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Muhammad danish


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  • 1. OUTLINE Golgi apparatus Cytoskeleton Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum Lysosome Centriole
  • 2. GOLGI APPARATUS It is a membranous complex of vesicles, vacuoles, and flattened sacs in the cytoplasm of cells which is involved in intracellular secretion and transport. It is found in all eukaryotic cells. It is sometime called as Golgi Body or Golgi Complex.
  • 3. DISCOVERY Golgi apparatus was discovered by Camillo Golgi in 1898. He developed a method that stained it intensely and made possible the demonstration of its occurrence in a wide variety of cell types. This method is known as Golgi Staining.
  • 4. Structure and Composition Golgi apparatus is composed of stacks of membrane-bound structures known as Cisternae. A cisterna (plural cisternae) comprises a flattened membrane disk that makes up the Golgi apparatus. Golgi apparatus usually has 6-7 cisternae. A complex network of tubules and vesicles is located at the edges of these cisternae.
  • 5. Structure and CompositionThe cisternae stack has two faces.  Trans-Golgi  Cis-Golgi
  • 6. FUNCTIONS Golgi apparatus is concerned with cell secretion. It involves in the creation of lysosomes. The most important function of this apparatus is to modify the proteins and lipids by adding carbohydrates and converting them into glycoproteins or glycolipids.
  • 7. CYTOSEKELTON Cytoplasm contains a complex network of filaments and microtubules which form a structural framework known as Cytoskeleton.
  • 8. Structure and Composition The primary components of the cytoskeleton are microtubules, microfilaments and intermediate filaments.
  • 9. Structure and Composition Microtubules: Microtubules are long, unbranched, slender tubulin protein structures. One very important function of it is their role in the assembly and disassembly of the spindle structure during mitosis. Intermediate filaments: They have diameter in b/w those of microtubules & microfilaments. They play role in the maintenance of cell shape.
  • 10. Structure and Composition Microfilaments: They are considerably more slender cylinders made up of actin protein. They involved in internal cell motion.
  • 11. FUNCTIONS It provides structural support to the cell. It involves in cell motility, cell division and regulation. It plays an important role in intracellular transport. It often protects the cell.
  • 12. ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM It is a extensive network of folded membranes that extends from the nuclear envelope to which it is connected throughout the cytoplasm.
  • 13. Endoplasmic Reticulum Endoplasmic Reticulum is divided into two sub-compartments. • Smooth endoplasmic reticulum • Rough endoplasmic reticulum
  • 14. SMOOTH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM In some cell it is responsible for transmission of impulses (muscle cell, nerve cell). It plays an important role in the transport of materials from one part of the cell to the other.
  • 15. Structure and Composition It is a branching tube structure which is held by cytoskeleton. In smooth endoplasmic reticulum ribosomes are not attached, therefore its surface is smooth. It contains collection of enzymes.
  • 16. FUNCTIONS Synthesis of fatty acids and steroid hormones such as estrogens and testosterone. Detoxification in the liver of a wide variety of organic compounds, including barbiturates & ethanol. Metabolize different types of molecules particularly lipids.
  • 17. LYSOSOME Lysosomes are cytoplasmic organelles. Lysosome founds in almost all eukaryotic cells. Lysosomes have digestive enzymes.
  • 18. LYSOSOME They are most abundant in those animal cells which exhibit phagocytic activity.
  • 19. Structure and Composition They are bounded by a single membrane and are simple sacs rich in acid phosphates and several other hydrolytic enzymes. The membrane acts as a protective barrier that protects the rest of the cell from the enzymes that are contained within the lysosome.
  • 20. FUNCTIONS It is involved in the autophagy (self eating). Any foreign object that gains entry into the cell is immediately engulfed by the lysosome and is completely broken into simple digestible pieces. This process is known as phagocytosis (eating process of a cell).
  • 21. CENTRIOLE Hollow cylindrical organelles present in animals and many unicellular living organisms. Animal cells, cells of some microorganisms and lower plants contain two centrioles located near the exterior surface of the nucleus. These two centrioles are collectively called as centrosome.
  • 22. Structure and Composition Centrioles are made up of nine microtubule triplets. These microtubule triplet is made up of tubulin protein. Centrioles are also the part of cytoskeleton.
  • 23. Structure and Composition The two centrioles are usually placed right angle to each other. They are absent in higher plants.
  • 24. FUNCTIONS They made spindle fibers during cell division. They play important role in the formation of cilia. They involves in the location of furrowing during cell division.