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  • 1. Education in Emergencies Lesotho Making Difference Measuring Change © Munas Kalden/UNICEF/2011 An Experience of Capacity Development on Education in Emergencies from Lesotho 1
  • 2. Author: Munas KaldenThe views and interpretations expressed in this report are those of the author and do notnecessarily reflect those of the UNICEF, Lesotho.Date of Final Report: September 2011Evaluation Methods and Layout: Munas KaldenContact Details:Dr. Naqib SafiDeputy RepresentativeUNICEF LesothoPrivate Bag A171Maseru 100, LesothoE-mail: nsafi@unicef.orgMunas KaldenConsultant,Emergencies and Disaster Risk ReductionUNICEF, Lesotho.Email: mkalden@unicef.org munas.kalden@gmail.com Making Difference 2
  • 3. Measuring ChangeMaking Difference, Measuring Change © Munas Kalden/UNICEF/2011An Experience of Capacity Developmenton Education in Emergencies from Lesotho 3
  • 4. About the TrainingESAR NATIONAL CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT STRATEGYIn 2009, the UNICEF Eastern and Southern Africa Regional Office (ESARO) launched astrategy for national capacity development in partnership with Save the Children under the aegisof the IASC Education Cluster. The objective was to build and strengthen sustainable nationalemergency preparedness and response capacity in the education sector in ESAR holistically andstrategically, by supporting national authorities at all levels.A first step in achieving this objective is training of frontline responders from Ministries ofEducation and other authorities from national, provincial and district levels, and key educationactors. A training package was devised which centres on practical and technical components ofeducation in emergencies including contingency planning and preparedness processes to mitigatethe impact of disasters on schools and learners. A key focus on disaster risk reduction (DRR) incountries and localities experiencing recurrent emergencies such as floods, cyclones and droughthas also been incorporated.Two regional training of trainers workshops were held in Nairobi in April-May 2009 in whichparticipants from the Ministry of Education, UNICEF, Save the Children and other NGOpartners attended from all 20 ESAR countries. (UNICEF, ESARO, October 2010, NATIONAL CAPACITYDEVELOPMENT FOR EDUCATION IN EMERGENCIES IN THE EASTERN AND SOUTHERN AFRICA REGION)LESOTHO NATIONAL TRAINING OF TRAINERSThree officers, from Lesotho, representing Ministry of Education and Training, Save theChildren and UNICEF participated in the regional training held in Nairobi in 2009. As cascadingthe knowledge, they have, with support of the Consultant, Munas Kalden, conducted the nationaltraining of trainers in Lesotho, during 26-28 September 2011. 4
  • 5. Table of ContentsAbout the Training .......................................................................................................................... 4Abbreviation and acronyms ............................................................................................................ 6Acknowledgment ............................................................................................................................ 71 .Introduction ......................................................... 9 1.1 Setting the Scene: .......................................................................................................................... 9 1.2 Capacities: Concept and Definition ............................................................................................ 10 1.3 Education in Emergencies (EiE): ................................................................................................ 15 1.4 Capacity Development for Education in Emergencies: .............................................................. 16 1.4.1 Five Core Capabilities......................................................................................................... 16 1.5 Competencies, Capabilities and EiE: .......................................................................................... 17 1.5.1 Key Competencies for EiE:................................................................................................. 182. Measuring Change in Capacity Development.... 242.1. Evaluability: Methodology .................................................................................................... 242.2. Participatory Collective Web................................................................................................. 253 Lessons Learnt: Done Many, Want to Do More 33 3.1 Education in Emergencies Capacity Development Outcomes .................................................... 33 3.2 Lessons Learnt: ........................................................................................................................... 34Appendix:...................................................................................................................................... 38Figure 1: Five Core Capabilities ................................................................................................... 17Figure 2 the Equation of Capacity: C+C=C {Exponent: Munas Kalden (2011)} ........................ 17Figure 3 Applying Five Capabilities in Education in Emergencies, Munas Kalden (2011)...... 20Figure 4: Participatory Web: Assessing Pre-knowledge ............................................................. 25Figure 5 Participatory Web: Assessing Post-knowledge .............................................................. 26Figure 7: Heterogeneity in Participation and Institutional Representation ................................... 28Figure 8: Education in Emergencies- Capacity Development Outcomes ..................................... 33Figure 9: Training of Trainers o Education in Emergencies- Lessons Leant in Lesotho ............. 34 5
  • 6. Abbreviation and acronymsCD: Capacity DevelopmentDMA: Disaster Management AuthorityEFA: Education for AllEiE: Education in EmergenciesESARO: UNICEF Eastern and Southern Africa Regional OfficeGMR: Global Monitoring ReportINEE: Interagency Network for Education in Emergencies.MoET: Ministry of Education and TrainingOECD: Organisation for Economic co-operation and DevelopmentPCW: Participatory collective Web, an assessment tool developed by the author.ToTs: Training of TrainersUNDP: United Nations Development ProgrammeUNESCO: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural OrganizationUNICEF: United Nations Children‘s Fund 6
  • 7. AcknowledgmentThe ‗Making Difference, Measuring Change- an Experience of Capacity Development onEducation in Emergencies from Lesotho has been made possible by the commitment,enthusiasm and teamwork of many. We would like to express our gratitude and to give credit tothose who have been directly involved in developing training content and making it successful.The ‗Making Difference, Measuring Change’ report is only possible with the contribution ofmany. Thanks to the facilitators, namely Ms. Lati Letsela from UNICEF , Mr. LebohangMoletsane from Disaster Management Authority, Ms Seriti Dotoro attached to Ministry ofeducation and Training, Ms. Flora Fmapotlaki from National Curriculum DevelopmentCentre, Ms Motselisi Shale attached to Lesotho Save the Children, We thank these facilitatorsfor contributing their valuable time and share their working experiences in the workshop.I am grateful for the encouragement and inspiration received from Nurbek Teleshaliyev,Education Specialist, Dr. Naqib Safi, Deputy Representative, Dr. Ahmed Magan, CountryRepresentative, UNICEF Lesotho and Benoit dAnsembourg, Education Specialist (Emergencyand Disaster Risk Reduction) UNICEF Eastern and Southern Africa Regional Office (ESARO).And, I am also thankful to the Government of the Netherlands for the funding of this workshopunder the Education in Emergencies and Post-Crisis Transition (EEPCT) Programme, It is oursincere hope that this report contributes in some way to improving the understanding ofdeveloping capacities for education in emergencies. Munas Kalden 7
  • 8. PreambleCapacity development is integral part of development intervention. It is a fundamental part of themandate of many international organizations. Much of their work aims to strengthen nationalcapacities through training, technical advice, exchange of experiences, and policy advice. Yet,there is considerable dissatisfaction regarding the impact of many such interventions. That iswhy this report tries to present case of such difference in capacity development.Processes of development and social change are never easy to measure though, and results can beelusive and difficult to evaluate. It is easier to count schools than to measure the impact of education.However, there are from time to time innovative and cutting edge efforts made to measure the―immeasurable‖, here we have used such participatory tool, developed for this purpose and employedbefore and after the training with the same participants.The findings of this evaluation show that building durable capacity in Africa is possible (WorldBank, 2005:19). It should go with change. Change goes with vision. This is shift in capacitydevelopment in over recent years. The shift from project to programmatic lending—in support ofsectorwide and crosssector reform programs—has helped to set capacity building efforts within acountry-led, long-term strategic vision and enabling environment conducive to a long-termapproach to specific capacity building measures.In capacity development, individual level strategies have to move beyond training and is shouldimpact on the overall organizational operation. It is expected the same with regards to anyeducation in emergency setting of a particular country context. Hope, this training will pave theway for the change envisioned, through the capacity development effort. Munas Kalden Consultant, UNICEF, Lesotho (Sep 2011). 8
  • 9. 1 .Introduction1.1 Setting the Scene:…[C]apacity development is much more than supporting trainingprogrammes and the use of national expertise – these are necessary andon the rise, but we must include response and support strategies foraccountable leadership, investments in long-term education on andlearning, strengthened public systems and voice mechanisms betweencitizen and state and institutional reform that ensures a responsivepublic and private sector that manages and delivers services to thosewho need them most.… [I]t is our collective responsibility and response to capacitydevelopment that gives meaning and shape to the principle of nationalownership, and translates it into more sustainable and meaningfuldevelopment outcomes. UNDP on behalf of the UNDG Executive Committee. 11 July, 2007 ECOSOC Operational Activities Segment.The 2011 Education for All (EFA) Global Saharan Africa alone, 10 million childrenMonitoring Report (GMR) offers a timely drop out of primary school every year.reminder that EFA is far from a reality in Meanwhile, around 17 per cent of themany countries and that governments world‘s adults – 796 million people – arecontinue to fall short of their collective lacking basic literacy skills. Nearly twocommitments. Large numbers of children thirds of these are women (UNESCO, 2011:remain out of school, while many others fail 1). What is generally clear is that thoseto complete the full primary cycle. In Sub- countries lagging furthest behind in their 9
  • 10. EFA targets are all too often the most While such broad definitions have thefragile, beset by socio-economic crises and advantages of being comprehensive, they arepolitical instability or recovering from years of limited use when government andof civil conflict and natural disaster. agencies need to identify successful strategies to overcome specific constrains.Achieving EFA goals are obliterated by Secondly, the success and failure of capacitydisasters. They leave gab in accessing to development efforts may depend as muchquality education. It requires capacity of the specific modalities as on nationaldevelopment on education in emergencies context within which these modalities are(EiE). While capacity development (CD) implemented-and national context differbecomes popular concept, focus and activity profoundly (Hite, Steven., and De Grauwe,in recent years, the challenges and Anton, 2009:23).preoccupation involved in capacitydevelopment are not new. Over time, there Prior to entering into the mechanisms ofhave been changes in the terminology, from how capacity development works, or isinstitution building to capacity building to facilitated, it therefore seems vital tocapacity development. But, these different establish a clear notion of what is meant byterms, basically, refer to similar challenges ‗capacity‘ itself. Over the past ten years, theand issues. There has been success achieved. development literature and inter-Nevertheless, the overall record remains a governmental agreements have often usedsource of concern, especially in the least the terms capacity development and capacitydeveloped countries, like Lesotho, and the building interchangeably. Although the twocountries face devastating disasters, which are related, they have different connotations.are most in need of stronger, internally It is, therefore, important to clarify thesustainable capacities. concepts and to use them as appropriate to a given context (UNDP, 2008: 4).1.2 Capacities: Concept and Definition To begin with, one could say that capacity isThe theories and expertise behind capacity ability or aptitude. It is the capability or skilldevelopment (CD) have grown over the to carry something out. It can also mean ayears in response to perceived failures and competency, a qualification: the strength andachievements in development. CD itself, talent to perform a function or task. This, inhowever, has remained a complex issue, turn, implies understanding, will andoften wrapped in convoluted and specialized motivation which themselves requireterminology (UNESCO, 2011 a: 15). resources, conditions and knowledge, asDiscussion and debate around capacity well as management of rules and relations,development tend to be complex for at least control and comprehension of procedures. Intwo reasons. Firstly, the concept itself is short, definitions of capacity give scope tomultifaceted. The definitions that various infer anything from skills to perform a givenagencies propose are a good illustration. task or function successfully, to the actual 10
  • 11. effectiveness, authority, productivity andresources which go with it. Moreover, if In this backdrop, the United Nationsstrengthening capacities is about Development Programme (UNDP) hastransformation and change, it invariably presented the definition of capacityintegrates psychological as much as material development reflects the viewpoint thatfactors. Capacity, then, is both attitudinal capacity resides within individuals and alsoand substantive. at the level of organisations and within the enabling environment. In the literature onAnton De Grauwe (2009), a prominent capacity development, variations on thecontributor to the field of capacity basic distinction among these three levelsdevelopment, in recent years, and is attached can be found. For example, theto the International Institute for Educational organisational level is sometimes referred toPlanning (IIEP) of UNESCO, defines the as the institutional level and the enablingCapacity development as any activity environment is sometimes referred to as thewhich aims explicitly at strengthening a institutional or societal level. The threecountry so that it can better achieve its levels of capacity are the following:development objectives by having a positive Enabling environment - Individuals andand sustainable impact on any of the organisations do not function in isolation butfollowing: are part of a broader system, which  individual officers with the necessary facilitates or hampers their existence and capacities and incentives; development. This system is referred to as  organizations that have a clear the enabling environment and constitutes the mandate and are run effectively; first level of capacity. This level is not easy  a supportive public service; to visualise, but it is extremely important to  A motivating, stable and structured the understanding of capacity issues. context; without having negative Capacities at this level include the policies, effects on any of these levels (De legislation, power relations and social Grauwe, 2009: 53). norms, all of which govern the mandates, priorities, modes of operation and civicUntil recently, capacity development was engagement across different parts of society.viewed mainly as a technical process, These factors determine the ―rules of theinvolving the simple transfer of knowledge game‖ for interaction between and amongor organisational models from North to organisations.South. Not enough thought was given to thebroader political and social context within The second level of capacity is thewhich capacity development efforts take organisational level. This comprises theplace. This led to an overemphasis on ―right policies, procedures and frameworks thatanswers‖, as opposed to approaches that best allow an organisation to operate and deliverfit the country circumstances and the needs on its mandate and that enable individualof the particular situation (OECD, 2006:15). capacities to connect and achieve goals. If 11
  • 12. these are well aligned, an organisation‘s individual level, promoting ancapability to act will be greater than that of interdependent approach.the sum of its parts. At the individual level,  It moves beyond a singular focuscapacity refers to the skills, experience and on training to address broaderknowledge that are vested in a person. Each questions of institutional change,and every person is endowed with a mix of leadership, empowerment, andcapacities that allow us to perform, whether public participation.at home, at work or in society at large. Some  It emphasises the use of nationalof these are acquired through formal training systems, beyond the use of nationaland education, others through learning-by- plans and expertise. It questions thedoing. use of stand-alone implementation units; if national systems are notThe UNDP, also, relates capacity strong enough, they should bedevelopment to broader issues of human reformed and strengthened, ratherdevelopment. Its approach to supporting than bypassed.capacity development brings together a  It demands adaptation to the localvalue base, a conceptual framework and amethodological approach. It is underpinnedby the following basic principles: ‗It moves beyond a  It gives tangible expression to the concept of national ownership, singular focus on training which is about the capabilities of to address broader questions making informed choices and decisions. of institutional change,  It is not power-neutral and involves leadership, empowerment, relationships, mind sets and and public participation‘. behaviour change. It therefore emphasises the importance of motivation as a driver of change.  It is a long-term process and can be promoted through a combination of shorter-term, often externally driven results and more sustainable, locally reality. There are no blueprints. It driven, longer-term ones. must start from the specific capacity  It requires staying engaged under requirements and performance difficult circumstances. expectations of the environment,  It links the enabling environment, sector or organisation it supports. the organisational level and the  It demands a link to a broader set of reforms, such as education 12
  • 13. ―Without robust capacity – reform, wage reform and civil service reform, to be effective. There strong institutions, systems, is little value in capacity and local expertise – development initiatives that are developing countries cannot designed as one-offs or in isolation. fully own and manage their  It results in unintended (capacity) development processes. consequences. This must be kept in We agreed in the Paris mind during the design phase and should be valued, tracked and Declaration that capacity evaluated. development is the  It provides a systematic approach responsibility of developing to measuring capacity development, countries, with donors with the use of ―good practice‖ playing a supportive role, indicators, case evidence and and that technical co- available data analysis. It also brings operation is one means together quantitative and qualitative data to give grounding and among others to develop objectivity to perceptions and capacity.‖ judgments on capacity assets, needs Paris Declaration on Aid and progress. Effectiveness (2005)This is perhaps an over-simplification as it is events. It requires flexibility and adaptabilityalso important not to see capacity as one to national and local circumstancesunfathomable, nondescript block. The (UNESCO, 2011 a: 16). Ownership onlycapacity development challenge is not only has meaning if priorities are nationallyone of addressing gaps, weaknesses or a lack determined and are carried by a broad groupof capacity. If this were the case, the of actors (UNDP, 2008: 4).response would be simple and mainly one offilling gaps. Yet, in many cases, the And, capacity and capacity developmentchallenges are related to more complex issues have been on the development agendaissues: capacity is available and present, but for decades. As early as the 1950s andis ineffectively used. What we do know is 1960s, donors and academics didthat capacities must be reinforced over the considerable work on public sectorlong term and result from the strengthened institution building, with a substantial‗power to perform‘ of relevant leaders, emphasis on human resource developmentdecision-makers, task managers and (education, training and scholarships). Thisindividuals working for an institution or was heavily influenced by notions oforganization. Capacity development is knowledge transfer from North to South.subject to, and can result in, unforeseen Technical co-operation emerged as an 13
  • 14. instrument for filling perceived institutional leading to attempts at improvement, butor skills gaps. In many poor countries, much generally within the same broad paradigm.of this assistance yielded very low returns,Period Terminology Focus1950s Institution Building  Provide public sector institutions  individual functioning Organizations1960s Development Management /  improving delivery systems and public Administration programmes to reach target groups1970s Institutional Strengthening  Strengthening rather than establishing and Development  Provide tools to improve performance1980s Capacity Building  Reassessment of the notion of technical cooperation (TC)  Participatory approaches as ‗the way to do development‘1990s Capacity Development  Increased participation in capacity Development  Emphasis on continuous learning and adaptation  Balancing results-based management and long-term sustainability2000s Institutionalism  Capacity building broadened to sector level  Attention to shaping national economic behaviourTable 1 Chronology of Capacity Development, tabulated by Munas Kalden (2011), based on the literature on capacitydevelopmentCapacity development was about nurturing objectives and cannot be driven from theand unleashing capacity from within outside.(UNESCO, 2011 a: 19). This has beenreflected in the UNDP articulation of Whilst the notion of capacity is normallycapacity development. It, generally, prefers associated with individual, organisationalto use the broader term capacity and societal ―capabilities‖ to performdevelopment since this best reflects its functions, the notion of willingness orapproach: starting from capacities that exist motivation is equally important since itand supporting national efforts to enhance holds the key to the effective utilization ofand retain these. This is a process of such competencies. By distinguishingendogenous transformation that is based on between ability on the one hand, andnationally determined priorities, policies and willingness on the other, attention is drawn to the centrality of ownership to capacity 14
  • 15. development, and of the influence of Education in emergencies comprisesincentives and motives on transforming learning opportunities for all ages. Itcapacity into performance (JICA, UNDP, encompasses early childhood development,CIDA and World Bank, 2003: 11). primary, secondary, non-formal, technical, vocational, higher and adult educationIn summary, then, it could be said that there (INEE, 2010:2). Education in emergencieshas been a gradual movement away from a takes different forms according to the stagelinear blueprint approach to development of a particular emergency. In the acute phaseand capacity development, going beyond of an emergency, just after populations flee,training aimed at improving human education efforts often offer recreationresources towards a concern for the overall programs or basic literacy and numeracy. Aspolicy framework and environment in which the situation stabilizes and security isindividuals and organizations operate and assured, more formal schools areinteract with each other, as well as the established, utilizing curricula from theformal and informal relationships between country of origin or from the host country.institutions (Global Environment Facility Education in emergencies also includes2003:16). And, it is integral party of efforts to reestablish education systemssustainability (Kalden, Munas 2009). when the conflict has ended. Formal schoolsImproving education, the EFA-FTI argued, are just one of the services offered. Non-is not simply a matter of inputting ‗more formal classes for youth and adults,money‘ into national Ministries of preschools, vocational education, and otherEducation. It must take place in the context non-formal programs are others.of a much broader discussion about thechallenges of education provision, quality The importance of education in emergenciesand delivery, and putting the best formulated gained momentum in the 1990s with theplans into practice (Federal Ministry for recognition that at the time half of some 100Economic Cooperation and Development, million out-of-school children lived conflict-2007). It becomes obvious that capacity or disaster- affected states (Globaldevelopment is needed as a strong Education Cluster, 2011: 5). Education infoundation for effective change (UNESCO, emergencies was recognized as an2011 a: 27). Education for All flagship as part of the Dakar Framework for Action in 2000.1.3 Education in Emergencies Further, the recognition of the education as a (EiE): need and right for disaster and conflictEducation in emergencies (EiE) is the affected population increased significantlyformal and non-formal education provided after the subsequent founding of INEE1 andto children and youth whose access tonational or community education systems 1 The INEE, Inter-Agency for Education in Emergencies, ishas been destroyed by war or other an open global network of practitioners and policy makers working together to ensure all persons the right to qualityhumanitarian calamities (AED, 2003:7). education and a safe learning environment in emergencies through to recovery. 15
  • 16. the development of the INEE Minimum humanitarian response and recovery. AStandards for Education in Emergencies, further important development was theChronic Crises and Early reconstruction in adaption, in July 2010, by the UN General2004. The establishment of the Education Assembly, of the resolution on education inCluster has succeeded in further affording emergencies entitled ‗The Right toeducation in emergencies greater recognition Education in Emergency Situationand funding as part of immediate (A/64/L.58)‘. Table 2 Development of Education in Emergencies Year Milestone in EiE 1990 Gaining momentum in education in emergencies 2000 EiE recognized in Education for All 2004 Development of Minimum Standards for Education in Emergencies The establishment of Global Education Cluster July 2010 The UN General Assembly, of the resolution on education in emergencies entitled ‗The Right to Education in Emergency Situation (A/64/L.58)‘. Organized by Munas Kalden (2011)1.4 Capacity Development for the two that enables an organization to Education in Emergencies: create value‘. Such a definition implies thatAfter having understood the meaning of the specific competency of an individualcapacity development, it is important for staff member (in a supportive organizationaleducation in emergencies practitioners to framework with clear job descriptions,know about what are the skills, ability and satisfactory salary, sufficient training), orcapabilities needed in order to perform, and the collective capability of a departmentcreate space for access to quality education (able to adapt to the constraints of non-in the context of education in emergencies. formal processes of the institutional culture and to the instability of the socio-economic-1.4.1 Five Core Capabilities political context), can only be consideredBaser and Morgan (2008: 34) distinguish capacity when they are part of a creative andbetween competencies, which are individual collaborative process (De Grauwe, 2009:attributes; capabilities, which are collective 55).ones; and capacity as the ‗combination of 16
  • 17. Figure 1: Five Core CapabilitiesThe core capabilities are 1) to commit and ‗combination of the two that enables anengage, 2) to carry out technical, service organization to create value‘ for prepare for,delivery, and logistical tasks, 3) to relate and respond to and recover from emergencies.to attract resources and support, 4) to adapt Then, the question remains that are thereand self-renew and 5) to balance diversity specific competencies and capabilities forand coherence. perform the business of education in emergencies in other world: what is the1.5 Competencies, Capabilities capacity meant for education in and EiE: emergencies? This needs deliberation. I would prefer to visualize this puzzle andIf we convinced to the unpacking of equation, C+C=C, as follow.capacity: competencies, which areindividual attributes; capabilities, which arecollective ones; and capacity as the Figure 2 the Equation of Capacity: C+C=C {Exponent: Munas Kalden (2011)} 17
  • 18. ‗Yes‘ is the simple answer to the question: restore of, and access to education services,does education in emergencies need specific as early as possible.competencies. And, also ‗yes‘ that EiErequires set of capabilities, derived fromcollective one in an organization, engaged in 1.5.1 Key Competencies for EiE:the business of education in emergencies, in The following is the set of key competenciesorder to prepare for, respond to, and recover needed to carry out education infrom an emergency ,collectively, as well as emergencies related activities.The core capability Competencies and capabilities related to education in emergenciesto commit and engage (in  political will for education in emergencyeducation emergencies related  develop its own motivation and commitment and then to act onactivities) and around emergencies  emergency leadership  working with the elite groups who form the educational leadership  understanding the incentive and interest structures that motivate and shape the behaviour and interaction of elite groups  the leadership of the Minister/y of Education  the leadership of the Disaster Management Authority/Centre  Ensuring that education policy on emergency to carry out technical, service  Applying Minimum Standards for Education in Emergenciesdelivery, and logistical tasks o Community Participation o Analysis o Access and Learning Environment o Teaching and Learning o Teachers and Other Education Personnel o Education Policy and Coordination  Implementing Temporary Learning Spaces o Temporary Learning Space Planning  Coordination of Education Cluster/Sector o Structure and Governance of an Education Cluster / Sector o Emergency Coordination o Emergency Funding o Disaster Preparedness o Capacity Mapping for Education Emergency Response  Strategic planning and management for education in emergencies  Planning Emergency Education Curricula  Planning Teacher Mobilisation and Training  Planning School Repair and Construction 18
  • 19.  Planning Resumption of Formal Education  Education in Emergencies Assessment o Education Assessment Planning o Multi-Sectoral Rapid Assessment  Planning Emergency Education Response o Data Analysis Planning for Education Response  Planning Monitoring of Education Response  Fiduciary management  Delivery of services  Human and Financial Resources o Staff Identification and Mobilisation Planning  Supplies and Logistics o Emergency Education Kits o Supply and Distribution Planning o Supply Delivery and Monitoring  Disaster Risk Reduction o School Disaster Reduction & Readiness o Ensuring Access to Education during and after Armed Conflict o Preparedness and response planning o Preparedness and Contingency Planning o preparedness and policy planning for education in emergenciesto relate and to attract resources  Relating and surviving by securing support and protection, oftenand support in competition  Cooperation with other actors  Earning credibility and legitimacy,  Mobilisation and Training of Teachers and other Education Personnel  Strategies for teacher compensation  Rehabilitation and Construction of Schools o Engaging Stakeholders in School Repair and Construction  Buffering the organization  System from intrusions and political capture during emergencies  Eearning the trust of others, such as donors and clients,  Combining political neutrality and assertive advocacy  Diplomacy and communicationThe core capability to adapt and  Psychosocial Support and Strategiesself-renew o Reconciling the symptom of stress in children in emergencies o Psychological supports and strategies for children in emergencies o Mental Health and Psychosocial Support in Emergency 19
  • 20. Settings  Emergency Education Curricula o Survival skills: learning to live where you live o Learning skills: learning to learn  Resumption of Formal Education o Student Reintegration o Reintegration of Teachers  Adaptability  Self-renewal  Seizing the many positive opportunities for change  Monitoring and Evaluation  Improving individual and organizational learning  Fostering internal dialogue  Reposition and reconfigure the organization  incorporating new ideas  mapping out a growth path  Strategizing, prioritizing, and restructuring itselfto balance diversity and  Manage diversity and to manage paradox and tension.coherence  Gender and Inclusion in Emergency Education o Inclusion Strategies for Education in Emergencies o Prevention strategies for sec and gender based violence  Encouraging both stability and innovation, and balancing the other four core capabilities  Doing with the necessary trade-offs, for example between being technocratic and political at once, having ‗hard‘ and ‗soft‘ capabilities, focusing externally as well as internally, focusing on the short versus the long term  Decentralizing  Balancing act between direction and participation  Managing paradox and tensionFigure 3 Applying Five Capabilities in Education in Emergencies, Munas Kalden (2011) 20
  • 21. They are interconnected and one is contributing to another. 21
  • 22. Cluster/Sector, 3) Education Assessment, 4)The consensus view is that capacity Emergency Education Response Planning,development, in education emergencies, is 5) Human and Financial Resources, 6)the primary responsibility of partner Supplies and Logistics, 7) Temporarycountries, Ministry of Education (MoET), in Learning Spaces, 8) Psychosocial Support,collaboration with Disaster Management 9. Emergency Education Curricula, 10)Authority (DMA) with donors playing a Mobilisation and Training of Teachers andsupportive role. While clear enough in Other Education Personnel, 11)principle, this raises an important set of Rehabilitation and Construction of Schools,issues for those responsible for its 12) Resumption of Formal Education, 13)operationalization at country level. Once Gender and Inclusion in Emergencyagain, there are questions at the enabling Education, 14) Monitoring and Evaluation,environment, organisational and individual 15) Disaster Risk Reduction, 16) Emergencylevels of analysis. The above are the set of Education during and after Armed Conflict,competencies and capabilities contribute to and 17) Preparedness and Contingencycapacity in education in emergencies. These Planning.competencies are tailored through capacitydevelopment training package of 1)Minimum Standards for Education inEmergencies, 2) Coordination of Education 22
  • 23. © Munas Kalden/UNICEF/2011Measuring Change inCapacity Development 23
  • 24. 2. Measuring Change in Capacity Development 2.1. Evaluability: Methodology Right-based approaches to development complex puzzle of CD (Oritiz and Taylor, have been prompted since the late 90s, but 2009:12). Therefore, the assessment is also very little progress has been made in finding an effort to identify the knowledge gap to ways to measure the effectiveness of such respond to the expectation of the approaches. The contested concept of participants. On the other hand, it also helps empowerment is generally regarded as the capacity developers on how capacity key outcome of right-based approaches, but development strategies on DRR and EiE are has eluded quantification and attempt at used, what results are achieved, and how measurement are often dismissed as appropriate these results are in bringing anecdotal (Jupp and Ali, 2010:15). Without about desired changes in human effective planning, monitoring and development for building culture of safety in evaluation, it would be impossible to judge schools. This is also encourages emergency if capacity development (CD) is going in the managers and development agencies to right direction, whether progress and success focus on building partnerships and can be claimed, and how future efforts might collaboration and ensure greater coherence. be improved. Similarly, it promotes stronger focus on sustainability through measures that enhance The many angles of capacity demonstrate national ownership and capacity the richness and daunting nature of the development. subject. Monitoring and evaluation are fundamentally about measurement, which we look to in order to help decipher this 24
  • 25. 2.2. Participatory Collective WebThis is a participatory tool tailored, 5. Education in Emergenciesspecifically, for this exercise by the Assessmentconsultant. All the topics, that were included 6. Education in Emergencies: Responsein the capacity development training of Planningtrainers training (ToT) were printed andpasted in the web, as given in the figure 4.From center to the edge of the circle, it wasgive value starting from 0, 10, 20, 30-100. Ifthe participant assumes that s/he does nothave any knowledge, it is explained to make‗0‘ against the particular topic, given in theweb. If the participant assumes of s/heknowledge on a given topic is very good,then s/he has to mark at the values of ‗100‘. © Munas Kalden/UNICEF/2011Each and every participant wants to mark inall topics given in the web, before theworkshop starts.Before the workshop:All the participants were given enough time Figure 4: Participatory Web: Assessing Pre-to mark their levels of understanding against knowledgeeach topic that covered in the workshop. Thepre knowledge of the each and every topicwas captured as baseline. The workshop 7. Temporary Learning Spacestopics are as follow: 8. Gender and Inclusion in 1. Emergencies and Their Impact on Emergencies Children and Education 9. Education in Emergency: Monitoring 2. Rationale for Education in and Evaluation Emergencies 10. Disaster Risk Reduction in 3. Framework for Education in Education Emergencies: Technical Components 11. Action Planning for Education in 4. Framework for Education in Emergencies: Preparedness and Emergencies: Minimum Standards Contingency Planning 25
  • 26. After all the participants marked their levelsof understanding individually, they werecalled and given time to reflect, collectively.They knew their knowledge gap againsteach topic. This is also provided theopportunity to reflect themselves theremaining knowledge gap and commitmentexpected from them to fill, throughout the © Munas Kalden/UNICEF/2011workshop. Additionally, printed set ofreading material also provided to theparticipants.On the other hand, the facilitators were, also, Figure 5 Participatory Web: Assessing Post-given time, before beginning the session and knowledgeforaying into the real exercise, to criticallyreflect on the challenge posed andfacilitative knowledge cascading role in employed to get individual level offilling the gaps. This tool helped facilitators understanding on the same. Each and everyto set strategies in bridging the knowledge participant was given separate envelopegap portrayed by the participants. consisting of a questionnaire. They marked their level of understanding against theAfter the Workshop: topics, before they get into to the workshop.End of the closure of the workshop, the The closed envelopes were collected andparticipants were asked to tick their level of kept with the facilitators. At the end of theunderstanding, again, by ticking off their workshop, the same envelopes were returnedpresent knowledge gained against the to the corresponding participants for self-workshop topics in the same evaluation tool, assessment. They had marked the samethey have marked at the beginning of the workshop topic, after the workshop, theyworkshop. The evaluation tool was kept in a have gained, in terms of knowledge andseparate place, enabling them to make their skills.attainment freely.Individual Questionnaire:In addition to the participatory collectiveweb (PCW) tool, the questionnaire is also 26
  • 27. Lesotho National Training of Trainers on Education in Emergencies (26-28 Sep 2011): -Training Impact Assessment on Knowledge and Skill Before the Training After the Training Knowledge Skill Knowledge Skill Not at all Not at all Not at all Not at all V. Good V. goodNo Session Topic Good Good Good Good Very Very Fai r Fai r Fai r Fai r good good good Poor Poor Poor Poor 1. Emergencies and Their Impact on Children and Education 2. Rational for Education in Emergencies 3. Framework for Education in Emergencies: Technical Components 4. Framework for Education in Emergencies: Minimum Standards 5. Education in Emergencies Assessment 6. Education in Emergencies: Response Planning 7. Temporary Learning Spaces 8. Gender and Inclusion in Emergencies 9. Education in Emergencies: -Monitoring and Evaluation 10. Disaster Risk Reduction in Education 11. Action Planning for Education in Emergencies : Preparedness and Contingency Planning 27
  • 28. Participants: There were 37 participants. Of them, 24 female and 13 were male. The selection was in consultation with the Ministry of Education, Disaster Management Authority and UNICEF. The priority was given for those who engaged in education in emergencies and their horizontal. The participants from the availability for future works. Ministries and government departments The workshop reflected the consisted of four key institutions: Ministry of © Munas Kalden/UNICEF/2011 Education and Training (MoET), which the prime body for policy formulation and implementation, in relation toFigure 7: Heterogeneity in Participation and Institutional Representation education and heterogeneity in participation, emergencies, represented by the Chief represented from government: Ministry Officer Curriculum Development, of Education (MoET), Disaster Disaster Management Authority, the Fire Management Authority (DMA), the Fire Brigades and National Curriculum Brigades, National Curriculum Development Centre (NCDC). These Development Centre (NCDC) and government official interacted among INGOs: Save the Children, Red Cross, them ad strengthened their working as well as UN agency: UNICEF- relationship. Vertically, the Lesotho. representatives from I/NGOs, Save the Children and Red Cross maximized the Improved Working Relationship: relational aspect of the workshop ad The residential workshop, in addition to relationship skills, during the three days. the content on EiE, also created space to A participant from UNICEF, interact among participants and created procurement and supply division, is, attachment points which in turn also, capitalized this opportunity. This improved a working relationship among relationship is important to engage in them. This is of twofold: vertical and emergencies. 28
  • 29. Knowledge Gained:Based on the questionnaire, received capacity. It attempts, in the case offrom the participants, the following Lesotho, by trying to improve, replicateassessment strongly supports the or scale up other primary education inassertion that this workshop enhanced or emergencies activities and programmaticstrengthened the ability, competencies of intervention. (Key to the followingthem in the topics of education in assessment-na: not at all; p: poor; f: fair;emergencies, tailored to develop the g: good; and vg: very good) 29
  • 30. 30
  • 31. Capacity development, in education in ESARO, 2010). A first step in achievingemergencies, is UNICEF‘s core this objective is training of frontlinefunction. Capacity is competencies, responders from Ministries of Educationwhich are individual attributes; and other authorities from national,capabilities, which are collective ones; provincial and district levels, and keyand capacity as the ‗combination of the education actors (ibid). The content, oftwo that enables an organization to the training, has substantially contributedcreate value‘ for prepare for, respond to to developing the capacity of frontlineand recover from emergencies. It is responders in Lesotho by laying aachieved through training of individuals, foundation for developing coretraining of teams in the field, capabilities to commit and engage, carryorganizational development and the out technical, service delivery, logisticalpromotion of enabling coordinating tasks in education in emergencies, andenvironment. support, adapt, self-renew in recovery, balance diversity and coherence in theTherefore, the objective of this ToT local emergency setting.training was to build and strengthensustainable national emergencypreparedness and response capacity inthe education sector in ESAR holisticallyand strategically, by supporting nationalauthorities at all levels(UNICEF, 31
  • 32. © Munas Kalden/UNICEF/2011Lessons Learnt:Done Many, Want to Do More 32
  • 33. 3 Lessons Learnt: Done Many, Want to Do More This section shares the lessons learnt in 2) Enhanced Knowledge and Skills: developing capacity of education in the process of emergencies, involved in Lesotho‘s cascading education sector. The views and opinions expressed in this section those of the consultant do not necessarily represent the views of UNICEF. 3.1 Education in Emergencies Capacity Development Outcomes The following is few that the team has achieved through this ToT training. knowledge 1) Raised Awareness: the Figure 8: Education in Emergencies- Capacity participants improved their Development Outcomes understanding and increased confidence on education in and skill on EiE has provided emergencies. They are motivated new knowledge and skills. This to work on improving EiE. has been lustrated in the section two of this report. 33
  • 34. 3) Improved Consensus and than invest in transfer the skills‘ (De Teamwork: the training brought Grauwe, A. 2009:102). The training has different elements, engaged in equipped them with the tools to do their education in emergencies, business better. Disaster Management Authority (DMA), MoET, Fire Brigade, Red Cross, & the Save the children and laid the foundation for coordination. 4) Enhanced Networks: also these different bodies has expressed their willingness to continue to commit and engaged in EiE related activities in schools. The comment interest and process for collaboration are two key factors for enhancing network among them. Figure 9: Training of Trainers o Education in 5) New Implementation Know-how: Emergencies- Lessons Leant in Lesotho the assertion is that they have improved their implementation of Provide a capacity development know-how in education in training, even if it is for limited days emergencies technical and not The full package of the training, on technical components. Education in Emergencies, is designed for one week. Considering the resources, including the time, it was advised to shorten for three days. This is a challenge for the facilitators, as well as3.2 Lessons Learnt: cascading ‗the wholeness‘ of training. Give practitioners the tools to do their The topics are logically structured; jobs better removing one from ‗the wholeness‘ has We do expect the national staff attached implication on the process of cascading to the Ministry of Education and knowledge and skills. Albeit, expected to practitioners to be proactive and prepares conduct the training for three days, with for emergencies. It requires set of tools well thought selected topics. Go ahead to perform. The tools provide confidence with capacity development training, even and make them being proactive. ‗A lack if it is for limited days. But, the material, of these skills among national staff also tailored for one week, provided to the makes it more probable that international participants to benefit from the ‗the TAs will simply ‗do the work‘ rather wholeness‘. 34
  • 35. Create network among the practitionersPre-knowledge assessment makes the Learning is an ongoing process. It needsfacilitation more meaningful to be connected to the participants andThe facilitators must know the levels of practitioners. Even, those who have beenunderstanding of the participants on the trained by the Regional Office (ESAR)subjects. This has to be done in need to practice what they have gainedparticipation with the learners. This in 2009. Networking is one of strategieshelps the facilitators in redesigning the for further learning and engaging in themethodologies and time to be spent for field.the subject areas that are needed moreattention. And, participants also reflect The art of the possible: Ministries,on the filling knowledge gap and their DMA, NCDC, Fire Brigade, UNICEFcommitment. Share the result with both and NGOsparticipants and facilitators, before In the context of education inbeginning the training and adjust emergencies, the key actors are Ministryfacilitation methodologies taking of Education, Disaster Managementknowledge gap into account. Authority, UN agencies, Fire Brigades, psychosocial service providers, andFun for results I/NGOs involved in education. Most ofPedagogy for adult differs. In the recent the actors, brought together for thispast, it is known as kinesthetic learning. training, are of the art of the possible inIt is a learning style in which learning education in emergencies.takes place by the student actuallycarrying out a physical activity, rather Begin with local and nationalthan listening to a lecture or merely The training was facilitated by nationalwatching a demonstration. It is also staff. This is salient feature of thereferred to as tactile learning. People capacity development and ensuring thewith a kinesthetic learning style are also ownership. This could be also used ascommonly known as do-ers entry point for improving education in(Wikipedia). The activities could be emergency in Lesotho. We have doneintroduced through participatory tools, many and want to do more.known as participatory appraisal tools(PRA). It is, really, fun; but for results.And, also the leaning is interesting withactive contribution of participants. 35
  • 36. ReferencesAED, 2003, The Education Imperative, Supporting Education in Emergencies,Produced by the Academy for Educational Development (AED) and the Women‘sCommission for Refugee Women and Children with support from AED and theMellon Foundation .Baser, H.; Morgan, P. 2008. Capacity, change and performance. DiscussionPaper 59B. Maastricht: European Centre for Development Policy Management(ECDPM). Retrieved1 November2011from:http://www.ecdpm.org/Web_ECDPM/Web/Content/Download.nsf/0/5321BD4DC0C1DB09C1257535004D1982/$FILE/PMB21-e_capacitystudy.pdf based on thequotation in On the road to resilience Capacity development with the Ministry ofEducation in Afghanistan Edited by Morten Sigsgaard, France: UNESCO, 2011,p. 34De Grauwe, A. 2009. Without capacity, there is no development. Paris: IIEP-UNESCO. Retrieved 30 October 2011 from: www.iiep.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Cap_Dev_Rethinking/pdf/CapDev_Synthesis.pdfDee Jupp and Sohel Bin Ali, 2010, Measuring Empowerment? Ask ThemQuantifying qualitative outcomes from people‘s own analysis Insights for results-based management from the experience of a social movement in Bangladesh,SODA.Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development, BMZ, 2007,Capacity Development for Education for All: Putting policy into practice – AnInternational Forum, Summary of Outcomes. Bonn, Germany.Global Education Cluster, 201, Education Cluster Strategic Plan 2011-2013,Geneva: Global Education Cluster.Global Environment Facility, 2003, Strategic Approach to Enhance CapacityBuilding. Washington: Global Environmental Facility.Hite, Steven., and De Grauwe, Anton, 2009, Capacity Development inEducational Planning, Learning from successes and failures, France: UNESCO-IIEP. 36
  • 37. IIEP the International Institute for Educational Planning World Bank, 2005,Capacity Building in Africa, an OED Evaluation of World Bank Support,Washington: The World Bank.INEE, 2010, (second edition). Minimum Standards for Education: preparedness,response, recovery, USA: Interagency Network for Education in Emergencies.JICA, UNDP, CIDA and World Bank,2003, Report- International Symposium onCapacity Development and Aid Effectiveness Manila, Philippines January 14-16,2003 http://www.undp.org/ capacity/symposiumKalden, Munas. (2009). Knowledge Management as Integral Part ofSustainability. Canada: 19th World Conference on Disaster Management.Retrieved 01 November 2011 from:http://www.wcdm.org/2009SpeakerPPT/Munas-Kalden-Monday.pdfLopes, Carlos., and Theisohn, Thomas., 2003, Ownership, Leadership andTransformation can we do better for capacity development?, UNDP.OCDE, 2006, The Challenge of Capacity Development working towards goodpractice, france: organisation for economic co-operation and development.Ortiz, Alfredo., and Taylor, Peter, 2009, Learning Purposefully in CapacityDevelopment, Why, What and When to Measure? France: UNESCO.UNESCO, 2011 a, TRANSLATING THEORY INTO PRACTICE, United NationsThe CapEFA Programme, France: UNESCO.UNESCO,2011, EFA Global Monitoring Report 2011. The Hidden Crisis: ArmedConflict and Education. Paris: UNESCOUNICEF (ESARO), 2010, National Capacity Development for Education inemergencies in the Eastern and Sothern African RegionWikipedia, Kinesthetic learninghttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kinesthetic_learning accessed on 28 September2011. 37
  • 38. Appendix:Appendix01- Participants List Participants ListNAME GENDER GEOGRAPHY/DISTRIC ORG/INSTMabatlokoa F DMAMoloiMatseliso F MOET - SSRFUMorahanyeMamoipone F Thaba-Tseka MOETSenauoaneFlora M. F NCDC - CentralMokhitliTsepo Mohale M MOET - SSUThato H. Lebetsa F MOETManapo Mabea F Mokhotlong MOETMamoeresi F Mokhotlong DRTLebekoMosiuoa M QachasNek DRTNthakongMotlatsi M MohalesHoek DRTChobobaneLebenya M QachasNek MOETMothibeliTanki Motumane F MOETLeemisa Mokone M MOET - EFUHalieo Lebesa- F MOET - EFUPitsoMampoi Theko F LeribeMabatho Fransi F Quthing DRTLimakatso F Berea MOETRakeketsiMatsikoane F Berea DRTTsikoane 38
  • 39. Maselebalo Kali F MOET - ECCDDeborah F LRCSNkokanaSylvia Nkuebe F LRCSBorane Mofatisa M Quthing DRTMampho F Maseru DRTMakakoleMamohlabinyane F Maseru DRTRamoseekaMathato Mabote F MafetengB.B. Matsunyane M Mafeteng DRTI. S. Rasalemane M Thaba-Tseka DRTM. R. Molise M MOET - NCDCM. Mosoang M QuthingM. Matjeli F Butha-Buthe DRTM. Makibi F Butha-ButheL. J. Sechache M Fire BregadeLati Makara F Maseru UNICEFMpewi Semoli F Maseru UNICEFMotselisi Shale F Maseru Lesotho Save the ChildrenMakhaola Koatsi M MOETLebohang M DMAMoletsaneNtsilane E. F DMABaholo 39
  • 40. Making DifferenceMeasuring Change An Experience of Capacity Development on Education in Emergencies from Lesotho 40