Being and bringing together:a brief introduction to sport for development and peace by munas kalden
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Being and bringing together:a brief introduction to sport for development and peace by munas kalden Being and bringing together:a brief introduction to sport for development and peace by munas kalden Document Transcript

  • A Brief Introduction to Sport for Development and PeaceBeing and Bringing Together Munas Kalden 1
  • Being and Bringing Together: A Brief Introduction to Sport for Development and PeacebuildingA Brief Introduction to Sport for Development and PeaceBeing and Bringing Together© Munas Kalden (2011), published by alyaklah, 51/2, Kumaradasa Place, Wellampitiya, Sri Lanka 2
  • Being and Bringing Together: A Brief Introduction to Sport for Development and PeacebuildingTable of Contents 1.1. Introduction.................................................................................................................................. 6 1.2. Defining Sport in the Development Context: .......................................................................... 9 1.3. Adding Value by Including Peace into Development: ......................................................... 10 References: ........................................................................................................................................... 18Figure 1: Young Girls from Tamils and Sinhalese are interacting in Amparai, Sri Lanka. The project wasfacilitated by UNDP ..................................................................................................................................... 10Figure 2: Tamil Students from Jaffna, Sri Lanka Empowered for Learning amidst War. Theproject funded by UNICEF. ..................................................................................................................... 12Figure 3: Development plus Sport and Sport plus Development ...................................................... 15 3
  • Being and Bringing Together: A Brief Introduction to Sport for Development and PeacebuildingBeing and Bringing TogetherSport and play are deeply-rooted human needs. Through sport, children are able to testthemselves in peaceful competition against opponents, to learn how to deal with victoryand defeat, to accept rules, to discover the limits of their bodies or to integrate as amember of a team. Sport also lets children learn and practice fundamental social skillscombining fun and play – skills by the way which go far beyond sport in theirimportance. They are crucial for peaceful co-existence in every society and for a life ofself-determination of every individual.Therefore, sport is not a luxury in a society. On the contrary, sport is an importantinvestment in the present and the future – particularly in the countries that arerecovering from conflict. Sport has a proven positive impact on social cohesion,reconciliation and community coexistence on the one hand, and on physical and mentalhealth on the other as well as a superlative ability to bring people together acrossborders of all kinds.These unique qualities make sport an ideal motor for peacebuilding and developmentprocesses at the individual and social levels. Sport is not a new topic in developmentcooperation, but after many years during which its potential was not specifically andsystematically used, there exists today a rapidly growing consensus that sport and playcan make an important contribution to recover from conflict, build peace and achieving 4
  • Being and Bringing Together: A Brief Introduction to Sport for Development and Peacebuildingnational development goals and peacebuilding objectives, including the MillenniumDevelopment Goals (MDGs).A symbol of this realisation is the resolution by the UN General Assembly making 2005the International Year of Sport and Physical Education. It aims to make the benefits ofsport for peace, development, education and health available to all – in conflict and postconflict countries.Two things in particular are needed to make this succeed: one, a stronger awarenessby all actors – UN agencies, international organisations, governments, sportsassociations, the private sector, aid groups, the peacebuilding practitioners anddevelopment community and the media – of the considerable potential of sport, andtwo, greater cooperation between all actors.I have prepared this booklet during my work with UNDP, Sri Lanka in its transitionrecovery programme. I have contributed, during 2009-2010, to sport for peace anddevelopment initiatives. Primarily, it was prepared to build the capacity of staff,implementing partners and sport coach. This is an updated version. Munas Kalden munas.kalden@gmail.com 5
  • Being and Bringing Together: A Brief Introduction to Sport for Development and PeacebuildingSport for Developmentand Peacebuilding1.1. Introduction What does sport have to do with peace and development? Only a few years ago this question would have had many experts scratching their heads in puzzlement. A lot has changed in the meantime. Sport now occupies a firm place on the development policy agenda and even skeptics admit that contribution of sport to peace and development has considerable potential. Sport has the power to change the world. It has the power to inspire. It has the power to unite the people in a way that little else does. It speaks to youth in a language they understand. Sport can create hope where once there was only despair. It is more powerful than governments. It brings down racial barriers. -Nelson Mandela (at the ‘Laureus World Sports Awards’ in Abu Dhabi on March 10, 2010)People in every nation love sport. Its use their talents to the fullest, learn thevalues are universal. And when young ideals of teamwork and tolerance, andpeople participate in sports or have be drawn away from the dangers ofaccess to physical education, they can drugs and crime. -Kofi Annanbuild up their health and self-esteem, (UNESCO, 2009, p. 22) 6
  • Being and Bringing Together: A Brief Introduction to Sport for Development and Peacebuilding approaches, and stages needed toSport for Development and Peace refers transform conflict toward moreto the intentional use of sport, physical sustainable, peaceful relationships. Theactivity and play to attain specific term thus involves a wide range ofdevelopment and peace objectives, activities that both precede and followincluding, most notably, the Millennium formal peace accords. Metaphorically,Development Goals (MDGs). United peace is seen not merely as a stage inNations General Assembly recalled its time or a condition. It is a dynamic socialdecision to include sport for peace and construct." Lederach speaks of conflictdevelopment (UN, 2003). It encourages transformation as a holistic and multi-Governments and United Nations faceted approach to managing violentSystem to seek new and innovative conflict in all its phases. The termways to use sport for communication signifies an ongoing process of changeand social mobilization, particularly at from negative to positive relations;the national, regional and local levels, behavior, attitudes and structures.engaging civil society through active The integrated approach toparticipation and ensuring that target peacebuilding must take into accountaudiences are reached. And, sport plays the complex and multi-dimensionala vital role in sustaining peaceful nature of the human experience and relyrelationship and changing from negative on broad social participation. "Ato positive relations, behavior, attitudes sustainable transformative approachand structures. John Paul Lederach suggests that the key lies in the(1997) refers this as peacebuilding. relationship of the involved parties, with all that the term encompasses at thePeacebuilding, according to him, "is psychological, spiritual, social,more than post-accord reconstruction" economic, political and military levels."and "is understood as a comprehensive Cultivating an "infrastructure forconcept that encompasses, generates, peacebuilding" means that "we are notand sustains the full array of processes, merely interested in ending something 7
  • Being and Bringing Together: A Brief Introduction to Sport for Development and Peacebuildingthat is not desired. We are oriented - including persons with disabilitytoward the building of relationships that andin their totality form new patterns, - preventing conflict and buildingprocesses, and structures." peace (Sports for Development and Peace International WorkingIt has been recognized as the means to Group, 2008).“bridge social, religious, racial andgender divides, hence contributing to At the end of 2003, the UN Generallasting peace” (Beutler, 2008: 365). Assembly adopted a resolution on theWhile sport has already been fair-well role of sport as a means to promoteestablished as a tool in development health, education, development andschemes, especially the “last decade peace. It proclaimed 2005 as thehas seen a substantial increase in the International Year for Sport and Physicaluse of sport to assist specific Education, stating that “the Uniteddevelopment programs” (Levermore, Nations is turning to the world of sport2008: 56), resulting in an ongoing for help in the work for peace and thepopping up of sport-in-development effort to achieve the Millenniumprojects (Van Eekeren, 2006). National Development Goals.” Since then, sportgovernments, international has also been reconfirmed as a tool toorganizations, NGOs and locally based accelerate the achievement of thecommunity organizations (CBOs) put Millennium Development Goals and togreat efforts on them and are convinced promote peace. The MDGs wereof their benefits, in terms of established by the UN and were - promoting health and preventing originally supposed to be reached by the disease, end of 2015. Their major aim was to - promoting child and youth focus world attention and resources on development, the eradication of global poverty (cp. Beutler, 2008; UNOSDP, 2010a; - promoting gender equality and UNOSDP, 2010b). empowering girls and women, 8
  • Being and Bringing Together: A Brief Introduction to Sport for Development and Peacebuilding paucity of evidence that justifies the useSport is increasingly recognized as an of sport in these roles” (Kay, 2009:important tool in helping the United 1177). Theory-guided research,Nations achieve its objectives, in evaluation and monitoring are stillparticular the Millennium Development limited, and empirical evidence to testGoals (MDGs). By including sport in the effects of interventions is raredevelopment and peace programmes in (Levermore & Beacom, 2009). Ina more systematic way, the United addition, and in order to achieve theNations can make full use of this cost- objective of development and peace,efficient tool to help us create a better there is a need to redesign the image,world. Ban Ki-Moon (UNESCO, 2009: and understanding, of the term “sport”22). (UNESCO, 2009: 7) in developmentSport is acknowledged as having the setting and peacebuilding context.unique power to reach developmentalobjectives (Gschwend & Selvaraju, 1.2. Defining Sport in the2006) - but can sport really live up to its Development Context:expectations? Does sport actually make Definitions of the term “sport” vary. In aa contribution to those people for whose development context, the definition ofbenefits the sport-in-development sport usually includes a broad andprojects are set up? How much is truly inclusive spectrum of activities suitableknown about the effects of such to people of all ages and abilities, withprojects? Do their claims endure in an emphasis on the positive values ofreality? sport. In 2003, the UN Inter-Agency Task Force on Sport for DevelopmentWhile many of the stakeholders take and Peace defined sport, for thesport-in-development-projects outcomes purposes of development, as “all formsfor granted, some project leaders and of physical activity that contribute toorganizations have been more critical, physical fitness, mental well-being and“posing searching questions about the social interaction, such as play, 9
  • Being and Bringing Together: A Brief Introduction to Sport for Development and Peacebuildingrecreation, organized or competitive as „ill-defined interventions with hard-to-sport, and indigenous sports and follow outcomes‟ (quoted in Coalter,games” (UN, 2003). This definition has 2007: 31), could be viewed as especiallybeen accepted by many proponents of relevant to much policy rhetoric in sport-Sport for Development and Peace and for-development. Sport has consistentlyis the working definition of sport for the been regarded as „character building‟ –purposes of this study. not only developing certain personal and social skills, but also moral personality traits such as discipline, honesty, integrity, generosity and trustworthiness (President‟s Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, 2006). Further, the supposed efficacy of sport has been strengthened by being regarded as a „neutral‟ social space where all citizens,Figure 1: Young Girls from Tamils and Sinhalese are or so-called „sports people‟, met asinteracting in Amparai, Sri Lanka. The project wasfacilitated by UNDP equals in an environment regarded as an „unambiguously wholesome and healthy activity in both a physical and In the case of „sport-for- moral sense‟ (Smith and Waddington,development‟, which Kruse (2006: 8) 2004: 281).refers to as „intriguingly vague and openfor several interpretations‟, these 1.3. Adding Value by Includingoutcomes range from changed Peace into Development:individual sexual behaviour via In recent years, various organisationscommunity level social cohesion, to the and coalitions have grown up aroundachievement of „peace‟ at regional or the use of sport and sport in particularnational level. Pawson‟s (2004) more for social development andgeneral comment that much social peacebuilding – Homeless World Cup,policy intervention can be characterized 10
  • Being and Bringing Together: A Brief Introduction to Sport for Development and Peacebuildingstreetfootballword, Football for model of SDP project often uses sportDevelopment and Right to Play, as well for no other end than as a means ofas the International Platform for Sport getting people together to practise sportand Development (Sportanddev.org) – and develop their skills; social cohesionand Giulianotti (2009, 2010, 2011) has is built on the field of contest, or throughdone extensive work to map out the rise interacting together as part of theof the sector. Where the international procedures of a tournament.platform – sportanddev.org – terms thesector S&D (Sport and Development), Some examples in the dialogical modelGiulianotti calls it SDP (Sport, at least offer the possibility of changingDevelopment and Peace). The sector is the rules to facilitate the ends – e.g. ain the process of gathering existing goal scored by a girl counts double orinformation and establishing no goals count until a girl scores wouldcommunication and networks, at the be a rule-change that would facilitatesame time as moving to improve equality of gender or offer a space formonitoring and evaluation. It is young gender questions to be asked. Whereand vigorous, while appearing slightly the technical model might offer coachinglightweight in academic terms in a sport sponsored by a global drinks(Naughton, 2011: 17). manufacturer, the dialogical model is more likely to offer coaching to coaches,Giulianotti (2011) defines three models who can cascade the learning into theirof SDP project: technical, dialogical and communities, along with any add-onscritical. The first and second are the particular to the social issue beingmost commonly found at the moment, addressed - eg gender imbalance, orwhere they are largely directed from the ethnic or religious tension.outside by international NGOs orinstitutions or are even as part of The critical model is the leastcorporate social responsibility projects developed, according to Giulianottiof transnational giants. The technical (2011), but offers most transformational 11
  • Being and Bringing Together: A Brief Introduction to Sport for Development and Peacebuildingpossibilities, being based in and directed concern. For example, thefrom the grassroots, as well as having Norwegian Olympic Committee andless emphasis on the sport‟s own ends Confederation of Sports (NIF) startedas an end of the project – i.e. merely supporting sport for-all projects increating a team so that it will win, or Tanzania in 1984; Olympic Solidaritycoaching players only so they will distributes resources from theimprove in that sport. However, the television rights of the Olympiccritical model seems to be vague in Games to national Olympicdetail of real examples, and although Committees; the Dutch FA (KNVB)written from the point of view of supports the development of footballinclusion, seem to still be based on in countries with which it has historicintervention by northern or at least links; Commonwealth Gamesexternal agencies. Canada supports the Canadian Caribbean Coaching Certification Program. However, while all contain an element of altruism, such initiatives are often undertaken for clear diplomatic purposes (see Kidd, 2008).  Humanitarian assistance in which fund-raising in sport is used toFigure 2: Tamil Students from Jaffna, Sri Lanka provide forms of aid assistance,Empowered for Learning amidst War. The projectfunded by UNICEF. frequently for refugees. This isKidd (2008) suggests that there are exemplified by the early work ofthree broad, overlapping, approaches: Olympic Aid, some of the Traditional sports development in subsequent work of Right to Play, which the provision of basic sports the work of the British charity Sport coaching, equipment and Relief, and the partnership between infrastructure are the central 12
  • Being and Bringing Together: A Brief Introduction to Sport for Development and Peacebuilding UNICEF and Barcelona FC to Coalter (2007) suggests that another highlight issues and raise funds. approach to classification can be based The rather grandiosely named „sport- on the relative emphasis given to sport for-development-and-peace to achieve certain objectives: movement‟, which covers a wide  Traditional forms of provision for variety of organizations and loose sport, with an implicit assumption or coalitions (Kidd, 2008). It is probably explicit affirmation that such sport the case that most organizations and has inherent developmental projects tend to be more concerned properties for participants. with individual and community  Sport plus, in which sports are development, rather than the rather adapted and often augmented with amorphous and ill-defined goal of parallel programmes in order to „peace‟. maximize their potential to achieve developmental objectives.Levermore (2008) proposes an  Plus sport, in which sport‟salternative classification based on a popularity is used as a type of „flymore disaggregated approach to the paper‟ to attract young people todesired outcomes of sport-for- programmes of education anddevelopment organizations: conflict training (a widespread approach forresolution and inter-cultural HIV/AIDS prevention programmes),understanding; building physical, social with the systematic development ofand community infrastructure; raising sport rarely a strategic aim.awareness, particularly througheducation; empowerment; direct impact “Sport and Development” thus appearson physical and psychological health as a dynamic social sphere in whichand general welfare; economic different thrusts, actors and themesdevelopment and poverty alleviation. come together. So far there exist hardly any models which have a conceptual grasp of this fact. The graphic below 13
  • Being and Bringing Together: A Brief Introduction to Sport for Development and Peacebuilding(SDC, 2005: 19) is an attempt at an development organisations,integrated model which expresses this governments and NGOs. They use sportmulti-dimensionality. It is intended as a as an instrument to achieve specificcontribution to the formulation of an development goals such as the fightanalytical framework. against HIV/AIDS and the reintegration of street children. Ideally, these projects are integrated into broader developmentIn reality the boundaries are frequently programmes.fluid. Depending on the emphasis andintensity of the development dimension, Sport plus development: Typically, theseprojects may shift left or right on the projects are initiated by governmentscontinuum. Similar behavior can be and actors from the world of sport. Theyobserved regarding themes: The aim to promote sport and sportoverlapping nature of sport enables it to education in schools and consider sportbe used as a cross-cutting instrument as a value in itself. Deliberately or notfor several themes. they can contribute to development through the formation of communityThe two thrusts can be characterised as structures, the promotion of income andfollows: the provision of infrastructures.Development plus sport: The startingpoint for these projects is mostly 14
  • Being and Bringing Together: A Brief Introduction to Sport for Development and PeacebuildingFigure 3: Development plus Sport and Sport plus DevelopmentOf course, there is a continuum of sport for the achievement of certain outcomesplus and plus sport programmes and (Coalter, 2007).differences are not always clear-cut,with outcomes being pursued via However, some of the critics alsovarying mixtures of organizational acknowledge that their analyses arevalues, ethics and practices, symbolic complicated by the longstandinggames and more formal didactic presence of a number of indigenousapproaches. In such circumstances sport-for-development organizations thatsport is mostly a vitally important are based on the local identification ofnecessary, but not sufficient condition needs, and act as vehicles for local initiative and development. For example, 15
  • Being and Bringing Together: A Brief Introduction to Sport for Development and Peacebuildingthe sport plus Mathare Youth Sport consolidated via the first InternationalAssociation (MYSA), currently the Conference on Sport and Developmentlargest youth soccer programme in in Magglingen, Switzerland in 2003. TheAfrica including 11 members of the scale of this recently emergedKenyan international football squad, was „movement‟ (Kidd, 2008) is indicated byestablished in Nairobi in 1987 (Atkins, the fact that 166 organizations are listedn.d.; Brady and Kahn, 2002; Coalter, in the International Platform on Sport2007; Hognestad and Tollisen, 2004; and Development. Kidd (2008: 371)Munro, 2005; Willis, 2000). Sports argues that this „movement‟ isCoaches‟ Outreach (SCORE) was qualitatively and quantitatively differentestablished in South Africa in 1991, with from previous, rather fragmented and adits origins in foreign volunteers providing hoc interventions:sports opportunities for disadvantagedschool children. Although volunteers The current manifestation is different inremain important, SCORE has the rapid explosion of agencies andincreasingly emphasized the importance organisations that are involved, theof local capacity building, community tremendous appeal that it has for youthdevelopment and local sustainability volunteering, the financial support it(Coalter, 2010). enjoys from the powerful international sports federations and the extent toHowever, the rapid development of the which it has been championed by thebroad-based sport-for-development United Nations, its agencies andmovement occurred in the late 1990s significant partners.along with the establishment oforganizations such as Edusport In 2003, Olympic Aid re-branded itselfFoundation, Zambia (1999), Magic Bus, as Right to Play and extended its directMumbai (1999) and EMIMA, Tanzania delivery remit (Darnell, 2007; Kidd,(2001) and the Kicking Aids Out network 2008), becoming more specifically ain 2001. These initiatives were „sport-for-development-and-peace‟ 16
  • Being and Bringing Together: A Brief Introduction to Sport for Development and Peacebuildingorganization and a major player in the by a gradual acceptance of sport as anew burgeoning „movement‟. So the human right, but by broader changesquestion is, where did this „movement‟ that enabled sport to argue for itscome from and why? (Coalter, 2010: utilitarian contributions to aspects of a299). new aid paradigm (Renard, 2006).The sport-for- development andpeacebuilding has been looked atthrough human right framework. Such abroad framework of human rights‟declarations and humanitarian actionsprovided a legitimating framework for aloose coalition of sporting organizationsto lobby for investment to widen sportingopportunities (Coalter, 2010). It laid thebasis for a certain degree of influence inthe international organizations that hadissued these declarations, especially theUnited Nations and its various agencies,such as UNICEF and UNDP.However, is seems undeniable that thegreat step, if not leap, forward for sport-for-development is to be explained not 17
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