English syntax


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English syntax

  1. 1. Дэд проф Ц.СумъяаАнrли хэл егуулбэр зуй (Дурэм, да.сгал, сорихго) Гурав дахь хэвлэлХянан тохиолдуулсан Др.Проф. Чой.Пувсснжов Улаанбаатар 2004
  2. 2. Chapter Eight Exercises: Exercise 3. Through the use of computers and modems to send data over telephone lines, efficient communications is possible. 4. "Modulator and demodulator" are what modem stand for. 5. Thousands of electronic "bulletin boards" across the country is actually computers with modems that exchange data. 6. Thanks is due to volunteers called SYSOPs, or systemoperators, for operating those bulletin boards. 7. A network of users asks questions and checks the bulletin board. 8. Graphics are posted for others to copy for their own use. 9. A team of computer operators use modems to transmitmessages at different speeds. 10. At any speed, tvelve pages take less time to send by modemthan by even the speediest mail service. XOpMH rypaanyraap Aacran Exercise Twenty Three ,QapaaXb erVV1l63PVVAI.1Vir H5IrTIlaH yHwaaA, 6yxl.1Vi II anaaarsanpyynas 61.1-1. 8ryyJ13rAXVVH, eryyJ13xVVHI.1Vi 30X1.14011A ronnoaasxaapax. A dazed crowd wander about staring at the debris. Alone on theboards of the second floor stand a toilet and sink a tub sits firmly on aconcrete slab with the house in rubble around it. Two pickup trucks infront of the house rocks with their wheels in the air. The next housedont have a roof but the house after that is untouched. This sene debris and chaos are a disaster. A tomaedo hasstruck. No one has been killed, but hundreds of people is stunned.Fortunately, there are some relief on the way. How do the Red crosshelp? Within a day, a crew of caseworkers begin to interview thefamilies and porvide assistance. Whatever the victims doesnt haveany longer- clothes, as well as food and medicine- is donated anddistributed.The Red Cross distribute money and vouchers rather than actualgoods because that helps the local economy. Many businessesappears damaged by the disaster, and they needs customers to helpthem rebuild. Politics play no part here; what the Red Cross providesare help and support for all. 75
  3. 3. ChapterEight Exercises: Exercise H3r A3X copanro Test OneDirections: One or more of the underlined sections in the followingsentences may contain errors grammar, usage, punctuation, spelling, orcapitalization.Write the letter of each incorrect section, then rewrite the item correctly. Ifthere is no error in an item, write E. Example According to Charles L. Hogue of the .=:Lo~s~_ A Angeles county Musuem of Natural Historv. "Knee-high B C to a grasshopper" is about one-half an inch. No error D E Answer B. Los Angeles County C. History, " knee-high1.Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence. Which was later A Brevized by Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, Congress. and Jeffersonhimself. C DNo error E2. The word anesthesia coined in 1846 in Boston, was formed from greek A Bword parts meaning "lack of feeling," No error C D E3. Aspirin is the most widely used drug in the world. scientists still do not ABC Dknow why or how it works. No error E4, Santa Fes official name Villa Real de la Santa de Fe San Francisco Asis A Bis one of the longest place names in the world, No error C D E5. Our sixteenth president Abraham Lincoln was voted the best U.S. APresident in a 1982 survey of leading historians. political scholars and B C Dauthors. No error E76
  4. 4. Chapter Eight Exercises: Exercise6. Originaly written as a bank commerical. "Weve Only Just Begun" became A B Ca popular hit in the 1970s. No error D E7.Plays. written by William Shakespeare are performed throughout the world A Bin such diverse languages as Japanese, Russian, , Italian and Hebrew. No C Derror E8. The twentv first century which will begin with the year 2001 is almost upon A B Cus. No errorD E9. Although Poetry magazine was only a small Chicago periodical it A Bcontributed to the early recognition of such great poets as Frost. Pound.Eliot, CSandburg. and Edgar Lee Masters. No error D E10. While some people argue about whether the Loch Ness monster exists& A Ball. others think there may be more than one. No error C D E11. President Trumans full name was Harry S Truman the "S" was not an A Babreviation for a name and was correctly written without a period. No error C D E12. Although Othello is the title role in the play of that name. The vilJian lago ABChas almost half again as many lines. No error D E 77
  5. 5. Chapter Eight Exercises: ExerciseDirections Each of the following sentences has a grammaticalproblem. On your paper write the letter of the corrected sentence.13. The Baghdad battery is an an articraft that looks like a modernchemical battery found in the ruins of a 2000-year-old village. A. The Baghdad battery is an articraft that looks like a modern chemical battery found. In the ruins of a 2000-year-old village. B. Found in the ruins of a 2000-year-old village, the Baghdad battery is an articraft that looks like a modern chemical battery. C. The Baghdad battery is an articraft that looks like a modern chemical battery to find in the ruins of a 2000-year-old village.14. Asking a price of $200000 in 1980, a tropical rain forest near SeaTurtle Park in Costa Rica was offered for sale. A. A tropical rain forest near Sea Turtle Park in Costa Rica was offered for sale, asking a price of $ 200 000 in 1980. B. Asking a price of $200 000, a tropical rain forest near Sea Turtle Park in Costa was offered for sale in 1980. C. Asking a price of $ 200 000, in 1980 a government agency offered a topical rain forest near Sea Turtle Park in Costa Ricafor sale.15. Appearing in 1894, Joseph Pulitzer published the first full-colurcomic strip in his New York newspaper. A. Appearing in 1894 in his New Your newspaper, Joseph Pulitzer published the first full-colour comic strip. B. Joseph Pulitzer published the first full-colour comic strip inhis . New York newspaper appearing in 1894. C. Appearing in 1894, the first full-colour comic strip was published by Joseph Pulitzer in his New York newspaper.16. To put astronauts on the moon, many hours of scientific studyand vast amounts of money were expended. A. Putting astronauts on the moon, many hours of scientific study and vast amounts of money were expended. B. To put astronauts on the moon, NASA expended many hours of scientific study and vast amounts of money. C. To put asronauts on the moon, vast amounts of money and many hours of scientific study had to be expended.78
  6. 6. Chapter Eight Exercises: Exercise 17. One can see the backward-growing hair that gives a Rhodesian ridgeback its name along its spine. A. The backward growing hair that gives a Rhodesian ridgeback its name can be seen along its spine. B. Along its spine, the backward-growing hair that gives a Rhodesian ridgeback its name one can see. C. The backward-growing hair that one can see gives A Rhodesian ridgeback its name along its spine. 18. Alarmed by the mild tremors, supplies were hoarded and survival kits were bought. A. Supplies, alarmed by mild tremors, were hoarded and survival kits were bought. B. Being alarmed by the mild tremors, supplies were hoarded and survival kits were bought. C. Alarmed by the mild tremors, people hoarded supplies and bought survival kits. CopMIlro Test 2 Directions One or more underlined sections in the following sentences may contain errors of grammar, usage, punctution, spelling or capitalization. Write the letter of each incorrect section; then rewrite the item correctly. If there is no error in an item, write E. Example The first money to carry the motto" In God We A B . Trust" ~ bank notes which apeared in 1864. No C D error E Answer C -was D appeared1.Warner Brothers studios must have wanted to have set a record when it A Basked John Barrymore to bestow 191 kisses on a number of beautiful Csenoritas in the film Don Juan. No error D E 79
  7. 7. Chapter Eight Exercises: Exercise2. Before his death in 1941, Robert Baden-Powell, who founded the Boy AScouts, is also a British intelligence officer. No error BCD E3. Many of the workers building the St. Gotthard Tunnel in Switzerland in A B C1882 were injured. No error D E4. The lute. with its descendents the sitar, violin, fiddle, guitar, andukulele, Aare more widely used than any other stringed instrument in the world. NoB C Derror E5.Nether a large handful of potato chips D.Q[ a large bowl of pretzel haveas A B Cmuch salt as one serving of canned soup. No error D E6. If Vincent van Gogh would have been able to sell his paintings for what Athey bringtoday.he would have died a billionaire several timesover instead B C Dof a pauper. No error E7. The sphinx, a beautiful and mysterious statue, se~ not far from where A Bthe Great Pyramid of Giza raises into the sky. No error C D E8. Though they could have fled before the storm began, Lee Trevino, Jerry A BHeard, and Bobby Nickols were all struck by lightning at the WesternOpen C DGold Tournament in 1975. No error E 80
  8. 8. Chapter Eight Exercises: Exercise9. For camouflage a bug called Fulgora lucifera has a false head thatlays A B Con the ground and resembles the head of a South American alligator. No Derror E10. Truth or Consequences were first seen in 1956, making it one of the ABColdest game shows on television. No error D E11. Native Americans had been living in what i§. now the United Statesfor ABCthousands of years before Christopher Columbus "discoered" it. No error D E12. Although virtually every man and woman in America are familiar with A Bthe ice-making properties of the freezer, few is aware that this mashine was Cinvented by a doctor to provide ice for fever-racked patients. No error D E13. The rattlesnake and the copperhead is famous for being poisonous.but A Bthe cobra is the most dangerous venomous snake. No error C D E14. In the television series,The Many loves of Dobie Gillis," a whole castof AFuturestars, includingWarren Beatty and Tuesday Weld, were representative B Cof average American teenagers. No error D E15. Anyone who saw the film Dr,X, has seen Humprey Bogart in a horrer ABC Dmovie. No error E16.Marlon Brando was bom in Omaha Nebraska,but he dont sound like a . A B --CMidwesterner in The Godfather. No error D E 81
  9. 9. Chapter Eight Exercises: Exercise17. CaseyJones is one of thefew American folk heroswho was real and not ABCsimply created by a songwriter or storyteller. No error D E18. There § absolutely no "man-eating" plants in the world, although some ABCplants do trap insects.No error D E19. Locusts. whichcome out of the groundonce everyseventeen years, is a A B C Dserious problem in some areas of the Midwest. No error E20.The American colonists declared there independance from GreatBritain A Bonly after they had tried every other means to gain justice. No error C D E21. Giant hailstones weighing more than a pound each begun to killcattle A Bas they failed on the Russian village of Kostov in July 1923: twenty-three C Dpeople were killed trying to save the animal. No error E22.DonQuixotemounted his horsewhile his guire, SanchaPanza, holds the ABC Danimal steady.No error E23. of one hundred crossword puzzle creators who contributed to twoNew York puzzle magazines in1970. one-fourth ~in prison. No error B C D E24. Neither the members of the city council nor the chairperson~ A B Cavailable for questions from the press. No error D E 82
  10. 10. Chapter Eight Exercises: Testcopanro A8ryyn63p yycr3x3A 3a~Ilwry~ xspsr 6oIlAor yrrnarar X3114, 3Cryxaanax X3Il4, Y~IlTH3PIo1~H 60IlOH aexuerrr yrlo1~H X3Il4, H3P rlo1wyyHeryyIl63p, Y~Il xascpan 6ylOy 6a~4 rlo1wyyH eryyIl63p rlo1wyyH,TOAOTrOIl,AaraIlAax TOAOTrOIl, MeH T3p4Il3H eryyIl63plo1~H yrlo1~H A3Cnapaa 33pr33p repenxces copanrsir 3H3 X3C3rT opyynas. COPIo1Ilro6YPIo1~r xoneornox AYP3MT3~ Ys:lIlAYYIlaH a)f(Io1IlIla)f( napaa Hb eryyIl63p6YPIo1~r caarap Hs:lrTIlaH, MOHrOIl X3IlHIo1~X33 eryyIl63p 6yr3x 3Y~ AaryyHa~PYYIlaH op-tyynax Hb TaHbl aHrIllo1 X3Il 60IlOH 3X X3IlHIo1~ M3AIl3rTH3H rycraa 60IlHO.CopMnroA-1Task: Completing structure problems involving incompleteindependent clauses.Directions: Choose one out of A,B,C,and D to complete the sentence.1. In the United States, is generally the responsibility ofmunicipal govemments. A. for water treatment B. water treatment C. where water treatment D. in which water treatment2. Crop rotation of preserving soil fertility. A. it is one method B. one method C. a method is one D. is one method 3. the dollar as its monetary unit-in 1878. A. Canada adopted B. Adopted by Canada C. It was adopted by Canada D. The Canadian adoption of4. almost impossible to capture the beauty of the auroraborealis in photographs. A. Being B. It is C. There is D. Is;5. Usually political cartoons on the editorial page of anewspaper. A. appear B. whose appearance C by appearing D. when they appear 83
  11. 11. Chapter Eight Exercises: Test6. two major art museums, the Fogg and the Sadler. A. Harvard University has B. At Harvard University C Harvard University, with its D. There at HarvardUniversity7. American actress and direstor Margaret Webster for herproduction of Shakespearan plays. A. who became famous B famous as she became C becoming famous D became famous8. gas tanks connected to welding equipment, one of full ofoxigen and the other full of acetylene. A. It is two B. Of the two C. There are two D. Two9. --,-,,..--_ is more interested in rhymtn than in melody is appearantfrom his compositions. A. That Philip Glass B. Philip Glass, who C. Philip Glass D. Because Philip Glass10. Compressed air the power to drive pneumatic tools. A. by providing B. provides C. that provides D. the provision of11. by cosmic rays. A. The Earth is constantly bombarded B. Bombarded constantly, the Earth C. Bombarding the Earth constantly D. The Earths constant bombardment 12 primary colors are red, blue,and yellow. A. There are three B. The three C. Three of them D. That the three13. =- who was elected the first woman mayor of Chicagoin 1979. A. It was Jane Byrne B. Jane Byrne C. That Jane Byrne D. When Jane Byrne14. Every computer consists of a number of systems --__together. A...by working B. work C. they work D. that work84
  12. 12. Chapter Eight Exercises: Test 15. On the Moon, air because the Moons gravitational fieldis too weak to retain an atmosphere. A. there is no B. where no C. no D. is no 16. The Glass Mountains of northwestern Oklahoma .withflecks of gypsum, which shine in the sunlight. A. they are covered B. covered them C. that are covered D. are covered 17. In some cases, to decide if an organism is a plant oran animal. A. difficult if B. it is difficult C. the difficulty D. is difficult18. The first American novelist to have a major impact on worldliterature _ A. who was James Fenimore Cooper B. James Fenimore Cooper was C. it was James Fenimore Cooper D. was James Fenimore Cooper 19. important railroad tunnel in the United States was cutthrough the Hoosac Mountains in Massachusetts. A. At first B. It was the first C. The first D. As he first of20. ·Generally, in the valleys and foothills of the Pacific Coastranges A. the Calfornia poppy grown B. the growth of the Calforniapoppy C. the Calfornia poppy grows D. growing the Calforniapoppy21. When bats are at rest, hang upside-down. A. they B.and C. to D.as22. that the capital of South Carolina was moved fromCharleston to Columbia. A. in 1790 was B. There was in 1790 C. in 1790 D. It was in 179023. Although not as important as they once were, _ _ a major formof transprotation in North America. A. there are still railroads B. railroads, which are still C. railroads are still D. railroads still being 85
  13. 13. Chapter Eight Exercises: Test24. The loop, which is the commercial heart of Chicago, _within a rectrancular loop of electrical train tracks. A. that is enclosed B. enclosing C. is enclosed D. it is enclosed25. _....,.--,....- amino acids that serve as the basic building blocks of all proteins. A. It was about twenty B.Forabouttwentyof C. About twenty are D. There are about twentyCopMnro A-2Task: Answer structure problems involving incomplete adjectiveclauseDirections: Choose one option out of A,B,C, and Dand encircle thecorrect word or phrase.1. Most folk songs are ballads have simple words and tellsimple stories. A. what B. although C. when D. that2. After its introduction in 1969, the best float process theworlds principal method of manufacturing flat sheets of glass. A. by which it became B. it became C. became D. which became3. In 1850, Yale university established Sheffield Scientific School, A. engineers were educated there B. where engineers were educated C. in which were engineers educated D. where were engineers educated 4. Many of Louse Nevelsons sculptures consisted of a number oflarge wooden structures in complex patterns. A. which she arranged B. she arranged them C. which arranged D. arranged them5. In addition to being a naturalist. Stewart E. White was a writer_ _ the struggle for survival on the American Frontier. A. whose novels describe B. he-describes in his novels C. his novels describe D. who, describing in his novels86
  14. 14. Chapter Eight Exercises: Test6. Diamonds are often found in rock formations called pipes, _ _the throats of extinct volcanoes. A. in which they resemble B. which resemble C. there is a resemblance to D. they resemble7. William Samuel Johnson, helped write the Constitution,became the first president of Columbia College in1787. A. whom he had B. and he had C. who had D. had 8. Seals appear clumsy on the land, are able to shortdistances faster than most people can run. A. but they B. which they C. they D. which 9. The instrument panel of a light airplane has at least a dozeninstruments A. the pilot must watch B. what the pilot must watch C. which the pilot must watch them D. such that the pilot must watch them 10. A keystone species is a species of plants or animals _ _absence has a major effect on an ecological system. A. that its B. its C. whose D. with its 11. The size and shape of a nail depends primarily on the function in-----:t:-ended. A. which it is B. for which it is C. which it is for D. for which is12. In geometry, a tangent is a straight line a curve at onlyone point. A. it touches B. whose touching C. its touching D. that touches13. It was the ragtime pianist Scott Joplin the Maple LeafRag, perhaps the best known of all ragtime tunes. A. wrote B. the writer of C. who wrote D. writing 87
  15. 15. Chapter Eight Exercises: Test 14. There are 2,000 varieties of snakes, _ _are harmless tohumans. A. mostly they B. most of them C. most of which D. which most15. Smokejumpers are _ _ descend into remote areas byparachute to fight forest fires. A. firefighters B. when firefighters C. who, as firefighters D. firefighters who16. Charlotte Gilmans best known book she urges womento become financially independent. A. is Women and Economics, in which B. Women and Economics, in which C. is Women and Economics, which D. Women and Economics, whichCopMnroA·3Task: Structure problems connected with incomplete or missingparticipial phrases. Directions: Choose the one option out of the A,B,C, and D tocomplete the sentence correctly. 1. Aerodynamics is the study of the forces on an object asit moves through the atmosphere. A. acting -B. act C. are acting D.. acted2. for their strong fiber include flax and hemps. A. Plants are grown B. Plants grown C. Plants that grow D. To grow plants3. ,Jose Limons dance troupe often toured abroad. A. The U.S. State Department sponsored it B. Sponsored by the U.S.State Department C. The U.S. State Department, which sponsored it D. The sponsorship of the U.S. State Department4. Elfreths Alley in Philadelphia is the oldest residential street in theUnited States, with from 1728. A. houses are dated B. the dates of the houses C. the dating of houses D. houses dating88
  16. 16. Chapter Eight Exercises: Test5. In,1821, the city of Indianapolis, Indiana, was laid out in a design after that of Washington,D.C. A. patterned B. was patterned C. a pattern D. that patterned 6. in front of a camera lens changes the color of thelight that reaches the film. A. Placed a filter B. a filter is placed C. A filter placed D. When a filter placed7. The Masschusetts State House, in 1798, was the most distinguished building in the United States at that time. A. completing B. which was completed C. was completed D. to be completed8. Barbara McClintock for her discovery of the mobility ofgeneric elements. A. known B. who knows C. knowing D. is known9. The solitary scientist by himself has in many intancesbeen replaced by a cooperative scientific team. A. to make important discoveries B. important discoveries were made C. has made important discoveries D. making important discoveries 10. Geometry is the branch of mathemaics the propertiesof lines, curves, shapes, and surfaces. A. that concerned with B. it is concerned with C. concerned with D. its concerns are11. an average of 471 inches of rain a year, MountWaiaeale in Hawai is the wettest spot in the world. A. It receives B. Receiving C. To receive D. Received12. Amber is a hard, yellowish-brown from the resin of pinetrees that lived millions of years ago. A. substance formed B. to form a substance C.. substance has formed D. forming a substance 89
  17. 17. Chapter Eight Exercises: TestCopMnroA-4Task: Structure problems with appositives.Directions: Choose one option that correctly complete the sentence.Mark the most appropriate one out of A,B,C, and D. 1. The Democratic party is older than the other major Americanpolitical party A. which the Republican party B. the Republican party C. it is the Republican party D. the Republican party is2. relations with friends and acquaintances, playa majorrole in the social development of adolecents A. What are called peer group relations are B. Peer group relations are C. Peer group relations, the D. By peer group relations, we mean3. Joseph Henry, director of the Smithsonian Institution,was President Lincolns adviser on scientific matters. A. the first B. to be the first C. was the first D. as the first4. The Wasstch Range, extends from southeastem Idahointo northem Utah. A. which is a part of the Rocky Mountains, B. a part of the Rocky Mountains that C. is a part of the Rocky Mountains D. a part of the Rocky Mountains, it5. Ruth St.Dennis turned to Asian dances to find inspirationfor her choreography. A. It was the dancer B. The dancer C. That the dancer D. The dancer was 6. The organs of taste are the _ _ that are mainly located on thetongue. A. groups of cells,are taste buds B. taste buds. are groups of cells C. taste buds, these are groups of cells90
  18. 18. Chapter Eight Exercises: Test D. taste buds, groups of cells7. In 1878, Frederick W.TayJor invented a concept called scientific management, of obtaining as much efficiency fromworkers and machines as possible. A. it is a method B. a method which C. a method D. called a method8. A group of Shakers, __settled around Pleasant Hill, Kentucky,in1805. A. members of a strict religious sect which B. whose members of a strict religious sect C. members of a strict religious sect, D. were members of a strict religious sect9. In physics, "plasma" refers to a gas that has a nearlyequal number of positively and negatively charged particles. A. the term B. by the term C. is termed D. terming10. Norman Weiner, mathematician and logician, had animportant role in the development of the computer. A. who, as a B. was a C. whom a D. a 11. Jeroma Kerns most famous work is Showboat, mostendUring musical comedies. A. it is one of the finest, B. one of the finest, C. the finest one D. as the finest of the 12. a marshland that covers over 750 square miles in NorthCarolina and Virginia.A. In the Great Dismal Swamp B. The Great Dismal Swamp, whichC. The Great Dismal Swamp, D. The Great Dismal Swamp iscopanro- A-5Task: Completing structure problems involving adverb clauses,reduced adverb clauses, and prepositional expesssions.Directions: Choose the one option out of A,B,C, and D incircling themost appropriate one 91
  19. 19. Chapter Eight Exercises: Test1. Small sailboats can easily capsize they are not handledcarefully. A. but B. which C. if D. so 2. they are tropical birds, parrots can live in temperate oreven cold climates. A. Despite B. Even though C. Nevertheless D. But3. added to a liquid, antifreeze flowers the freezingtemperature of that liquid. A. That B. As is C. It is D. When4. advertising is so widespread in the United States, it hashad an enormous effect on American life. A. Why B. The reason C. On account ofD. Since 5. toward shore, its shape is changed by its collision withthe shallow sea bottom. A. During a wave rolls B. As a wave C. A wave rolls D. A waves rolling6. ____ are increasingly linked over long distances by electronic communications, but many of them still prefer face-to-faceencounters. A. Although people B. Despite people C. Today people D. The fact that people7. together in one place, they form a community. A. When people who live B. When people living C. Whenever people live D. Whenever livingpeople8. managed by an independent govemor and board ofdirectors, the Bank of Canada is owned by the Canadiangovernment. A. And yet B. In spite of it C. Although D. It is 9. pieces of rope are of different thickness, the weaversknot can be used to join them A. Two of B. Whattwo C. Two such D. If two10. , the seeds of the Kentucky coffee plant.are poisonous. A. Until they have been cooked B. Cooking them92
  20. 20. Chapter Eight Exercises: Test C. They have been cooked D. Cooked until 11. Natural silk is still highly prized similiar artificial fabrics.A. although is available B. despite there are availableC. in spite of the availability of D. even though an availability of12. Cattle ranches are found almost in Utah. A. whenever B. everywhere C. overall D. somewhere 13. through a prism, a beam of white light breaks into allthe colors of the rainbow. A. When shines B. It shines C. It is shone D. When shone14. most people think of freezing as a relatively modernmethod of food preservation, it is actually one of the oldest.A. Even B. As though C. However D. Although 15. large bodies of water never freeze solid is that the sheetof ice on the surface protects the water below it from the cold air.A. Because B. Why do C. The reason that D. For the reason16. ---,-_ _ granted by the Patent Office, it becomes the inventorsproperty and he or she can keep it, sell it, or licence it to someoneelse. A. Once a patent is B. When a patent C. A patent, once D. A patent, whenever it 17. Owls can hunt in total darkness their remarkably keensense of smell. A. since B. because of C. the result D. that 18. most bamboo blooms every year, there are somespecies that flower only two or three times a century. A. Whenever B. That C. While D. Howevercopunro A·6 Task; Completing structure problems involving in complete nounclauses.Directions: Choose the one option out of A,B,C, and D to complete thesentences with the most appropriate words and clauses..1. begin their existence as ice crystals over nost of theearth seems likely. 93
  21. 21. Chapter Eight Exercises: Test A. Raindrops B. If raindrops C. What if raindrops D. That raindrops 2. Scientists cannot agree on related to other orders ofinsects. A. that fleas are B. how fleas are C. how are fleas D. fleas that are 3. It was 1875 joined the staff of the astronomicalobserbatory at Harvard University. A. that Anna Winlock B. Anna Winlock, who C. as Anna Winlock D. Anna Winlock then4. is a narrow stop od woods along a stream in an open .grassland. A, Ecologists use the term "gallery forest" B. What do ecologists call a "gallery forest" C. "Gallary forest" is the term ecologists use D. What ecologists call a "gallary forest" 5. developed so rapidly in Alahama primarily because of itsrich natuarl resources. A. That heavy industry B. Heavy industry C. Heavy industry that was D. When heavy industry6. _ _...,.,- so incredible is that these insects successfully migrate toplaces that they have never even seen. A. That makes the monarch butterflies migration B. The migration of the monarch butterflies is C. What makes the monarch butterflies migration D. The migration of the monarch butterflies, which is7. Art critics do not all agree on what a painting great. A. qualities make B. are the qualities for making C. qualities to make D. do the qualities that make8. In order to grow vegetables properly, gardeners must know A. what the requirements TOr each vegetable are B. that the requirements for each vegetable C. what are each vegetables requirements D. that is required by each vegetable9. When is not known. A. was the wheel invented B. the invention of the wheel94
  22. 22. Chapter Eight Exercises: Test C. inventing the wheel D. the wheel was invented 10. For many years people have wondered existselsewhere in the universe. A. that life B. life which C, whether life D. life as it 11. of all modern domestic poultry is the red jungle fowl iswidely believed. A. The ancestor B. The ancestor is C. How the ancestor D. That the ancestor 12. the right side of a persons brain is dominant, thatperson is left- handed. A. That B. If C. Which D. Forcopanro A·7Task; Completing structure problems involving word order.Directions: Choose the one option-A,B,C, or D-that correctlycompletes the sentence, then mark the appropriate blank.1. Hills known as land islands, or salt domes, are Louisianas marshlands. A. extremely interesting features of B. of extremely interesting features C. interesting extremely features of D. extremely interesting of features2. of chamber music is the string quartet. A. The famous most from B. The most famous form C. The form most famous D. Most the form famous 3. Not until the seventeenth century to measure thespeed of light. A. did anyone even attempt B. anyone did even attempt C. did anyone attempt even D. did even attempt anyone4. Alfalfa is for livestock. A. a primarily grown crop B. grown primarily a crop C. a crop grown primarily D. a grown crop primarily 95
  23. 23. Chapter Eight Exercises: Test5. The Franklin stove, which became common in the 1790s, burnedwood _ _ an open fireeplace. A. efficiently more than much B. much more efficiently than C. much more than efficiently D. more efficiently much than6. Reinforced concrete is concrete that is strengthened by metalbars.--:-__ A. in it that are embedded B. embedded that are in it C. are that it embedded in D. that are embedded in it7. The type of clothing people wear tells others a lot about _ A. who they are B. are they who C. they are who D. who are they8 Most southern states had set up primary school systems by thelate eighteenth century, but only in New England and opento all students. A. primary schools were free B. were primaary schools free C. free were primary schools D. were free primary schools9. Fungi, , do not produce chlorophyll. A. as such mushrooms B. mushrooms as such C. such as mushrooms D. mushrooms such as10. Seldom --:---::-_ more than 20 minutes a night. A. sleep giraffes B. do giraffes sleep C. giraffes do sleep D. giraffes sleep11. of the early years of space exploration was thediscovery of the Van Allen radiation belt in 1958.A. Perhaps the greatest triumphB. The triumph perhaps greatestC. The greatest perhaps triumphD.The triumph greatest perhaps12. Today major new products without conducting elaboratemarket research. A. corporations hardly introduce ever B. hardly ever corporations introduce C. hardly ever introduce corporations D. corporations hardly ever introduce13. Across the Chesapeake Bay from the rest of the state _whose farms produce beans, tomatoes, and garden vegetables. A. there lies Marylands Eastern Shore96
  24. 24. Chapter Eight Exercises: Test B. lies Marylands Eastern Shore C. Marylands Eastern Shore lies there D. Marylands Eastern Shore lies14. Acidophilus bacteria are ~_ _ in an acid medium. A. those that grow best B. those grow best that C, that those grow best D. grow best those that15, of great apes; the gibbon is the smallest. A. Four of the types B, The four of types C, Four types of the D, Of the four types16, It is difficult through swamps because of tangled rootsand shallow waterways. A. to navigate even for small boats B. for even small boats to navigate C. Even small boats for to navigate D. even to navigate for small boats 17. A lodestone is -,,- _A. an occurring naturally magnet B. a magnet naturally occurringC. naturally a magnet occurring D. a naturally occurring magnet 18, So complicated that consumers who use a product areseldom aware of where all its components come from. A. today trade is international B. today international trade is C. is international trade today D, international trade is today19. The snow bunting is winter birds in Canada. A. one most of the common B. the most common one of C. one of the most common D, the one of most common20, Nashville has the capital of country music, A. as long been known B, been known long as C. long been known as D. long as been knowncopanro A- 8Task: Completing structure problems involving infinitive and gerund phrases, Directions: Choose the one option out of the A,B,C, and D tocomplete the sentences with the most appropriate ones, 97
  25. 25. Chapter Eight Exercises: Test1. for a career in dance generally begins at an early age. A. People train 2. That people train C. If training 4. Training2. A babys first teeth are generally the lower incisors. A. appearance B.appear C. to appear D. in appearing 3. A climbing helmet protection for a rocket-climbers headfrom falling rocks and other hazards. A. to provide B. provides C. providing D. that provides4. Power tools require careful handling injuries. A. by avoiding B. they avoid C. to avoid D. that avoid 5. An electromagnet is created electrical current througha coil of wire A. by passing B. passes by C. to be passed D. passed6. at home requires only three types of chemicals, severalpieces of simple equipment, and running water. A. For the development of film. B. To develop film C. When film is developed D. In developing film 7. The purpose of cost accounting is involved in producingand selling a good or service A. as a determination of its costs B. the costs determined C. that determines the costs D. to determine the costs8. was one of the most difficult tasks pioneers faced ontheir joumeys west. A. Crossing rivers B. While crossing rivers C. Rivers being crossed D. By crossing rivers9. Energy can be defined as the ability :--:----:__ A. do working B. to do work C. doing work D. work to be done10. The process of _-_ _ by hand has changed little since thefifteenth century. A. to bind books B.binding books98
  26. 26. Chapter Eight Exercises: Test C. books are bound D. bound books11. A crescent wrench has adjustable jaws for a nut, bolt, orpipe. A. to grip B. they grip C. gripping D. gripped12. Compressed air is air brakes, pneumatic tools, and other machinery. A. used to powering B. to use powering C. used to power D. in use by powering13. Some people believe that the crystals of certain minerals _curative powers. A. have B. having C. that have D. to have14. The narrow blades of speed skates allow _ _ speeds of up to30 miles per hour. A. for skaters maintaining B. skaters to maintain C. skaters maintain D. maintenance by skaters15. The first library _ _ in the Nebraska Territory was built in FortAtkinson in 1870. A. to be established B. was established C. could establish D. to establishcopanro A-9 Task: Completing structure problems involving paralleism. Directions: Choose the one option out of the A,B,C, and D tocomplete the sentence with the most appropriate one.1. Insects provide many beneficial services, such as _breaking down deadwood, and pollinating plants. A. they condition soils B. to condition soil C. conditioning the soil D. soil conditioned2. Frozen orange juice must be packed, and stored whenthe fruit is ripe. A. be frozen B. must be frozen C. frozen D. it must be frozen3. The Sioux language is spoken not only Sioux but also bythe Crow and Osage tribes. A. by the B. the C. do the D. and the 99
  27. 27. Chapter Eight Exercises: Test4. In 1900 electrically powered cars were more popular thangaseline· powered cars because they were quiet, opreated smoothly,and ~--,-_ A. handled easily B. ease of handling C. handling easily D. easy to handle 5. Roger Williams was a clergyman, the colony of RhodeIsland, and an outspoken advocate of religious and politicalfreedom. A. founded B. the founder of C. was the founder of D. he founded6. Paint can be applied to a surface with rollers, _ _ , or sprayguns. A. brushes B. brushes can be used C. with brushes D. by brush7, The use of labor-saving devices in homes, , and infactories added to the amount of leisure time people had. A. at office B. used in offices C. offices D. in offices8. A dulcimer can be played by either striking its strings with ahammer or.,..-,.--,.,.._ A. to pluck them with the fingers B. fingers are used to pluck them C. they are plucked with the fingers D. plucking them with the fingers9. Throughout history, trade routes have increased contact betweenpeople, , and greatly affected the growth of civilzation. A. have resulted in an exchange of ideas B. an exchange of ideas has resulted C. resulted in an exchange of ideas D. resulting in an exchange of ideas10. Walt Disney made many technical advances in the use of sound,color, and in animated films. A. photographing B. using photography C. photography D. use of photographs11. Artist Paul Kane traveled throughout Northwest Canada on foot,by canoe, and to sketch Native Canadians going about-their ordinary lives. A. on horseback B. riding a horse100
  28. 28. Chapter Eight Exercises: Test B. was on horseback D. by a horse12. Barbara Jordan was the first woman in the South to win anelection to the House of Representatives, asCongresswoman from Texas from 1973 to 1979. A to serve B. served C. serving D. has served13. Photographers choice of a camera depends on what kind ofpictures they want to take, how much control they want over exposure, and they want to spend. A the amount of money B. what money C. how much money D. so much money that14. Atlanta is the commercial, financial, and of Georgia. A center of administration B. administrative center C. center for administering D. administrating center15. Even after the Revolutionary War, American importers obtained merchandise from Britain because British merchants understood American tastes, offered attractive prices, and -:-__ A easy credit was provided B. because of easy credit C. easy credit D. provided easy creditCopMnro A ·10Task: Completing structure problems involving prepositional phrases.Directions: Choose the one option out of of A,B,C, and D, correctlycompleting the sentence. 1. seed of a flowering plant is covered by a dense. protective coat. AGn each B. Each C. Each of D. That each2. Dynamite is ordinarily detoned called a blasting cap. A a device is used B. that a device C. with a device D. the use of a device 101
  29. 29. Chapter Eight Exercises: Test3. 1900 there were some 300 bicycle factories in theUnited States and they produced over a million bicycles. A. In B. Because in C. It was in D. That in4. A thick layer of fat called blubber keeps whales warm even _coldest water. A. although the B. in the C. the D. of the5. the United States, the general movement of air massesis from west to east. A. Across B. To cross C. They cross D.lts across6. The bark of a tree thickness _ A. with age B. it gets older C. as older D. by age7. A substance that is harmless to a person who has no allergies cancause mild to serious reactions in a person allergies. A. has B. which having C. can have D. with8. In 1868 a number of national unions formed the AmericanFederation of Labor ..,.- A. Samuel Gompers was its leader B. under the leadership of Samuel Gompers C. which, under Samuel Gompers leadership D. Samuel Gompers led it9. Harmonicas. autoharps, and kazoos folk intruments. A. are examples B. for example C, are examples of D. as examples of10. charming shops and restaurants, Old Town is the most picturesque section of Albuquerque. A. With its B. Its C. Because its D. For its11. such as banking and travel, in which computers are nota convenience but a necessity. A. Where some industries, B. In some industries C. Some industries D.There are some industries,12. One of the oldest large suspension bridges still today isthe George Washington Bridge between New York City and FortLee, New Jersey A. uses B. is used C. the use of D in usecepanro A -11Task: Completing structure problems involving misplaced modifiers.102
  30. 30. Chapter Eight Exercises: TestDirections: Choose the one option out of A,B,C, and D and completethe sentence correctly.1. Fearing economic hardship, _-:-----:---:-:~:--:-:-:"-;-- A. many New Englanders emigrated to the Midwest in the 1820s B. emigration from New England to the Midwest took place inthe 1820s C. it was in the 1820s that many New Englanders emigrated tothe Midwest D. an emigration took place in the 1820s from New England tothe Midwest.2. Rich and distinctive in flavor:::-: _ A. there is in the United States a very important nut crop, thepecan B. the most important nut crop in the Unites States, the pecan C. farmers in the United States raise pecans, a very importantnut crop D. pecans are the most important nut crop in the United States3. Orbiting from 2.7 to 5.6 billion miles from the sun ",=",_....,...-....,. A. the astronomer Clyde Tombaugh discovered Pluto in 1930 B. Pluto was discovered by the astronomer Clyde Tombaugh in1930 C. it was in1930 that the astronomer Clyde Tombaughdiscovered Pluto D. the discovery of Pluto was made by Clyde Tombaugh in 19304. A popular instrument --:-_.,....-_ A. only a limited role has been available to the accordion inclassical music B. there is only a limited role for the accordion in popular music C. classical music provides only a limited role for the accordion D. the accordion has played only a limited role in classical music5. Unlike most birds, A. the heads an-d-:--nec--:-k-s of vultures lack feathers B. feathers are not found on the heads and necks of vultures C. vultures do not have feathers on their heads and necks D. there are no feathers on vultures heads and necks6. Widely reproduced in magazines and books, ..,...-_----:--:-:_ A. Ansel Adams depicted the Western wilderness in hisphotographs B. the Western wilderness was depicted in the photographs ofAnsel Adams C. Ansel Adams photographs depicted the Western wilderness D. it was through his photographs that Ansel Adams depictedthe WesterQ. wilderness 103
  31. 31. Chapter Eight Exercises: Test7. Smaller and flatter than an orange, .-:-:-_---._ A. a tangerine is easy to peel and its sections separate readily B. the peel of a tangerine is easily removed and its sections areraedily separated C. its easy to peel a tangerine and to separate its sections D. to peel a tangerine is easy, and its sections can be readilyseparated 8. Like the federal government,~--:----:~ A. taxation provides most of the funds for state and localgovernments as well B. state and local governments obtain most of thier fundsthrough taxation C. through taxation is how state and local governments obtainmost of their funds D. funds are provided from taxation for state and localgovernments9. Originally settled by Polyesians around 700 AD, _ A. Hawaii received its first European visitor in 1778, whenCaptain James Cook landed there B. Hawaiis first European visitor, Captain James Cook, landedthere in 1778 C. in 1778 the first European, Capatain James Cook, visitedHawaii D. the first European to visit Hawaii was Captain James Cook,landing there in 177810. Unlike most modernist poets, based on ordinary speech. A. Robert Frosts poems were B. the works of Robert Frost were C. Robert Frost wrote poems that were D. the poetry written by Robert Frost was11. Named for its founder, in Ithaca, New York. A. in 1.865 Ezra Cornell established Cornell University B. Cornell University was established in 1865 by Ezra Cornell C. it was 1865 that Cornell University was established by EzraCornell D. Ezra Cornell established Cornell University in 186512. While living in New Orleans, the Creole people ofLouisiana. A. a book of folklore, Bayou Folk, was written by Kate Chapinabout B. Bayou Folk, a book of folklore, was written by Kate Chapinabout104
  32. 32. Chapter Eight Exercises: Test C. the subject of Kate Chapins book Bayou Folk was thefolklore of D. Kate Chapin wrote Bayou Folk, a book about the folklore ofcopanro 6,QapaaXb copanrur TyxaH TyxaHH 6yr31., AaanraBapblH Aaryy axannaxHb TaHblX3n 3yHH. TyxaHn6an. eryyn63p 3YHH TyxaH M3Afl3r oanrouur6aTaraxblH 33p3r1.33r33p eryyn63p 6YPMHH WMH3 yr X3nn3rMHr caHHrons 6101·lr33c caarap HRrTnaH Y33>K, copanrur ryH1.33X X3P3rT3H.copanrur a>KMnnaCHbI napaa eryyn63p TyC 6ypMHr 6yr31.. repen,eryyn63p ,Q3X yrMHH A3C Aapaa, eryyn63pMHH rMwYV,QMHH 6aHpnanblHXYBb,Q AaXMH ryuraaa Y33>K 3X x3nHMHx33X3B X3M>K33HMH Aaryy opayynax Hb TaHbl aHrnM x3nHMH M3Afl3rop-yynax yp Ya,QBapT TyC 60nHo.CopMnro 6·1 Choose the correct answer for the blank. When you choose thecorrect answerpay attention to the use of the verbals.1. One of the professors great attributes is A. when he gives lectures B. how in the manner that he lectures C. the wat to give lectures B. his ability to lecture2. To get an education, _-:- _ A. one must work hard B. working hard is one of the most requirements C. requirement is needed to work hard D. working hard is needed3. John said that he had run in order _ A. that he catch the bus B. that he can catch the bus C. to catch the bus D. to the bus he could catch4. "lVhy was the official meeting called?" "Yes new officers." 105
  33. 33. Chapter Eight Exercises: Test A Select B. Selecting C. To select D. For selecting5. "Where did he go?" " He went to another store.--,- _ A to buy slacks B. for buying slacks C. buy slacks D. buying slacks6. "Ill help you whenever you need me." "Good. Id like __ metomorrow." A you helping B. that you will help C. you to help D. that you help7. "The photographer thought he was supposed to arrive after thequests." " But I meant early." A for his coming B. him coming C. for him to come D. he would come8. " My baby has an infection.."" Did the doctor find it difficult _ _?" A. in treating B. treating C. for treating .. D. to treat9. "Whats made Ruth so upset?" "_ _ three tickets to the folkmusic concert." A. Lost B. Losing C. Because of losing D. Since she lost10. "What will Andrew be doing in the fall?" " mathematicsat a private boys school." A. To teach B. Teaching C. will be teaching D. will teach11. The company manager may enable the men who tend themachines_ _ a large panorama of possibilties. A to see B. see C. Seeing D.seen12. When they met, Leonardo and his enemy were fighting > A. killed each other B. killing each other C. to be killed each other D. to kill each other13. The president of a company should know - A. to be firm B. the way of firmness C. to have firmness D. how to be firm14. "Why were you so late for work today?" " to the officewas very slow this moming because of the traffic." A Driving B. To drive C. I drove D. That II drove15. time and labor, cartoonist generally draw the hands oftheir characters with only three fingers and a thumb. A Saved B. Saves C. To save D. The saving106
  34. 34. Chapter Eight Exercises: Test16. Lincoln, Nebraska, is an important manufacturing, insurance, and A. shipping of grain B. to ship grain C. grain was shipped D. grain-shipping17. There is no what may happen. A. know B. knowing C. to know D. known18. "How did you spend the night?" "We had a very hard time_ _.,-some of the problem." A. discussing B. to discuss C. of discussing D. on discussing19. With her do this, she will have no difficulty persuadingthem to accept her plan. A. I help B. my helping C. me helping D. mine helping20. "What are you going to do tomorrow?" "We are going _ _tomorrow." A. to climb B. climbing C. climbed D. climb21. She must be looking forward as much to his return as he himselfis to her. A. see B. have been C. seeing D. having seen22. She __ help thinking that she had seen him somewherebefore. A. can not B. could not C. must not D. might not23. He has lots of books, that he is still young. A. considering B. considered C. being considered D. our considering24. "What would you like for you birthday?" "Id like the __ worksof Maugham." A. collected B. collection B. collecting D. collect25. The peart is the only gem by a living creature. A. creating B. to create C. is created D. created26. to steel, chrominum increases the metals hardness. A. Added B. In addition B. Adding D. Adds27. Commercial banks make most of their income from interest_ _.,- on loans and investments in stocks and bonds. A. earn B. earned C. to earn D. was earned 107
  35. 35. Chapter Eight Exercises: Test28. "What did they think about the plan?" "Everyone was so happyand about it." A. excite B. exciting C. excited D: excites29. "How do you like coffee?" "llike coffee _ A. that is sweetened B. sweetened C. being sweetened D. to be sweetened30. "How did you learn to drive?" " _ _ strict obedience to mytutor." A. Giving B. Give C. to give D. By giving31. After taking his examination, _ A. the book was read by him B. the book made him happy to read it. C. he wanted to read the book D. the reading of the book gave him some pleasure32. Anesthetics are used insensitivity to pain during surgical operations. A. the cause B. to cause C. cause of D. causing J33. Ganga went to the nicest store in the city _ _ presents for herchildren. A. for to get B. for getting C. to get D. to getting34. "Are you ready now?" "Yes, Lets hurry _ _ a seat near thefront." A. so to get B. for getting C. get D. toget35. At last we found the exhausted animal lying there, _ A. sick B. to be sick C. in sick D. to be sickeningWritten ExpressionDirections: The four underlined parts of the sentence are markedA,B,C and D.Identify the one underlined word or phrase that must be changed inorder for the sentence to be correct.36. Twenty to thirty year after a mature forest is cleaned away, a nearly A B Cimpenetrate thicket of trees and shrubs develops. D37. The first natural in world, Bogdo Uul Reserve Park, was established in108
  36. 36. Chapter Eight Exercises: Test A B C D1772.38. Becauseit doeshavea blood~, the comeatakestheiroxygen direcUy A B C Dfrom the air.39. Magnificent mountains and coastal scenery 12 British Columbias chief ABC D tourist attrations.40. Scientists at universities are often more involved in theoritical research ABC than in practically research. D41. Nylon, a synthetic done from a combination of water, air and a by-productof coal, was first introduced in 1938.42.0mithology, the study of birds, is one of the major scientific fields in which A B amateur ~ a role in accumulating, researching, and publish data. C D43. Animation is a technigue for creativity the illusion of life in inanimatethings. ABC D44. On December 7, 1787, Delaware became a first state to ratify the A B C D Constitution.45. Nutritionists believe what diet affects how one feels physically and ABC D emotionally.46. Stars in our universe vary in temperature, color, bright, size and mass. A B C D47. Ice is less denser than the liquid from which 11 is formed. ABC D48. The 1983 Nobel Prize in Medicine was awarded to Barbara McClintockfor Aher experiments with maize and her discoveries regardless the nature of B C D DNA.49. ill 1866 to 1883, the bison population in North American was reduced A B from an estimated 13 million to a few hundred. C D50. Most of the damage property attributed ill the San Francisco earthquake A B Qf 1906 resulted from the fire that followed. C D 109
  37. 37. Chapter Eight Exercises: Testcopanro 6-2 The test is related with a complex sentence or clauses: a main clauseand a subordinate clause. So, before doing the test you may reviewthe clauses.Choose the correct one out of A,B,C, and 0 to complete the sentencescorrectly.1. some mammals came to live in the sea is not known. --p:.-Which only brown thrashers B. Since C. Although D. How 2. all behavior is learned behavior is a basic assumption ofsocial scientists. A. Nearly B. That nearly C. It is nearly D. When nearly3. George _ _ he could improve his test scores, but he did nothave enough time to study. A. knew to B. knew how C. knew how that D. knew how to4. The people at the party were worried about Janet Because no onewas aware she had gone. A. where that B. of where C. of the place where D. the place5. progress helps to relieve scarcities is a fact accepted byeconomists. A. Technological B. That technological C. Although technological D. Ther is technological6. "Do you remember where _ _ my watch?" A. had I put B. had put I C. I had put D. put I7. I wonder how many years ago _ _. A. did your father retire B. your father retired C. has your father retired D. your father has retired8. "Suie hast written us for such a long time." A. that she happen B. happened C. to happen D. having happened9. There are very few areas in the world be grownsuccessfully. A. where apricots can B. apricots can C. apricots that can D. where can apricots10. Caves and hollow trees are not the only places ......,.,._-,-_ A. where do bats live B. bats live where C. where bats live D. live where bats110
  38. 38. Chapter Eight Exercises: Test11. "May I have the loan?" " _ _ you offer good security." A. But B. Unless C. Provided D. But for12. ---:----=::--" heat is produced. A. The mixing together of certain chemicals B. Whenever certian chemicals are mixed together C. Certain chemicals mixed together D. That certain chemicals are mixed together13. However much , it will be worth it. A. does the watch cost B. costs the watch C. the watch will cost D. the watch costs14. Gorillas are quiet animals, they are ableto make abouttwenty different sounds. A. how B. in spite of C. because of D. even though15. that the formation of the sun, the planets, and other starsbegan with condensation of an interstellar gas cloud. A. Believing B. To believe C. The belief D. It is believed16. sandstone is broken apart, it is usually the cementingmaterial that fractures. A. a B. in a C. It is a D. When a17. _ _ is indispensible to plant and animal life. A. Nitrogen B. It is nitrogen C. That nitrogen D. Although nitrogen18. As soon as the gate opened, -:--_ A. we found that the two men emerged B. the two men had emerged C. here the two men emerged D. the two men emerged19. The first doll say "mama" was invented in 1830. A. that it could B. could it C. it could D. that could20. relatively costly, the diesel engine is highly efficient andneeds servicing infrequently. A. Even B. It is C. Even though D. There is21. We might still catch the train if we -:---:-----:-_ A. make hurry B. haste C. make haste D. hastily22. Almost all economists agree by trading with oneanother. A. nations that are gained B. nations they gain C. gaining nations D. that nations gain 111
  39. 39. Chapter Eight Exercises: Test23. dog was the first animals to be domesticated isgenerally agreed upon by authorities in the field. A. Until the B. It was the C. The D. That the24. kinds of dinosaurs were dying out all through the Age ofReptiles is true. A. Some B. When some C. Some were D. That some25. On the side of the hill, there is a which was once thepark. A. deep hole in the ground B. hole deep in ground C. deep hole in the ground D. deep in the ground hole26. within the algae began very early is evident. A. Evolution that was B. That evolution C. There was evolution D. It is estimated that27. All of the plants now raised on farms have been developed fromplants wild. A. once they grow B. they grow once C. that once grow D. once grow28. Seeds usually germinate the temperature is favorable. A. If B. whereas C. as a result D. in consequences29. The knee is the joint the thigh bone meets the large boneof the lower leg. A. when B. where C. why D. which30. The costs of distribution and sales make up a large part of theprices that _-:-:--:-- A. are paid for all products B. all products are paid for C. for which all products are paid D. for all products paid31. Neon is said to be inert _ _ does not react easily with othersubstances. A. because of it B. because it C. it is because . D. is because it32. ___" glasses can correct most sight defects in healthy eyes. A. When well fitted B. Well fitted when C. Well fitted if D. If well fitted when33. he has created striking stage sittings for the MarthaGraham dance company, artist Isamu Noguchi is more famous for hissculpture. A. But not B. Nevertheless C. In spite of D. Although34. A logarithm is ~__ in algebra as an exponent. A. known what B. known what it is C. what is known D., what it is known112
  40. 40. Chapter Eight Exercises: Test35. Although many colonial scholars consider Joanthan Edwardsimportant writer, any more. A. though few people read his works B. but few people read his works C. and his works are not widely read D. his works are not widely read36. The averagetemperature on Mars,the foothplanet from the sun,is about A B C eighty degrees than colder on Earth. D37. One of the longest wars in historywere the Hundred Years War, fought A B Cbetween England and France in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. D38.Any material that l§. attractive by a magnet is by definition magnetic" ABC D39.What are common known as "Iead"pencils are not lead. but rather a A B C mixture of graphite, clay and wax. D40. In the last two decades, Bombay and Madras are developed intocenters of AB C the Indian film Industrv. D41. The abilities to work hard, follow directions, and thinkingindepedently are A BC some of the criteria for success in the work place. D42. The average cat sleeps sixteen hours for a day, in short intervalscalled"cat naps" D43. The elephant relies more on its sense of smell than for any othersense. ABC D44. Some insects hear ultrasonic sounds more than two octaves thanhigher 113
  41. 41. Chapter Eight Exercises: Test A B CD humans can.45. To stay warm in cold weather, cold-blooded animals must exposeitself to g AB source of warmth such as direct sunlight. C D46. In the wild, tea plants become trees of approximately thirty feethigh. A B C D47. Accounting is described as art of classifying, recording, andreporting A B significant financial events. C D48. The development of the watch depended upon the invent of themainspring. A B C D49. Physical fitness activities can lead to an alarming variety ofinjuries if A B participants push themselves greatly hard. C D50. The structure but behavior of many protozoans are amazinglycomplex for A B C single-celled animals. Dcopanro 6-3This test is related with some Confusing Verbs. When you do the testpay attention to the Confusing Verbs. Choose the correct one out ofA,B,C, and B.1. Before discussing the steps in detail, -,--,-__ A. a general principle should be laid down B. I should like to lie down a general principle C. Id like to lay down a general principle D. a general principle lies2. The typewriter _---,,,--..,........, A. Was laying on the table, where it had laid all week114
  42. 42. Chapter Eight Exercises: Test B. was lying on the table, where it had laid all week C. was lying on the table, where it had been laid all week D. was lying on tha table where it had been laid all week3. "What dis Joe do?" "He asleep all morning. A. lain B. laid C. lay D. lying4. Up till then, these problems had been for centuries. A. laying dormant B. laying dormantly C. lying dormant D. lain dormantly5. During the period of inflation, the value of money drops as A. prices rise B. prices arise C. the price is rising D. prices are raised6. "Prices keep going up". " Yes, but the interest on my savingsaccount is certainly not " A. risen B. raise C. on the rise D. on the raise7. "When did the lecture begin?" "When all the students _the professor began his lecture. A. seated B. sit B. were seated D. seat8. My uncle says that:_ _-:c--_ A. my aunt sat her suitcase in corner B. he rises at five oclock every morning C. the river had raised two feet during the night D. from where he was lying, he could see a small black boxsetting on the table.9. It is said that _ A. for six months the factory machinery has laid idle B. I finished laying the bricks, but they did not lay evenly C. my mother immediately set the kettle on the stove D. we must have setr three hours waiting for him10. Most of the begining students cannot understand what ProfessorMajid A. talks B. says about C. says D. discusses about11. "My watch five oclock." "Its very late. I must go". A. says B. tells C. speaks D. talks12. "What do you need?" "Could you me ten dollar? A. borrow B. borrowing C. lend D. lending13. "What do you need?" "My pen is out of in!c, may I ? A. use yourrs pen B. lend yours 115
  43. 43. Chapter Eight Exercises: Test C. borrow yours D. will borrow14. When you go to the library tomorrow, _ _-.,.-_ A. please go to check the reference room if Mary were there B. please take this book to Mary C. please bring the note to the librarian D. please bring this book to the librarian in the reference room15. "Oh, glad to see you, John." "What you to this big city?Be here long? A. carries B. brings C. takes D. makes16. "Why do you like that place?" "I _ _in that city." A. bome B. had bomed C. bear D. was born -17. "He has been working very hard recently." "Because the burdenof a big family has been on his shoulder." A. bear B. borne C. born D. bore18. "What does the judqe want me to do?" "He wants you to, _ A. sayan oath B. tell on oath C. do an oath D. take an oath19. The visiting delegates were urged to ,_:-:---:-:----:- A. talk at library B. state their open minds C. make individual expressions D. speak freely20. He me all about his trip. A. said B. talked C. talks D. tells21. What haopenedtothe leader of the mob?"" He was_at down." A. hang B. hung C. hanged D. hanging22. The teacher has the story many times. A. told B. stated C. said D. talked23. While searching for the wreckage of s unidentified aircraft, theCoast ABC Guard encountered severe squalls at sea. o24. Although a number of police officers was guarding the pricelestreasures in A.13116
  44. 44. Chapter Eight Exercises: Test the museum, the director worried that someone would try tosteal them. C D25. Since it was so difficult for American Indians to negotiate a peacetreaty or A B declare war in their native language, they used a universalunderstood C D form of sign language.26. While verbalisation is the most common form of language inexistance, AB humans make use of many others systems and techniques toexpress CD their thoughts and feelings.27. The need for a well-rounded education was an idea expousedby the A B C Greeks in time of Socrates. D28. Writers and media personnel sell theirsetves best by theimpression given ABC in their verbal expression. D29. In the spirit of the naturalist writers, that authors work portraysmans A B C struggle for surviving. D30. Stephen Cranes stOry is .§ clinical portral of man as an animaltrapped by A B C the fear and hunger. D31. Their silly, whiny convesation on a child level was meant to createtension A B and heighten Nancys fears and anxiety. C 0 117
  45. 45. Chapter Eight Exercises: Test 32. For a long time, this officials have been known throughout thecountry as A BC politcal bosses and law enforcers. D33. The development of the watch depended upon the invent of the A B C D mainspring.34. The ordeal of the Cherokee Indians, who were forcible movedfrom their A B homeland in the 1830s, is remembered as the "Trail of Tears." C D35. Physical fitness activities can lead to an alarming variety ofinjuries if A B participants push themselves greatly hard. C D36. The structure but behavior of many protozoans are amazinglycomplex A B C for single-celled animals. D37. Alaskas rough climate and terrian divide the state into isolatedregions, A B making highway maintainance difficulty. C D38. For hundreds of years, sailors relied on echoes to warn them ofanother A BC ships, icebergs, or cliffs in fQggy weather. D39. Although he is employed in the scientific and technical fields, themetric A B system is not generally utilized in the United States. C D40. Nora hardly never misses an opportunity to.l2ill.v in the tennistournaments. A B C D118
  46. 46. Chapter Eight Exercises: Test41. Air pollution, together with littering, are causing many problems inoor ABCD large, industrial cities today.42. Because of the severe snow storm and the road blocks, the airforce A B dropped food and medical supplies close the city. e D43. Hummingbirds are the only birds capable to fly backward as wellas ABC forward, up, and down. D44. The news of the presidents treaty negotiations with the foreigngovernment A were recieved with mixed emotions by the citizens of bothgovernments. B C D45. Angies bilingual ablitity and previous experience were the qualitiesthat A which helped her get the job over all the other candidates. B e D46. Joel giving up smoking has caused him to gain weight andbecome irritable ABCD with his acquaintances.47. They asked me what did happen last night, but I was unable to tellthem. A B CD48. The test administrator ordered we not to open our books until hetold us to A B CD do so.49. Our new neighbors had been living in Arizona since ten yearsbefore A B CD moving to their present house. 119
  47. 47. Chapter Eight Exercises: Test50. I would of attended the meeting of the planning committee lastweek, but! A B had to deliver a speech at a convention. C Dccpanro 6-4Structure and Written ExpressionChoose the one word or phrase that best completes the sentence.1. The cyclist he crossed the main street. A. looked with caution after B. had looked acutiously before C. was looked cautous when D. looks cautious when2. Here notebook and report that I promised you last week. A. is the B.are the C. was the D. has been a3. Neither Jane nor her brother a consent form fortomorrows field trip. A. need B. needs C. is needing D. has need4. Cuba is sugar-growing areas in the world. A. one of the larger B. one of largest C. one of the largest D. largest5. The skiers would rather through the mountains than go bybus. A. to travel on train B. traveled by train C. travel by train D. traveling by the train6. That magnificent temple was constructed by the Chinese. A. eight-centuries-old B. eight-centurys-old C. old-eight-centuries D. eight-century-old7. There were two small rooms in the beach house, servedas a kitchen. A. the smaller of which B. the smallest of which C. the smaller of them D. smallest of that8. Pioneer men and women endured terrible hardships, and _ A. so do their children B. neither did the children C. also the childs D. so did their children9. Last year, Matt earned his brother, who has a betterposition. A. twice as much as B. twice more than C. twice as many as D. twice as more as10. ,he would have been able to pass the exam.120
  48. 48. Chapter Eight Exercises: Test A. If he studied more B. if he were sdudying to a greater degree C. Sduying more D. Had he studied more11. Mr.Duncan does not know the lawn mower after they hadfinished using it. A. where did they put B. where they did put C. where they put D. where to put12. The facilities of the older hospital ---,-;- A. is as good or better than the new hospital B. are as good or better that the new hospital C. are as good or better than the new hospital D. are as good as or better than those of the new hospital13. pandas eat bamboo almost exclusively, they are alsocarnivorous. A. Not only B. Untill C. As soon as D. Although14. Although _ _a country illegally is risky, the alien who findswork may believe the risk worthwhile. A. when entering B. he enters C. entering D.havin g entered15. The Andean condor glides on air currents and doesnt flap itswings__ it must do so to reach updrafts. A. becuase B. until C. that D. as if 16. __ sighting an approaching car, some drivers tend to speed up. A. When slowing down instead of B. Instead when slowing down at C. When instead of slowing down D. Instead of slowing down when17. to England remain strong, the Channel Islanders areexempt from most British taxes. A. Although their ties B. Although tied C. Before their ties D. Tied18. _ _ , the travlers found that their flight had been canceledbecause of the severe snowstorm. A. That they arrived at the airport B. As soon as arriving at the airport C. At the airport D. They arrived at the airport19. When competing in a demolition derby, _ _ until their ccars are demolished. A. that drivers continue B. drivers must continue C. drivers continuing D. although drivers must continue 121
  49. 49. Chapter Eight Exercises: Test20. _ _ governments point with pride to icreasing mechanisation inagriculture, human and animal power still produces a significantportion of the worlds food. A. Since B. Because C. So that D. While21. , tobacco farmers had not yet felt its effect. A. Though a campaign against smoking B. That there was a campaign against smoking C. Even though there was a campaign against smoking D. There was a campaign against smoking22. There were few settlements along the North Caroline coast_ _ many problems for seafarers. A. because the offshore barrier posed B. before posing the offshore barrier C. while posing the offshore barrier D. that the offshore barrier had posed23. since the death of her father. A. The ancestral home of my mother abandoned B. My mothers ancestral home standing abandoned C. My mothers ancestral home has stood abandoned D. My mothers ancestral home which has stood abandoned24. , the owner and buyer finally agreed on a price for thehouse. A. They had been bargaining for several weeks B. After bargaining for several weeks C. After several weeks they began bargaining D. As if bargaining for several weeks25. _ _ of the tranquilizer, the scientist put a tag on its ear andrecorded details about the animal. A. While under the effect the deer B. While being under the effect the deer C. While the deer was under the effect D. While the deer under the effect 26. He had been cutting human hairs for two years before he came to ABC 0 Darhkan.27. Linseed oil exposed to airs forms a robbery film. ABC 028. The principal called the teachers attentions to the fact that, in thecoming A BC year, the schools enrollment would be almost doubled. o122