Presented to: Dr. Haroon IdreesPresented by: Muhammad Tufail KhanAneela ZahidTheoretical Foundation of Information ScienceMPhil in Library & Information Science
What is Data? Transformation of Data into Information using a Data Process What is Information? What is Management? What is Information Management? The Origins of Information Management Why is Information Management important? Managing your information saves you money Managing your information makes you money Managing your information keeps you out of trouble Goals of Information Management Information Management Strategies
The Elements of Information Management The information life cycle Information Resources The Tools of Information Management Access, privacy and security information and the law Education for Information Management Conclusion Reference Questions and Answers
Information in raw or unorganized form(such as alphabets, numbers, orsymbols) that refer to, or represent, conditions , ideas, or objects. Datais limitless and present everywhere in the universe.Most data is being converted into a digital format Driven by user demand Facilitated by Increase in data processing capabilities Lower cost and increased speed of storage Affordable and faster NetworkWho creates data? Individuals Businesses010101010101010101101000010101011010101010101010101010101010101010VideoPhotoBookLetter Digital Data
Data can be categorized as either structured or unstructured data Structured Data Bases Spread Sheets Unstructured Forms Images Audio MoviesOver 80% of Informationis unstructuredContractsImagesManualsX-RaysInstant MessagesFormsE-Mail AttachmentsCheckDocumentsPDFsWeb PagesAudio VideoInvoicesRich MediaStructured (20%)Unstructured (80%)
DataInformationSummarizing the dataAveraging the dataSelecting part of the dataGraphing the dataAdding contextAdding value
Organize form of data in known as informationDefinitions: data that have been processed so that they are meaningful; data that have been processed for a purpose; data that have been interpreted and understood by therecipient.
According to Theo Heimann, management has three different meanings, Management as a Noun : refers to a Group of Managers. Management as a Process : refers to the Functions of Management i.e.Planning, Organizing, Directing, Controlling, etc. Management as a Discipline : refers to the Subject of Management.Management is an individual or a group of individuals that acceptresponsibilities to run an organisation. They Plan, Organize, Direct andControl all the essential activities of the organization. Management does notdo the work themselves. They motivate others to do the work and co-ordinate(i.e. bring together) all the work for achieving the objectives of theorganization.Management brings together all Six Ms i.e. Men and Women, Money,Machines, Materials, Methods and Markets. They use these resources forachieving the objectives of the organization such as maximum sales andprofits, business expansion, etc.
Throughout the 1970s this was largely limited to files, file maintenance,and the Life cycle management of paper-based files, other media andrecords.With the proliferation of information technology starting in the 1970s, thejob of information management took on a new light, and also began toinclude the field of data maintenance. No longer was informationmanagement a simple job that could be performed by almost anyone.An understanding of the technology involved, and the theory behind itbecame necessary.As information storage shifted to electronic means, this became moreand more difficult. By the late 1990s when information was regularlydisseminated across computer networks and by other electronic means,network managers, in a sense, became information managers. Thoseindividuals found themselves tasked with increasingly complex tasks,hardware and software. With the latest tools available, informationmanagement has become a powerful resource and a large expense formany organizations.
Application of Management techniques to collect information, communicateit within and outside the organization, and process it to enable managers tomake quicker and better decisions.According to Wikipedia, Information management (IM) is the collection andmanagement of information from one or more sources and the distributionof that information to one or more audiences. This sometimes involvesthose who have a stake in, or a right to that information. Managementmeans the organization of and control over the structure, processing anddelivery of information.
Management of information resources. Design of information technology components. Analysis of information processing procedures. Deriving knowledge from the information corpus.In business or management studies it has similar connotations totechnology management, with an emphasis on the relationshipof information technology to business performance andcompetitiveness (Synott 1987).cor·pus (kôr p s)A large collection of writings of a specific kind or on a specific subject.
―Digital universe – The Information Explosion‖ 21st Century is information era Information is being created at ever increasing rate Information has become critical for successWe live in an on-command, on-demand worldExample: Social networking sites, e-mails, video and photosharing website, online shopping, search engines etcInformation management is a big challengeOrganization seek to Store Protect Optimize
Managing information is important to an organization because it allowsfor increased knowledge, decreased inefficiency, and better creationand implementation of action plans to address areas of opportunity.Without successful management of information, it is almost guaranteedthat an organization will fail. Reasons are describe in three categories;1) Managing your information saves you money2) Managing your information makes you money3) Managing your information keeps you out of trouble
1) Supply work, business and consumption processes with information —This is the basic goal: work cannot be done without requiredinformation.2) Improve and speed up business, work and consumption processesthrough information use and efficient information processing —Information is not only one of the inputs to the work process. Byimproving information supply and its processing, the whole processusually can be made more efficient.3) Create and maintain competitive advantage through new, IT-based workand business processes — Often, information technologies allowreorganization of work in completely new ways, and creation of totallynew businesses.
4) Efficient use of organization’s information assets — While previousgoals come from activity (process), this goal statement invites tothink about organization’s information not as some side-product ofactivity, but as the central resource. Information, not activity may bethe „real thing‖.5) Reduce unnecessary complexity of information processingsystems; protect against information overload.
In order to frame an effective information management policy,businesses need to consider the following key challenges:■■ Exploding digital universe:The rate of information growth is increasing exponentially. Duplication ofdata to ensure high availability and repurposing has also contributed tothe increase of information growth.■■ Increasing dependency on information:The strategic use of information plays an important role in determiningthe success of a business and provides competitive advantages in themarketplace.■■ Changing value of information:Information that is valuable today may become less important tomorrow.The value of information often changesover time
FilesMost sizeable companies have huge stores of electronic filesscattered throughout the enterprise (a legacy of desktopnetworking). Letters, memos, reports, spreadsheets, databasefiles, presentations, etc. DatabasesCompanies usually maintain a number of databases on severaldifferent hardware and software platforms. EmailMost employees communicate with email and much of anenterprise’s internal and external business communication isdone via email (and attachments). Instant Messaging (IM)This is becoming the way employees talk to one another inreal-time.
Electronic PublishingMost companies produce printed material such as catalogs,brochures, flyers, contact sheets, product specification sheets,newsletters, business reports, etc. Also, an increasing amount ofinformation exists only in electronic format (e.g. Web pages, PDFdocuments, Intranets).
First:Its origins in a variety of fields that have had to do, traditionally, with theacquisition, organization, maintenance and use of documents: archivesand records management, and librarianship and information science(especially in special librarianship and information work).Second:The development of information technology, and its growing applicationto all aspects of information management has been a strong formativeinfluence. The costs of computer-based systems draw direct attention tothe issues of the value of information and cost-benefit relationships inthe development of information systems and services.
Finally:The wide application of information ideas, developed in the businessschools, widely accepted in business, and given prominence in thebusiness press and in the media generally, and applied increasingly inpublic-sector organizations, has resulted in the acceptance of suchconcepts as strategic planning, cost-benefit analysis, resourcemanagement and marketing.
All aspects of information management must be grounded in aconsideration of the information requirements (or informationneeds) of customers or clients of the information systems andservices. The study of information needs has occupiedinformation science for almost fifty years, but other disciplines,notably computer science, have also had an interest (Wilson1994).
The information lifecycle is the ―change in the value of information‖over time. When data is first created, it often has the highest value andis used frequently. As data ages, it is accessed less frequently and is ofless value to the organization. Understanding the information lifecyclehelps to deploy appropriate storage infrastructure, according to thechanging value of information.
The idea of an information life cycle is derived from recordsmanagement, where the idea of document life cycle is central to theoverall process. That cycle is set out by Goodman (1994):The life cycle of records includes the following steps (sometimesreferred to as document control): design and creation of records; identification; authorization; verification, validation, auditing; circulation, access, loan, use; back-up procedures and disaster recovery plans; retention schedules and destruction.
The Commission on Federal Paperwork set out a very basic life cycle,which identified the following five stagesRequirementsDeterminationCollectingProcessingUseDisposition“with the followingcomment on itsrelationship toinformationmanagement: Ateach of these stages,information valuesmust be estimatedand measured,costed andaccounted for, just asGovernment nowdoes for any otherresource(Commission onFederal Paperwork1977: 43)”
AUTOMATEDFLEXIBLEClassifydata /applicationsbased onorganization’srulesImplementpolicies withinformationmanagementtoolsIntegratedmanagementof storageenvironmentOrganizestorageresources toalign with dataclasses
Some of the tools of information management are those derivedfrom the fields that have contributed to its development; forexample, classification and information retrieval fromlibrarianship and information science; database design anddevelopment from computer science; the document life cyclefrom records management; communication audits fromorganizational psychology; and cost-benefit analysis and valueassessment from business management.
Information Audit:The idea of the information audit is derived from financial audits inaccounting, which, as Ellis et al. (1993) note, are generally complianceaudits, undertaken to ensure that the organization is adhering to properfiscal and legal standards in its financial management. Informationaudits take more the character of advisory audits, which are moreconcerned with informing users of existing systems and practices andwith assessing the appropriateness of existing systems, standards andpractices to the organizations goal or objectives.
Information Mapping:A method of bringing together current learning research andinstructional technology into a comprehensive materials developmentand presentation technology to improve technical communication. Asystem of principles and procedures for identifying categorizinginterrelating and sequencing, and presenting graphically informationrequired for learning and reference.More specifically, Information Mapping is a method for writtencommunication as it is currently presented in textbooks, programmed-instruction books, technical manuals, and various kinds of paperdocuments for complex projects. Information Mapping improves currentmethods for doing the learning and reference work itself, preparinglearning/reference materials, and maintaining/updating suchlearning/reference materials.
Communication audit:The communication audit predates information management as a toolfor the investigation of communication in the field of organization theory.The role of communications audits was explored by Booth (1986, 1988)and, more recently, by Potter (1990), who categorized communicationaudits as being used to measure the effectiveness of introducing IT inan organization, interpersonal communications, communicationbetween management and employees, the effectiveness oforganizational communications, or public relations activity.Clearly, given the increasing interest in various aspects of qualitymanagement and quality assurance, the communications audit has asignificant role to play in ensuring that communication betweeninformation services and their customers is fully effective.
Information policy:Information policy may be determined for any level of organization, fromthe international community to the individual organization. Informationpolicy has become a subject for debate at the international level inEurope as a result of the attempts by the European Commission to aidthe development of the Europeaninformation industry.Information policies relate to:(i) data(ii) information processing equipment and software(iii) information systems and services and(iv) staff roles and responsibilities.Formal development of information policies recognizes information as astrategic organizational resource (Lytle 1988). Thus an aim of policymay be to provide access to the organizations data resources for allexecutive and managerial level personnel directly to the workstation.Another aim may be to provide customized searching of external,online information, resources for planning and marketing personnel.
Information Strategy:Information strategy deals with how these policy aims are to beaccomplished.An information policy may have a number of different dimensions andeach dimension may have a variety of alternative strategies for itsrealization. Consequently, the strategic planning necessary to definepolicy and relate strategies to the financial, personnel and otherresources of the organization is no trivial task.
Improved utilization Simplified management Simplified backup and recovery Maintaining compliance Lower Total Cost of Ownership
Who creates data What are the two categories of data Source of information How many tools of information management What are the benefits of ILM
Studying Information Management trough differentangles, finally it is concluded that in this modern era ofinformation explosion Information Management isnecessary. User of the modern world need more andmore information within no time, which is able only ifInformation are managed. Information Management is the only way to provide Right information To the right person At the right time
Somasundaram, G & Alok Shrivastava. (2009). Information storage andmanagement: Storing, Managing, and Protecting Digital Information. Indiana :Wiley Publishing, Inc. http://kalyan-city.blogspot.com/2011/04/what-is-management-definitions-meaning.html . Retrieve on 16-11-2012. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/information+management Retrieve on16-11-2012 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Information_management Retrieve on 16-11-2012 http://informationr.net/tdw/publ/papers/encyclopedia_entry.html Retrieve on16-11-2012 Caudle, S.L. (1988) IRM: a look backward and forward at the federal level,Information Management Review 3(4), 9-25. Lytle, R.H. (1988) Information resource management: a five-yearperspective, Information Management Review 3(3), 9-16. http://www.tlu.ee/~priitp/IM_31/IM_31_Synopsis.htm