Personas, scenarios and user stories
Tallinn Summer School / IxDworks.com
Understanding Users
http://v2.centralstory.com/about/squiggle/
We are here Heading here
Users
Imaginary personas
a 28-year old
waitress on a
maternity leave
69-year old, retired
engineer, who enjoys
exploring outdoor...
Imaginary personas
Different
Age
Gender
Buying habits
Income level
Household size
Family life cycle
Attitudes
etc...
Same?
From interaction point of view
even very different people
could have similar goals.
A way to go around
Semi-private space
Efficiency of interaction
/ Relaxation
Forecast for planning
Persona’s goals
to be able to:
... move around easily
... retreat to a (semi) private space
... communicate and seek funda...
Sometimes goals are more specific
Navigation
dashboard?
Table
management?
Training
tracking?
UX & Goals
“User experience is a
stream of passing
momentary feelings”
– M. Hassenzahl
Be-goals, experience
Hedonic; feeling/being
e.g.
Relax
Look cool
Remain focused
Be independent
Be loved
“A constant
stream...
Experience goals
Hedonic; feeling/being
e.g.
Look cool
Become admired
Remain focused
Get rich
Be loved
Do-goals, actions
P...
A user experience occurs when a person
interacts with a product.
Do-goals,
actions
Tasks
Be-goals,
experiences
Share a photo 1.Take photo
2.Add info
3. Upload
4. Preview
Self-expression
• Foundation for the design
• Ground for discussion
• A “reality check”
• Empathy
• Easier to relate
(than to e.g. flow cha...
Towards User Personas
& Storytelling
We can’t ask users to be with
us all the time, thus we make
user models.
Persona
• Describes (your app’s) imaginative users archetypes.
• Is based on the real research and observation.
• Shows us...
Fake persona
• Stereotype or a
caricature
• Can’t be backed up
• Factoids
• Fun, but often useless
Persona
• Used as an aid to help express, discuss and
validate design questions and decisions, e.g.
• Would the persona (“...
Sources
Primary Secondary
Personal know-how
Stakeholders
Online discussions
Domain experts
Informed guesses
Feedback
Surve...
•Talk to people who a different
from you and what you know
already
•Look for reoccurring issues and
trends, language (ling...
Persona documentation
• Helps to communicate persona to other stakeholders
• A document might include e.g.
• background in...
A business card.
Example template, yours can look different!
Background Bio
Name, (age), (role), occupation, education
Photo(s)
Description...
Example template, yours can look different!
Petter Tamm
44, botanic garden worker, father of two children
Goals
• Wants to...
Before moving on
define “what” of your project
What need does it serve?
Scenarios
Scenarios
• Stories that help understand interactions
• A cheap way to illustrate design solution
from user’s (persona’s) ...
Scenarios
• without your solution present-based
• Focus is set on current practices that illustrate
‘state of the art’ and...
It’s Friday afternoon. Petter opens his desktop
computer at the botanic center’s office. He wants
to be quickly done with t...
It’s Friday afternoon. Petter opens his desktop
computer at the botanic center’s office. He wants
to be quickly done with t...
• In what settings will the product be used?
• Is the persona frequently interrupted?
• With what other products will it b...
Use Cases/
User Stories
Use Cases
A step-by-step, often
detailed description of
product’s behavior, which
helps the user (and
other actors) to ach...
Steps / Basic course of events
1. Check what has been ordered before.
2. Renew a previous order.
3. Modify the order to su...
User Stories
A simple, easily readable
description of a specific
user need.
As a (persona/role)
I want to do (what),
so I c...
Condition details
User Stories
Epic / Saga user stories
Theme user stories
User stories with clear conditions of satisfact...
Condition details
Epic / Saga
user stories
User stories with clear
conditions of satisfactions
As a gardener
I want to qui...
Today’s “To Do”
Today’s To Do
Add notes to your blog
1. Discuss and describe 1 primary persona
2. Write 1-2 scenarios based on persona’s g...
Resources
• Cooper,Alan, Reimann, R & Cronin, D. (2007) About Face 3:The essentials of interaction design.Wiley; ISBN:
047...
Images
• A women with a child https://www.flickr.com/photos/eraphernalia_vintage/3184104746/sizes/o/
• Senior couple https:...
User Research: Personas, scenarios, user stories
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User Research: Personas, scenarios, user stories

  1. 1. Personas, scenarios and user stories Tallinn Summer School / IxDworks.com Understanding Users
  2. 2. http://v2.centralstory.com/about/squiggle/ We are here Heading here
  3. 3. Users
  4. 4. Imaginary personas a 28-year old waitress on a maternity leave 69-year old, retired engineer, who enjoys exploring outdoors with his wife 15-year old student, who likes long boards, pool and girls Hanna Takashi Marco
  5. 5. Imaginary personas Different Age Gender Buying habits Income level Household size Family life cycle Attitudes etc...
  6. 6. Same?
  7. 7. From interaction point of view even very different people could have similar goals.
  8. 8. A way to go around
  9. 9. Semi-private space
  10. 10. Efficiency of interaction / Relaxation
  11. 11. Forecast for planning
  12. 12. Persona’s goals to be able to: ... move around easily ... retreat to a (semi) private space ... communicate and seek fundamental information on the move ... predict conditions and plan daily activities solutions A, B, C ....
  13. 13. Sometimes goals are more specific
  14. 14. Navigation dashboard?
  15. 15. Table management?
  16. 16. Training tracking?
  17. 17. UX & Goals
  18. 18. “User experience is a stream of passing momentary feelings” – M. Hassenzahl
  19. 19. Be-goals, experience Hedonic; feeling/being e.g. Relax Look cool Remain focused Be independent Be loved “A constant stream of self-talk” – Forlizzi & Battarbee
  20. 20. Experience goals Hedonic; feeling/being e.g. Look cool Become admired Remain focused Get rich Be loved Do-goals, actions Pragmatic; doing e.g. Post a Tweet Look up a place Set up a website Play a game Close Facebook account
  21. 21. A user experience occurs when a person interacts with a product.
  22. 22. Do-goals, actions Tasks Be-goals, experiences Share a photo 1.Take photo 2.Add info 3. Upload 4. Preview Self-expression
  23. 23. • Foundation for the design • Ground for discussion • A “reality check” • Empathy • Easier to relate (than to e.g. flow chart) Why goals?
  24. 24. Towards User Personas & Storytelling
  25. 25. We can’t ask users to be with us all the time, thus we make user models.
  26. 26. Persona • Describes (your app’s) imaginative users archetypes. • Is based on the real research and observation. • Shows user goals and their behavior patterns • Helps to crack “what” and “why” questions • Primary, secondary, supplemental, non-persona
  27. 27. Fake persona • Stereotype or a caricature • Can’t be backed up • Factoids • Fun, but often useless
  28. 28. Persona • Used as an aid to help express, discuss and validate design questions and decisions, e.g. • Would the persona (“Bob”) use this? • Is this logical? • Does this make sense to this persona? • Is it fun / exiting / motivating... ? • Bob would not like this, because....
  29. 29. Sources Primary Secondary Personal know-how Stakeholders Online discussions Domain experts Informed guesses Feedback Surveys Contextual inquiry; Talking to people directly, Observing their behavior *Bonus
  30. 30. •Talk to people who a different from you and what you know already •Look for reoccurring issues and trends, language (lingo), surprises... •Acknowledge your biases and be open-minded
  31. 31. Persona documentation • Helps to communicate persona to other stakeholders • A document might include e.g. • background info: age, gender, occupation • mapping, such as technical skills • a short description of an activity, that is related to the current context or problem settings and frustrations • goals
  32. 32. A business card.
  33. 33. Example template, yours can look different! Background Bio Name, (age), (role), occupation, education Photo(s) Description E.g. use environment or context, where the problem occurs and current solutions and frustrations. Goals • What are the user’s end goals? • 2-4 end goals and 0-1 life goals is enough for this workshop Mapping E.g. computer skills, necessity vs fun, quality vs price.
  34. 34. Example template, yours can look different! Petter Tamm 44, botanic garden worker, father of two children Goals • Wants to manage bulk orderings more efficiently • Is looking for quality reviews about new products Reads reviews to find best... quality price As a lead gardener, Petter is responsible in ordering nutritions and specific soil for the plants for the city’s botanic garden. Currently he has to do bi-weekly orders over the phone from his office, calling manufacturers one by one.
  35. 35. Before moving on define “what” of your project What need does it serve?
  36. 36. Scenarios
  37. 37. Scenarios • Stories that help understand interactions • A cheap way to illustrate design solution from user’s (persona’s) point of view • Tell user’s goals, motivations and actions “What should this product do?” “How would user behave in this context?” “What if...?”
  38. 38. Scenarios • without your solution present-based • Focus is set on current practices that illustrate ‘state of the art’ and the problem context • with your solution future-based • Focus on how problems could be addressed (without diving into much details). Scopeofwork
  39. 39. It’s Friday afternoon. Petter opens his desktop computer at the botanic center’s office. He wants to be quickly done with the extra flower soil orders. Petter decides to order the same combination of products as four weeks ago, but in smaller quantity. He does not order nutritions this time. Petter is not interested in staying at the office long.As soon as the order is done, he leaves work to pick his daughter from school. Context-based scenario
  40. 40. It’s Friday afternoon. Petter opens his desktop computer at the botanic center’s office. He wants to be quickly done with the extra flower soil orders. Petter decides to order the same combination of products as four weeks ago, but in smaller quantity. He does not order nutritions this time. Petter is not interested in staying at the office long.As soon as the order is done, he leaves work to pick his daughter from school. Story background, settings Goal “extra orders, quick” Motivation: efficiency High level actions (e.g. re-ordering x with changes, not ordering y.)
  41. 41. • In what settings will the product be used? • Is the persona frequently interrupted? • With what other products will it be used? • What primary activities does the persona need to perform to meet her goals? • What is the expected end result of using the product? etc.
  42. 42. Use Cases/ User Stories
  43. 43. Use Cases A step-by-step, often detailed description of product’s behavior, which helps the user (and other actors) to achieve a result. Components: Use Case,Actors, Steps Success Condition: what is considered a successful end to the use case Failure Condition: what is considered a failed end to the use case
  44. 44. Steps / Basic course of events 1. Check what has been ordered before. 2. Renew a previous order. 3. Modify the order to suit current situation. 4. Place the order. Alternative course of events In step 1. check favorite orders. Use Cases Simple example Use Case – Ordering extra soil. Actor – Petter / botanic garden worker
  45. 45. User Stories A simple, easily readable description of a specific user need. As a (persona/role) I want to do (what), so I can benefit (how). As a botanic garden worker I want to order extra soil. Original model popularized by Mike Cohn, Screenshot: ScrumDesk
  46. 46. Condition details User Stories Epic / Saga user stories Theme user stories User stories with clear conditions of satisfactions Theme user stories Theme user stories
  47. 47. Condition details Epic / Saga user stories User stories with clear conditions of satisfactions As a gardener I want to quickly order extra soil. ... to see previous offers. – Condition: similar to the new offer ... to modify the order. ... to submit a new order. etc. As a gardener I want to order soil. Theme user stories
  48. 48. Today’s “To Do”
  49. 49. Today’s To Do Add notes to your blog 1. Discuss and describe 1 primary persona 2. Write 1-2 scenarios based on persona’s goal • How would persona use your solution? 3. Write few user stories OR an use case(s) based on the scenario(s)
  50. 50. Resources • Cooper,Alan, Reimann, R & Cronin, D. (2007) About Face 3:The essentials of interaction design.Wiley; ISBN: 0470084111 • Hinton,Andrew. Personas and the Role of Documentation. (2008) http://boxesandarrows.com/personas-and- the-role-of-design-documentation/ • Accessibility in User-Centered Design http://www.uiaccess.com/accessucd/personas.html • Hassenzahl, M. (2008). User Experience (UX):Towards and experiential perspective on product quality. http:// www.researchgate.net/publication/ 238472807_User_experience_(UX)_Towards_an_experiential_perspective_on_product_quality/file/ 60b7d51bf4873231da.pdf • What research methods could I use to create personas? http://ux.stackexchange.com/questions/21891/what- research-methods-can-i-use-to-create-personas • Personas http://wiki.fluidproject.org/display/fluid/Persona+Categories • Mike Cohn. http://www.mountaingoatsoftware.com/articles?tag=user%20stories • Stellman & Green. Building better software. http://www.stellman-greene.com/2009/05/03/requirements-101- user-stories-vs-use-cases/ • User Story map http://winnipegagilist.blogspot.com/2012/03/how-to-create-user-story-map.html
  51. 51. Images • A women with a child https://www.flickr.com/photos/eraphernalia_vintage/3184104746/sizes/o/ • Senior couple https://www.flickr.com/photos/thepismire/3238750476 • Longboard boy https://www.flickr.com/photos/marcogomes/787647547/sizes/o/ • Ramps https://www.flickr.com/photos/borkazoid/4202740785/sizes/l • Mobile Cubicles https://www.flickr.com/photos/alpha600/3255806387/sizes/o/ • Mobile device https://www.flickr.com/photos/ebayink/6816581064/sizes/l • Boat https://www.flickr.com/photos/time-to-look/14551961151/sizes/l • Restaurant https://www.flickr.com/photos/en321/9908577253/sizes/l • Girls with ice-creams https://www.flickr.com/photos/pbaitor/4998329309/sizes/l • Woman in hospital bed https://www.flickr.com/photos/uhduh/12242998/sizes/l • Girl with a phone https://www.flickr.com/photos/brandoncwarren/2952179726/sizes/l • Men on a bench https://www.flickr.com/photos/scottrsmith/6194527237/sizes/l • Woman at ATM https://www.flickr.com/photos/betsssssy/435300495/sizes/l • User Case Map http://www.batimes.com/articles/user-stories-and-use-cases-dont-use-both.html
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