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# 7. measuring(scaling) variables

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### 7. measuring(scaling) variables

1. 1.  Scale is a tool by which individuals are distinguished as to how they differ from one another on the variables of interest.  Types of Scales ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Nominal Ordinal Interval Ratio 12/16/13 2
2. 2.  A scale that allows a researcher to assign subjects to certain categories or groups  Categories should be mutually exclusive and exhaustive ◦ e-g, Gender  Male  Female 12/16/13 3
3. 3.  A scale that allows the researcher to characterize the variables in such a way so as to denote differences among various categories and also rank them in some order ◦ e-g:Please rank the following motivation factors, from 1 to the most important and 4 the least important)     4 (1 being Power Money Independence Respect 12/16/13 4
4. 4. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Sekaran/RESEARCH 4E
5. 5.  An interval scale allows us to perform certain arithmetical operations on the data collected from the respondents e-g, Please rate how much do you like the following soft drinks.   like very much   Coca Cola 1 2 3 4   7-UP 1 2 3 4   Pepsi 1 2 3 4 Sprite 1 2 3 4 dislike very much 5 6 7 5 6 7 5 6 7 5 6 7 12/16/13 6
6. 6.  The ratio scale overcomes the disadvantage of the arbitrary origin point of the interval scale, in that it has an absolute (in contrast to arbitrary) zero point, which is meaningful measurement point ◦ e-g, How many organizations did you work for before joining this system? 12/16/13 7
7. 7. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Sekaran/RESEARCH 4E
8. 8. Rating Scale •asks the respondent to estimate the magnitude of  a characteristic, or quality, that an object  possesses.   •The respondent’s position on a scale(s) is where  he or she would rate an object 12/16/13 9
9. 9.          Dichotomous Scale Category Scale Likert Scale Numerical Scale Semantic Differential Scale Itemized Rating Scale Fixed or Constant Sum Rating Scale Stapel Scale Graphic Rating Scale 12/16/13 10
10. 10. In its most basic form, attitude scaling requires that an individual agree with a statement or respond to a single question. This type of self-rating scale merely classifies respondents into one of two categories. THE PRESIDENT SHOULD RUN FOR RE-ELECTION _______ AGREE ______ DISAGREE Based on Nominal Scale
11. 11. A category scale is a more sensitive measure than a scale having only two response categories - it provides more information. Based on Nominal Scale In which faculty of UCP you are enrolled in? Faculty of Commerce Faculty of Engineering Business School Faculty of Commerce Faculty of Social Sciences Faculty of Pharmacy
12. 12. An extremely popular means for measuring attitudes. Respondents indicate their own attitudes by checking how strongly they agree or disagree with statements. Response alternatives: “strongly agree”, “agree”, “uncertain”, “disagree”, and “strongly disagree”. Based on Interval Scale
13. 13. It is more fun to play a tough, competitive tennis match than to play an easy one. Strongly Agree 1 Agree 2 Not Sure 3 Disagree 4 Strongly Disagree 5
14. 14. How important were the following in your decision to visit Switzerland? (check one for each item) VERY SOMEWHAT IMPORTANT NOT TOO IMPORTANT IMPORTANT CLIMATE ___________ ___________ ___________ COST OF TRAVEL ___________ ___________ ___________ FAMILY ORIENTED ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ EDUCATIONAL /HISTORICAL ASPECTS _________
15. 15. A series of seven-point bipolar rating scales. Bipolar adjectives, such as “good” and “bad”, anchor both ends (or poles) of the scale. A weight is assigned to each position on the rating scale. Traditionally, scores are 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, or +3, +2, +1, 0, -1, -2, -3. Based on Interval Scale
16. 16. Exciting ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : Calm Interesting ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : Dull Simple___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ Complex Passive ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ Active
17. 17. Numerical scales have numbers as response options, rather than “semantic space’ or verbal descriptions, to identify categories (response positions). Exciting 1 : 2 : 3 : 4 : 5 : 6 : 7 Calm Based on Interval Scale
18. 18. Modern versions of the Staple scale place a single adjective as a substitute for the semantic differential when it is difficult to create pairs of bipolar adjectives. The advantage and disadvantages of a Stapel scale, as well as the results, are very similar to those for a semantic differential. However, the stapel scale tends to be easier to conduct and administer. Interval Scale
19. 19. Department Store Name +3 +2 +1 Wide Variety -1 -2 -3
20. 20.   Divide 100 points among each of the following brands according to your preference for the brand: Brand A _________  Brand B _________  Brand C _________  Ordinal Scale: as unclear distance/interval
21. 21. Magnitude of each alternative known Equal value can be indicated. Too many can confuse
22. 22. A graphic rating scale presents respondents with a graphic continuum. 3 Very Good 2 1 Very Poor
23. 23. easy to construct and simple to use, can discern fine distinctions, but not very reliable, can be treated as interval data.
24. 24. Ranking tasks require that the respondent rank order a small number of objects in overall performance on the basis of some characteristic or stimulus. 12/16/13 25
25. 25.   Rank the following in order of preference, 1 being the most preferred and 3 the least: Brand A _________  Brand B _________  Brand C _________
26. 26.  In paired comparisons the respondents are presented with two objects at a time and asked to pick the one they prefer.  Ranking objects with respect to one attribute is not difficult if only a few products are compared, but as the number of items increases, the number of comparisons increases geometrically (n*(n -1)/2).  It causes fatigue and respondent no longer carefully discriminate among them. Example: Which support provides you more motivation to complete your task? friends support family support 
27. 27. 3.A COMPARATIVE SCALE A COMPARATIVE SCALE provides a benchmark to assess attitudes toward current object, event or situation understudy. Please indicate how the amount of authority in your present position compares with the amount of authority that would be ideal for this position. TOO MUCH ABOUT RIGHT TOO LITTLE
28. 28. 4.Forced Choice A Forced Choice enables respondents to rank objects relative to one another, among the alternatives provided. Rank the following channels you like to watch in the order of preference, assigning 1 to the most preferred choice and 5 to the least preferred. Duniya Geo Express Samaa Aaj
29. 29. Two important guidelines are: 1. Relevancy  ask only questions that are relevant to the research objective. 2. Accuracy  ask only questions that will provide accurate information.
30. 30. •Need to decide how “what is to be asked” should be phrased •Alternative question formats are shown below •Each format has its advantages and disadvantages Open ended Question type Closed ended Simple dichotomy Multiple choice
31. 31. 1. Open-ended – Questions in which the respondent answers in his own words Why do you like studying at UCP? Why do you fly with Airlines X, Y or Z? How do you assess the economic prospects of Pakistan? 2. Closed-ended (or Fixed Alternative) – Question in which respondent selects one or more options from pre-determined set of responses
32. 32. Simple dichotomy  Closed ended question with only two response alternatives EG: What do you consult while preparing for the examination? PPT-slides prescribed course literature ◦ ◦ Multiple Choice  Closed ended question with more than two response alternatives Which is your preferred place to sit in an aircraft: First Class, Business Class, Economy Class)
33. 33. Checklist question - Multiple choice question in which respondent can select more than one of the response alternatives What sources of information would you use to compile your research paper: - Local bookstores University libraries Research Institutes The Digital library Technical Journals Magazines and Newspapers Interviews with Key Stakeholders
34. 34.  1. Response categories provided for each close-ended question should be mutually exclusive and exhaustive Mutually Exclusive  Response categories must be such that the same respondent cannot be classified into more than one category. e.g. the categories \$1,000-5,000 and \$5,000-10,000 are not mutually exclusive. 2. Exhaustive – Response categories should include all possible response options. Sometimes this is achieved by including a response option like “Other (Please specify)….”
35. 35. Avoid complexity: use simple, conversational language.  Avoid leading and loaded questions.  Avoid ambiguity: be as specific as possible.  Avoid double barreled items.  Avoid making assumptions.  Avoid burdensome questions. 
36. 36. Leading question: a question that suggests or implies a certain answer. Causes: •The bandwagon effect – e.g. Most Saudis have stopped eating junk food. Do you eat junk food? •Partially mentioning some alternatives – e.g. which fast food restaurant do you prefer, Pizza Hut or others? •Questions with the phrase: “ Don’t you think that ..”
37. 37.  A question that is designed to suggest a socially desirable answer. Usually it is emotionally charged. Causes: • Choice of words; e.g. using emotionally-charged words, such as in: In your opinion is it fair that the Security Dept should be harassing students with parking tickets? •Do you think that older people should be laid off? • Framing question such that honest answer is painful or embarrassing  use counter biasing statement. There are pros and cons to retaining senior citizens in the workforce. To what extent do you think firms should continue to keep the elderly on their payroll?
38. 38. Introduces bias because it covers two issues at once.  I am satisfied with my masters level performance. My bachelors performance was also satisfying  ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Highly satisfied Somewhat Satisfied Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied Somewhat dissatisfied Completely dissatisifed
39. 39.  Use simple, interesting opening questions  e.g asking for respondent’s opinion on an issue.  Ask general questions before specific questions  funnel approach  Use filter questions with care.  Do you like ice-cream? If yes then move to Q2; if No move to Q5 (filter)  Finish asking questions on one topic before moving to another.
40. 40. • Keep questionnaire short if possible, but not too short that you sacrifice needed information • Do not over crowd questionnaire • Provide decent margin space • Use multiple- grid layout for questions with similar responses • Use good quality print paper. • Use booklet form if possible • Carefully craft the questionnaire title: 1. Captures respondent’s interest. 2. Shows importance of the study. 3. Shows interesting nature of the study.
41. 41.  Pretesting Process ◦ Seeks to determine whether respondents have any difficulty understanding the questionnaire and whether there are any ambiguous or biased questions.  Preliminary Tabulation ◦ A tabulation of the results of a pretest to help determine whether the questionnaire will meet the objectives of the research.
42. 42.  Back Translation ◦ Taking a questionnaire that has previously been translated into another language and having a second, independent translator translate it back to the original language. ◦ A questionnaire developed in one country may be difficult to translate because equivalent language concepts do not exist or because of differences in idiom and language
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