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Input computer hardware notes for UCEand UACE ICT
 

Input computer hardware notes for UCEand UACE ICT

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This is a presentation containing comprehensive notes on Computer Hardware Unit 1: Input Computer Hardware. For more presentations of this type, please go to http://rmukalele.hpage.com

This is a presentation containing comprehensive notes on Computer Hardware Unit 1: Input Computer Hardware. For more presentations of this type, please go to http://rmukalele.hpage.com

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    Input computer hardware notes for UCEand UACE ICT Input computer hardware notes for UCEand UACE ICT Presentation Transcript

    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 2011840 COMPUTER STUDIES TOPIC 2:COMPUTER HARDWARECOMPUTER STUDIES DEPARTMENTJINJA COLLEGE04/21/13 1
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 2011TOPIC TWO:Computer HardwareTopic SummaryUnit One: Input DevicesUnit Two: Processing DevicesUnit Three: Storage DevicesUnit Four: Output Devices
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 20113
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 2011TOPIC 2: COMPUTER HARDWAREUnit One: Input DevicesCOMPUTER STUDIES DEPARTMENTJINJA COLLEGE4
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 2011Unit Introduction Input devices areused to enter dataor commands in aform that thecomputer canuse. They send thedata orcommands to theprocessing unit. According to the type of data theyinput, they can be grouped into thefollowing :a) Text input devicesb)Pointing input Devicesc) Imaging input Devicesd)Gaming input Devicese) Audio input Devicesf) Biometric input Devices andg)Other Specialized input devices5
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 2011a) Text input devices Text is a general word forall characters such asletters, numerical digits,symbols and marks thatcombine to form words,sentences, paragraphsand so on. There is a variety ofdevices that help us toinput text into a computer.Text input devices include:1. The keyboard,2. Voice RecognitionEquipment3. OMR and Barcode readers4. OCR and Optical readers5. MICR readers6. RFID readers7. Magnetic Strip CardReaders, etc.04/21/13 6
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 20111. The Keyboard Definition: A keyboard is an inputdevice, consisting of a set of keys(buttons) used to operate acomputer. Each press of a keycorresponds to a single writtencharacter of text, but to producesome symbols, it requirespressing and holding severalkeys simultaneously. Usually a standard keyboard hasbetween 80 to 110 keys. A keyboard is the main and mostreliable computer input device The QWERTY is referred to as the"Universal" keyboard. The name "QWERTY" comes fromthe first six letters in the topalphabet row (the one just belowthe numbers). There are other setups alsoavailable such as Dvorak, ABCDE,GKOS, QWERTZ and AZERTY Keypads, Keyers and chordedkeyboards have fewer keys,specially designed for devicessuch a pocket sized computers.04/21/13 7
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 2011The Keyboard (cont) Christopher LathamSholes was anAmerican newspaperpublisher In 1866, he inventedthe first practicaltypewriter and theQWERTY keyboardstill in use today.04/21/13 8TheSholestypewriter.(1866)
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 2011The Keyboard (cont)Advantages of Keyboard Keyboards are verycommon (commonlysupplied with computers) Entering data andcommands with keyboardis faster as compared tothe mouse Keyboards are morereliableDemerits of Keyboard It takes a lot of time topractice in order to typequickly Keys can easily becomefaulty due to dust. Some keyboards keysare very hard to press,causing fingers to hurt.04/21/13 9
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 20112. Voice RecognitionEquipment Voice RecognitionEquipment (a.k.a Speechrecognition ) convertsspoken words to text. Computers with Speechrecognition do not actuallyunderstand speech, butthey are programmed torecognize a vocabulary ofwords, which can rangefrom two words to millionsof words. Advantages No typing of data isnecessary. Voice recognition can beused by people whosehands are disabled. Dictating text is faster thantyping. Voice Recognition systemsare also ideal for the blind .04/21/13 10
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 201104/21/13 11HOW SPEECH RECOGNITION WORKS
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 20112. Voice RecognitionEquipment (cont) Demerits of text input by speech Recognition Error rate is high, depending on user’s accent. Words with the same pronunciations (Homophones)like see and sea can not be distinguished Speech Recognition does cant work in noisyenvironment The Voice Recognition software must be trained torecognize more words. It requires the user to speak in a writing style, i.e.even pronouncing the marks such as comma.04/21/1312
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 20113. Optical mark recognition(OMR) Optical mark recognition (OMR) devices read hand-drawn marks such as small circles or rectangles A person places these marks on a form, such as atest, survey, or questionnaire answer sheet. The OMR device first reads a master document, suchas an answer key sheet for a test, to record correctanswers based on patterns of light; the remaining documents then are passed throughthe OMR device and their patterns of light arematched against the master document.13
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 20113. OMR and Barcode readers14OMR test form, with registrationmarks and drop-out colors,designed to be scanned bydedicated OMR device
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 2011Barcode readers A bar code reader, is an optical reader that useslaser beams to read bar codes that are printedon items usually in super markets. A bar code is an identification code thatnormally consists of a set of vertical lines andspaces of different widths. The bar code represents some data thatidentifies the item and the manufacturer.15
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 2011Barcode readers16
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 2011Optical characterrecognition (OCR) Optical character recognition (OCR) is atechnology that involves reading typewritten,computer-printed, or handwritten charactersfrom ordinary documents and translating theimages into a form that the computer canunderstand. OCR devices include a small optical scanner forreading characters and sophisticated software(OCR software) for analyzing what is read.17
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 2011Opticalcharacterrecognition(OCR)18
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 20115. MICR readers A magnetic-ink character recognition (MICR)reader is used to read text printed withmagnetized ink. MICR readers are mainly used by the bankingindustry for processing checks Each check is inserted into an MICR reader,which sends the check information to acomputer for processing.19
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 20115. MICR readers20
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 20116. RFID readers Radio-frequency identification (RFID) is atechnology that uses radio waves to transferdata from an electronic tag, attached to anobject, through a reader for the purpose ofidentifying and tracking the object. RFID can work over a long distance. An RFID tag can be affixed to cars, computerequipment, books, mobile phones, etc21
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 20117. Magnetic Strip CardReaders A magnetic stripe card reader reads themagnetic stripe on the back of credit cards,bank ATM cards, and other similar cards. Exposure to a magnet or magnetic field canerase the information and contents of a cardsmagnetic stripe.22
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 20117. Magnetic Strip CardReaders23
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 2011b) Pointing Devices A pointing device is an inputdevice, which allows users tomove a pointer and makeselections on the computerscreen. A pointing device is any pieceof hardware that is used toinput spatial data into acomputer. There are many examples ofpointing devices such as:1. Mouse2. Stylus pen & digitizingtablet3. Cordless Mouse4. Trackball5. Touchpad6. Light pen7. Touch Screen8. A Track Point Etc.04/21/1324
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 20111. The Mouse Mouse - The mouse is a hand held device thatlets you point to and make selections of itemson your screen. In a PC mouse there are mostly 2-3 buttons. A ball under the mouse senses movement. An optical mouse uses a light-emitting diodeand photodiodes to detect movement relative tothe underlying surface.04/21/1325
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 20112. Stylus pen & digitizingtablet Stylus pen- The pen lets you draw on what iscalled a digitizing tablet that mirrors the surfacearea of the computer screen. The pen can be used as a standard mouse(without wires connected to it) or also as a freeflowing drawing device. The pen is useful for drawing since drawinggraphics with a mouse tends to be somewhatdifficult.26
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 2011Stylus pen & digitizingtablet (illustration)27
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 20113. Cordless Mouse Cordless Mouse - The cordless mouse is a lotbetter than a normal mouse. It reduces theamount of work space needed to move themouse around. This mouse runs on a battery. When you movethe mouse it sends an infrared beam to asensor which interprets it causing the pointerto move.04/21/1328
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 2011Cordless Mouse04/21/13 29
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 20114. Trackball Trackball - The trackball is an upside-downmouse that remains stationary on your desk. Itis the same principle as the mouse except thatthe rollers are reversed and the ball is on top.This ball does not need as much attention asthe normal mouse because the only thing thattouches it is your hand as the normal mousetouches a surface.04/21/1330
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 2011Trackball04/21/13 31
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 20115. Touchpad Touchpad - The touchpad has sensors thatsense your touch. When they sense your touchthey send a signal to the computer to move themouse pointer to that location on the screen.Common on laptop computers32
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 2011Touch Pad (Illustration)
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 20117. Light pen Light pen- is a form of a light-sensitive wandused in conjunction with a computers CRT TVset or monitor. It allows the user to point todisplayed objects, or draw on the screen, in asimilar way to a touch screen but with greaterpositional accuracy. A light pen can work withany CRT-based display, but not with LCDscreens, projectors and other display devices04/21/1334
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 2011Light pen(Illustration)35
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 20118. Touch Screens A touch screen is a touch-sensitive input and display device.Users can interact with these devices by touching areas of thescreen. You touch words, pictures, numbers, letter, pointers or speciallocations identified on the screen. With some smart phones, portable media players, and otherpersonal mobile devices, you can touch the screen to performtasks such as dialing telephone numbers, entering text, andmaking on-screen selections. Kiosks, which are freestanding computers, usually have touchscreens. Many ATMs also have touch screens.04/21/1336
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 2011Examples of touch Screens37
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 20119. Track Point A Track Point, also called a pointing stick, is acursor control device located in the middle ofthe keyboard between the G, H, and B keys. Thecontrol buttons are located in front of thekeyboard toward the user. The Track Point isoperated by pushing in the general directionthe user wants the cursor to move. Increasingpressure causes faster movement.38
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 20119.Track Point39
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 2011c) Imaging Devices Imaging inputDevices are devicesthat input imagessuch as stillphotos, motionpictures, graphics,video etc. into thecomputer forprocessing.Common Imaging devicesinclude:1.Image scanner2.Digital Camera3.Digital video (DV) camera4.Camcorder5.Web cam
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 20111. Image scanner A scanner is a light-sensing inputdevice that converts hardcopydocuments, drawings, or picturesto an electronic version (softcopy),which can then be stored on adisk. The electronic version of scannedmaterial is in the form of rows andcolumns of dots called a bitmap Each dot on a bitmap consists ofone or more bits of data.Common types ofscannersinclude: Flatbed scanner Pen or handheldscanner Sheet bedscanner Drum scanner.04/21/13 41
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 201104/21/13 42Image scanner ILLUSTRATIONS
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 2011Digital Camera A digital camera allows users to take picturesand store the photographed images digitallyinstead of storing on a traditional film. When you take pictures, the images areelectronically stored in the camera. Later, you transfer a copy of the stored picturesto your computer or printer by connecting acable between the digital camera and yourcomputer.04/21/1343
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 201144
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 2011Digital video (DV)camera A digital video (DV) camera, by contrast recordsvideo as digital signals instead of analogsignals. To transfer recorded images to the computerhard disk, users connect DV cameras directlyto a port on the system unit. After saving the video on a storage medium,you can play it or edit it and burn it to a DVDusing software programs on the computer.45
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 2011Digital video (DV) camera(Illustration)
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 2011 47
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 2011Camcorder This is a light weight video camera that recordsdata in digital form onto a storage device suchas a videotape.48OPEN CLOSED
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 2011Web cam A Web cam, alsocalled a PC videocamera, is a type of digitalvideo camera thatusually sits on topof the monitor.Some laptopcomputers havebuilt-in Web cams.Webcams enable users to: capture video and still images, send e-mail messages withvideo attachments, add live images to instantmessages, broadcast live images over theInternet, and make video telephonecalls49
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 2011
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 2011Illustration: Web camsenable video conferencing04/21/13 51
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 2011Gaming input Devices Gaming inputdevices aredevicesspecificallydesigned tobe used forplayingcomputergames.Examples Include:1.Gaming keyboard2.Gaming wheels3.Joysticks4.Game pad5.Light guns6.Dance pad7.Motion sensing gamecontrollers52
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 2011Gaming keyboard Gaming keyboards typically includeprogrammable keys so that gamers cancustomize the keyboard to the game beingplayed. The keys on gaming keyboards light up so thatthe keys are visible in all lighting conditions. Some have small displays that show importantgame statistics, such as time to targetsremaining.53
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 2011Gaming Keyboards(Illustration)
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 2011Gaming wheels A gaming wheel is a steering wheel-typeinput device. Users turn the wheel tosimulate driving a vehicle using programson a computer. Most gaming wheels also include footpedals for acceleration and brakingactions. Gaming wheels include buttons,called triggers that you press to initiatecertain events.55
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 2011 56
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 20116. Joystick Joystick- Consists of a stick that pivots on abase and reports its angle or direction to thedevice it is controlling. Joysticks are often usedto control video games, and usually have oneor more push-buttons whose state can also beread by the computer.57
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 2011Joystick58
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 2011
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 2011Gamepad A gamepad controls the movement and actionsof players or objects in video games orcomputer games. On the gamepad, users press buttons with theirthumbs or move sticks in various directions totrigger events. Gamepads communicate with a game consoleor a personal computer via wired or wirelesstechnology.60
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 2011Game pad(Illustration)
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 2011
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 2011Light guns A light gun is used to shoot targets and movingobjects after you pull the trigger on the weapon. Instead of emitting light, most light guns workby detecting light. When the user pulls thetrigger, the screen uses one of severaltechniques to send light, which is received by areceptor in the barrel of the gun.63
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 2011Light Guns(Illustration)
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 2011Dance pad A dance pad is a flat electronic device dividedinto panels that users press with their feet inresponse to instructions from a music videogame. These games test the user’s ability to step onthe correct panel at the correct time, following apattern that is matching with the beat of a song.65
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 2011
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 2011Motion sensing gamecontrollers These are devices that allow the user toguide onscreen elements by moving ahandheld input device in predetermineddirections through the air. Examples include the power glove, playstation move gadgets, among others.67
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 2011MotionSensingGameControllers
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 2011e) Audio input Devices Audio input is the process ofentering any sound into thecomputer such as speech,music, and sound effects. To enter sound into a computer,it must have a sound card. Audio input devices are pluggedinto a port on the sound card.Examples of audioinput devicesinclude Microphones, Tape players, CD/DVD players, MIDI devices Dictaphone,E.t.c69
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 2011Sound Card A device that can be slotted into acomputer to allow the use of audiocomponents for multimediaapplications.Without asound card,Audio inputand outputis not possible.
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 2011
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 2011Microphones A microphone is aninstrument for convertingsound waves into electricalenergy variations, which maythen input into the computerfor processing, recording oraudio playback. Microphones are connectedto the sound card in thesystem unit.04/21/13 72
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 2011MIDI devices MIDI (musical instrument digital interface) is thestandard that defines how digital musicaldevices represent sound electronically. MIDI devices such as electronic pianos allowusers to record and edit music For example, you can set the beat speed, andadd notes, to produce sound.04/21/1373
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 2011
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 2011Dictaphone This the earliest devicemost commonly used torecord speech for laterplayback or to be typedinto print. It was established byAlexander Graham Bellin Washington, D.C. in1881.75
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 2011
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 2011Biometric input Devices A biometric devicetranslates abiological personalcharacteristic intoa digital code thatis stored orcompared with adigital code storedin the computer.Common biometric devicesinclude: Fingerprint scanner Face Recognitionsystems Hand geometry systems Signature verificationsystems Iris Recognition systems77
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 2011Fingerprint scanner A fingerprint scanner captures curvesand indentations of a fingerprint. Some grocery and retail stores nowuse fingerprint readers as a means ofpayment, where the customersfingerprint is linked to a an account orcredit card.04/21/1378
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 2011Fingerprint scanner79
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 2011Face Recognition systems A face recognition system captures alive face image and compares it with astored image to determine if theperson is a legitimate user. Some buildings use face recognitionsystems to secure access to rooms.80
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 2011Hand geometry system Biometric devices measure the shape andsize of a persons hand using a handgeometry system. Some large companies use this system astime and attendance devices or as securitydevices. Day-care centers use this system to verifyparents who pick up their children.81
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 20114. Signature verificationsystems A signature verification systemrecognizes the shape of yourhandwritten signature, as well asmeasures the pressure exerted andthe motion used to write thesignature. Signature verification system uses aspecialized pen and tablet.
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 2011
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 2011Iris recognition system These are devices that use iris recognitiontechnology to read patterns in the iris of theeye. These patterns are as unique as a fingerprint. Iris recognition systems are used bygovernment security organizations, the military,and financial institutions that deal with highlysensitive data.84
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 201185
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 2011g) Other Specialized inputdevices There are many other special inputdevices that are used for doing specialcustomized tasks. Some of theminclude: Remote Control Sensors Etc.86
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 2011Remote Control Remote control devices emit a beam of infraredlight, which carries data signals. Remote control is commonly used with TVs butmany laptop computers being produced comewith remotes and a form of input device, whichallow you to operate the laptop from a distance.87
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 2011Remote Control
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 2011Sensors Chemical responses to the physicalenvironment or movement can be converted toelectrical signals by devices known as sensors,which input them it to the computer forprocessing. Various sensors can be used to measure heat,light, pressure, acidity, oxygen concentration,water flow, etc.89
    • O level Computer Studies Topic Two: Computer Hardware© Jinja College Computer Studies Department, 2011END OF UNITNEXT UNIT:PROCESSING HARDWARE04/21/13 90