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Algorithm 7.1.1 Greedy Coin Changing This algorithm makes change for an amount A using coins of denominations denom [1] > denom [2] > ··· > denom [ n ] = 1. Input Parameters: denom , A Output Parameters: None greedy_coin_change ( denom , A ) { i = 1 while ( A > 0) { c = A / denom [ i ] println (“use ” + c + “ coins of denomination ” + denom [ i ]) A = A - c * denom [ i ] i = i + 1 } }
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Algorithm 7.2.4 Kruskal’s Algorithm Kruskal’s algorithm finds a minimal spanning tree in a connected, weighted graph with vertex set {1, ... , n } . The input to the algorithm is edgelist , an array of edge , and n . The members of edge are • v and w , the vertices on which the edge is incident. • weight , the weight of the edge. The output lists the edges in a minimal spanning tree. The function sort sorts the array edgelist in nondecreasing order of weight.
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Input Parameters: edgelist , n Output Parameters: None kruskal ( edgelist , n ) { sort ( edgelist ) for i = 1 to n makeset ( i ) count = 0 i = 1 while ( count < n - 1) { if ( findset ( edgelist [ i ]. v ) != findset ( edgelist [ i ]. w )) { println ( edgelist [ i ]. v + “ ” + edgelist [ i ]. w ) count = count + 1 union ( edgelist [ i ]. v , edgelist [ i ]. w ) } i = i + 1 } }
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Algorithm 7.3.4 Prim’s Algorithm This algorithm finds a minimal spanning tree in a connected, weighted, n -vertex graph. The graph is represented using adjacency lists; adj [ i ] is a reference to the first node in a linked list of nodes representing the vertices adjacent to vertex i . Each node has members ver , the vertex adjacent to i ; weight , representing the weight of edge ( i , ver ); and next , a reference to the next node in the linked list or null, for the last node in the linked list. The start vertex is start . In the minimal spanning tree, the parent of vertex i ≠ start is parent [ i ], and parent [ start ] = 0. The value ∞ is the largest available integer value.
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Input Parameters: adj , start Output Parameters: parent prim ( adj , start , parent ) { n = adj . last for i = 1 to n key [ i ] = ∞ // key is a local array key [ start ] = 0 parent [ start ] = 0 // the following statement initializes the // container h to the values in the array key h . init ( key , n ) for i = 1 to n { v = h . del () ref = adj [ v ] while ( ref != null) { w = ref . ver if ( h . isin ( w ) && ref . weight < h . keyval ( w )) { parent [ w ] = v h . decrease ( w , ref . weight ) } ref = ref . next } } }
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Algorithm 7.4.4 Dijkstra’s Algorithm This algorithm finds shortest paths from the designated vertex start to all of the other vertices in a connected, weighted, n -vertex graph. The graph is represented using adjacency lists; adj [ i ] is a reference to the first node in a linked list of nodes representing the vertices adjacent to vertex i . Each node has members ver , the vertex adjacent to i ; weight , representing the weight of edge ( i , ver ); and next , a reference to the next node in the linked list or null, for the last node in the linked list. In a shortest path, the predecessor of vertex i start is predecessor [ i ], and predecessor [ star t] = 0. The value ∞ is the largest available integer value. The abstract data type h supports the same operations as in Prim’s algorithm.
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Input Parameters: adj , start Output Parameters: parent dijkstra ( adj , start , parent ) { n = adj . last for i = 1 to n key [ i ] = ∞ // key is a local array key [ start ] = 0 predecessor [ start ] = 0 ...
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... // the following statement initializes the // container h to the values in the array key h . init ( key , n ) for i = 1 to n { v = h . min_weight_index () min_cost = h . keyval ( v ) v = h . del () ref = adj [ v ] while ( ref != null) { w = ref . ver if ( h . isin ( w ) && min_cost + ref . weight < h . keyval ( w )) { predecessor [ w ] = v h . decrease ( w , min_cost + ref . weight ) } // end if ref = ref . next } // end while } // end for }
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Algorithm 7.5.3 Huffman’s Algorithm This algorithm constructs an optimal Huffman coding tree. The input is an array a of n = 2 nodes. Each node has an integer member character to identify a particular character, another integer member key to identify that character’s frequency, and left and right members. After the Huffman coding tree is constructed, a left member of a node references its left child, and a right member of a node references its right child or, if the node is a terminal vertex, its left and right members are null. The algorithm returns a reference to the root of the Huffman coding tree. The operator, new, is used to obtain a new node. If a is an array, the expression h . init ( a ) initializes the container h to the data in a . The expression h . del () deletes the node in h with the smallest key and returns the node. The expression h . insert ( ref ) inserts the node referenced by ref into h .
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Input Parameters: a Output Parameters: None huffman ( a ) { h . init ( a ) for i = 1 to a . last - 1 { ref = new node ref . left = h . del () ref . right = h . del () ref . key = ref . left . key + ref . right . key h . insert ( ref ) } return h . del () }
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Algorithm 7.6.2 Greedy Algorithm for the Continuous-Knapsack Problem The input to the algorithm is the knapsack capacity C , and an array a of size n , each of whose entries specifies an id (e.g., the first item might have id 1, the second item might have id 2, etc.), a profit p , and a weight w . The output tells how much of each object to select to maximize the profit. Objects not selected do not appear in the output. The function sort sorts the array a in nonincreasing order of the ratio of profit to weight.
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Input Parameters: a , C Output Parameters: None continuous_knapsack ( a , C ) { n = a . last for i = 1 to n ratio [ i ] = a [ i ]. p / a [ i ]. w sort ( a , ratio ) weight = 0 i = 1 while ( i ≤ n && weight < C ) { if ( weight + a [ i ]. w = C ) { println (“select all of object ” + a [ i ]. id ) weight = weight + a [ i ]. w } else { r = ( C - weight )/ a [ i ]. w println(“select ” + r + “ of object ” + a [ i ]. id ) weight = C } i = i + 1 } }
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