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# 4. research process (part 2)

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• 1. The Research Process – Steps 4 to 5 Chapter 4
• 2. 1. Observation 1. Observation Broad area of Broad area of research interest research interest identified identified The Research Process for Basic & Applied Research 3. Problem 3. Problem Definition Definition Research problem Research problem delineated delineated 2. Preliminary 2. Preliminary Data Gathering Data Gathering Interviewing Interviewing Literature survey Literature survey 4. 4. Theoretical Theoretical Framework Framework Variables Variables clearly clearly identified identified and and labelled labelled 5. 5. Generation Generation of of Hypothesis Hypothesis 7. Data Collection 7. Data Collection Analysis, and Analysis, and Interpretation Interpretation 8. Deduction 8. Deduction Hypotheses substantiated? Hypotheses substantiated? Research question answered? Research question answered? No No Yes Yes 9. Report 9. Report Writing Writing 12/16/13 6. 6. Scientific Scientific Research Research Design Design 10. Report 10. Report Presentation Presentation 11. 11. Managerial Managerial Decision Decision Making Making 2
• 3. Theoretical Framework  A theoretical framework is the foundation of hypothetic-deductive method.  It represents the beliefs on how variables (phenomena) are related to each other (model) and an explanation of why these variables are associated.  From the theoretical framework, then, testable hypothesis can be developed to examine whether the theory formulated is valid or not.  Even if hypotheses are not generated theoretical framework is important for examining the issue under investigation. 12/16/13 3
• 4. Variables • A variable is anything that can take on varying values. The values can differ at various times for the same object or person, or at the same time for the different objects or persons. 12/16/13 4
• 5. Examples of Variables • Production Units • Absenteeism • Motivation 12/16/13 5
• 6. Types of Variables • • • • The dependent variable (criterion variable) The independent variable (predictor variable) The moderating variable The intervening variable 12/16/13 6
• 7. Dependent Variable • The main variable that lends itself for investigation (the variable of primary interest of research) • Through the analysis of dependent variable, it is possible to find solutions to the problem 12/16/13 7
• 8. Exercises of Dependent Variable  An applied researcher wants to increase the performance of organizational members in a particular bank What would be the dependent variable in this case? 12/16/13  A marketing manager wonders why the recent advertisement strategy does not work What would be the dependent variable here? 8
• 9. Independent Variable • An independent variable is one that influences the dependent variable in either a positive or negative way • Therefore, when independent variable is present, dependent variable is also present, and with each unit of increase in the independent variable, there is an increase or decrease in the dependent variable also. e-g, New product Stock market New product Stock market success success Independent Variable 12/16/13 price price Dependent Variable 9
• 10. 4 conditions • To establish that a change in independent variable causes a change in dependent variable 4 conditions should be met: – Both should covary – Independent variable should precede the dependent variable – No other factor should cause change in dependent variable. – A logical explanation about the affect of independent on dependent variable. 12/16/13 Tahir M. Qureshi 10
• 11. Exercises of Independent Variable  A manager believes that good supervision and training would increase the production level of workers  the managers believes customer purchase intention would possible with word of mouth, promotions, brand image and product quality. List the variables in the above mentioned two exercises, individually, and label them as dependent or independent, explaining why they are so labeled. 12/16/13 11
• 12. Moderating Variable • Moderating variable is a variable, the presence of which, modifies the original relationship between the independent and the dependent variables. e-g, Workforce Workforce Diversity Diversity Independent Variable Organizational Organizational Effectiveness Effectiveness Dependent Variable Managerial Managerial Expertise Expertise Moderating Variable 12/16/13 12
• 13. Exercises of Moderating Variable  A manager finds that off-thejob class room training has a great impact on the productivity of employees in her department. However, she also observes that employees over 60 years of age do not seem to derive much benefit and do not improve with such training  A teacher observed that effective teaching methodology can decrease students dropout rate. However, she also noted that students who remain frequently absent in the class still have high dropout rate even if effective teaching methodology is present. List the variables in the above mentioned two exercises, individually, and label them as dependent or independent, also drawing a diagram of relationships. 12/16/13 13
• 14. Intervening Variable • The intervening variable surfaces between the time the independent variables start operating to influence the dependent variable and the time their impact is felt on. e-g, Workforce Workforce Diversity Diversity Independent Variable 12/16/13 Creative Creative Synergy Synergy Intervening Variable Organizational Organizational Effectiveness Effectiveness Dependent Variable 14
• 15. Effect of Four Variables Creative Creative Synergy Synergy Workforce Workforce Diversity Diversity Independent Variable Intervening Variable Organizational Organizational Effectiveness Effectiveness Dependent Variable Managerial Managerial Expertise Expertise Moderating Variable 12/16/13 15
• 16. Theoretical Framework • Theoretical Framework is the foundation on which whole research is based • It is a logically developed, described & elaborated network of associations among the variables deemed relevant to the problem situation and identified through such processes as interviews, observations and literature survey 12/16/13 16
• 17. The Components of the Theoretical Framework 1. The variables considered relevant to the study should be clearly identified and labeled in the discussions 2. The discussions should state how two or more variables are related to one another. 3. Indication in the discussion as to whether the relationships would be positive or negative 4. There should be a clear explanation of why we should expect these relationships to exist. The arguments could be drawn from the previous research findings 5. A schematic diagram of theoretical framework should be given so that the reader can see and easily comprehend the theorized relationships 12/16/13 17
• 18. Hypothesis • A logically conjectured relationship between two or more variables expressed in the form of testable statement. • Relationships are conjectured on the basis of the network of associations established in the theoretical framework formulated for the research study. • By testing the hypothesis and confirming the conjectured relationships, it is expected that solutions can be found to correct the problem encountered 12/16/13 18
• 19. Examples of Hypothesis • Employees who are more healthy will take sick leave less frequently • If employees are more healthy, then they will take sick leave less frequently 12/16/13 19
• 20. Directional Hypothesis • If, in stating the relationship between two variables or comparing two groups, terms such as positive, negative, more than, less than and the like are used, then these hypothesis are directional • e-g, The greater the stress experienced in the job, the lower the job satisfaction of employees 12/16/13 20
• 21. Non-directional Hypothesis • Non-directional Hypotheses are those that do postulate a relationship, but offer no indication of the direction of these relationships. • e-g, There is a relationship between age and job satisfaction 12/16/13 21
• 22. Example Delta Airlines • According to the reports, Delta Airlines faced charges of air-safety violations when there were several near collisions in midair, and one accident that resulted in 137 deaths in 1987. • Four important factors that seem to have influenced these are: 22
• 23. Example Delta Airlines 1. Poor communication among the cockpit crew members. 2. Poor coordination between ground staff and cockpit crew. 3. Minimal training given to the cockpit crew. 4. Management philosophy that encouraged a decentralized structure. Did these factors indeed contribute to the safety violations? 23
• 24. Theoretical Framework for Example • The dependent variable is safety violation, which is the variable of primary interest. • The variance in the safety violation is attempted to be explained by the four independent variables of (1) communication among crew members, (2) communication between ground control and the cockpit crew, (3) training received by the cockpit crew, and (4) decentralization. 24
• 25. Theoretical Framework for Example • The less the communication among the crew members themselves, the greater is the probability of air-safety violations since very little information is shared among them. 25
• 26. Theoretical Framework for Example • When ground crew fail to give the right information at the right time, misfortunes are bound to occur with aborted flights and collisions. • Coordination between ground and cockpit crew is at the very heart of air safety. Thus, the less the coordination between ground control and cockpit crew, the greater the possibility of air-safety violations taking place. 26
• 27. Theoretical Framework for Example • Both of the above factors are worsened by the management philosophy of Delta Airlines, which emphasizes decentralization. • Centralized coordination and control assume great importance when increased flights overall in midair, and with all airlines operating many more flights. • Thus, the greater the degree of decentralization, the greater is the scope for lower levels of communication both among in-flight staff and between ground staff and cockpit crew, and the greater the scope for air-safety violations. 27
• 28. Theoretical Framework for Example 10 • When cockpit crew members are not adequately trained, they may not have the requisite knowledge of safety standards or may suffer from an inability to handle emergency situations and avoid collisions. • Thus, poor training also adds to the probability of increased safety violations. These relationships are diagrammed in Figure 28
• 29. Figure Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Sekaran/RESEARCH 4E 29 FIGURE 5.8