The goal of ubiquitous computing is to maketechnology invisible by integratingcomputational capability into our everydaylife.Taking cues from the physical world aubiquitous computing environment shouldinclude lots of information on the periphery.
Ubiquitous computing aims to enable devicesto move with us, dynamically buildunderstanding of their changingenvironments, and conﬁgure their servicesaccordingly.Ubiquitous computing is simultaneously verypersonal and extremely global.
Ubiquitous computing requires simple, easy-to-use interfaces and a positive userexperience.A user should be able to focus on the taskwithout worrying about the technologyitself.
New Paradigms of Interaction
The proliferation of computing into thephysical world suggests new paradigms ofinteraction inspired by constant access toinformation and computational capabilities.Ubiquitous computing assumes thedevelopment of applications that are off thedesktop.
The new interaction paradigm should reﬂectmore closely how humans interact with eachother and the physical world.This includes the ability to speak, gesture,and use various tools for writing.
We have come to expect to have entitiesfrom a physical environment to have apresence on the Internet.This is were the idea of the Internet ofThings comes into play.
Contextual information allows applicationsto provide more relevant services to userswithout requiring additional input.
Internet of Things
The Internet of Things encompasses a varietyof technologies and research that aim toextend the existing Internet to the world ofphysical objects.Examples of connecting physical objects tothe information stored on the Internetinclude QR codes and RFID tags.
Quick Response (QR) codes are rectangularbar codes, which can store large pieces ofinformation.QR codes can be found on billboards, busstops, advertising and food wrappers.Users need to download special applicationsto decode the information stored in thecodes.
RFID tags rely on wireless non-contactsystems to transfer data from tagged objectsto readers.RFIDs enable information to be read withoutrequiring a line of sight.Special RFID readers are yet to becomewidely adopted.
Context is any information that can be usedto characterize the situation of a person,place, or object that is relevant to theinteraction between a user and anapplication.
Systems can automatically adapt to theenvironment by taking into account thecurrent time, physical location, needs, andother parameters.
Important aspects of context are: where youare, who you are with, and what resourcesare nearby.
Types of Context
Network connectivity,Computing context communication costs, bandwidth, nearby devices. User’s proﬁle, location, User context people nearby, current social situation. Lighting, noise levels, trafﬁc Physical context conditions, temperature. Time of day, week, month, Time context season of the year.
Some feel that the world of ubiquitouscomputing is just around the corner.We just need to add a couple of missingpieces to the puzzle.
Others think that we are already living in theubiquitous computing reality thanks to oursmart mobile devices.
Mobile computing is about providing accessto information at your ﬁngertips anywhere,anytime.As computers become more portable,people expect to be able to accessinformation anytime and anywhere on thedevices they carry with them all the time.
The term mobile computer includes manytypes of devices, such as laptops, tablets, andsmartphones.
The key ingredients are high-performancelow-power processors, high-densitymemory, and standardized wirelesscommunication.
Mobile computers are resource-poor, theirconnectivity is highly variable in regards toperformance and reliability, and they rely ona limited source of energy.These constraints are intrinsic to mobilityand not simply artifacts of the currenttechnology.