thank you… 24

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