Library AutomationPresented to: Dr. Ijaz MirajPresented by: Muhammad TufailKhanAneela ZahidTheoretical Foundation of Library ScienceMPhil in Library & Information Science
Contents: What is Automaton? What is Library Automaton? History of Library Automaton History of Library Automaton in Pakistan• Need for Library Automation• Library software• Library Management System• A library with an integrated library system• General Features of an ILS– Cataloging Module– OPAC» Developments in OPACs– Circulation Module– Acquisitions Module– Serials Control Module– Add-on Module
Contents: Continue…• Library Automation Standards– MARC• Introduction to MARC Record:• Sources of MARC Records:• Structure of MARC Records:• MARC Advantages:• MARC Disadvantages:– Z39.50 Protocol:• Library Automation: The Steps• Technology Plan• Selection and acquisition of ILMS• Implementation• Conclusion• Reference
What is Automation?The dictionary defines automation as“the technique of making an apparatus, a process, or a systemoperate automatically.”Automation as “ the creation and application of technology tomonitor and control the production and delivery of products andservices.”So we say;Automation is the use of machines, control systems andinformation technologies to optimize productivity in theproduction of goods and delivery of services
What is Library Automation?Library automation is the general term for information and communicationstechnologies (ICT) that are used to replace manual systems in the library.Definition: The use of automatic machines or processing devices inlibraries. The automation may be applied to library administrativeactivities, office procedures, and delivery of library services to users.An automated library is one where a computer system is used tomanage one or several of the librarys key functions such asacquisitions, serials control, cataloging, circulation and the publicaccess catalog.
History of Library Automation:In 1588:The invention of the French "Book Wheel" allowed scholars to rotatebetween books by stepping on a pedal that turned a book table.“The bookwheel, analternative version ofthe revolvingbookstand, is a devicedesigned to allow oneperson to read avariety of heavy booksin one location withease. The books arerotated vertically.This device wasinvented by Italianmilitary engineerAgostino Ramelli in
History of Library Automation: Continue…The Beginnings of Library Automation: 1930-1960In 1930:It could be said that library automation development began in the 1930swhen punch card equipment was implemented for use in librarycirculation and acquisitions.“A punched card,punch card, IBMcard, or Hollerithcard is a piece ofstiff paper thatcontains digitalinformationrepresented by thepresence orabsence of holes inpredefined
History of Library Automation: Continue…In 1945:Bush(1945) wrote about a hypothetical "memex" system which hedescribed as a mechanical library that would allow a user to viewstored information from several different access points and look atseveral items simultaneously. His ideas are well known as the basisfor hypertext.In 60’s & 70’s :This lead to an explosion of library automation in the 60s and 70s.Library Automation Officially is Underway: 1960-1980:In 1961, a significant invention by both Robert Noyce of Intel and JackKirby of Texas Instruments, working independently, was theintegrated circuit. All the components of an electronic circuit wereplaced onto a single "chip" of silicon.
History of Library Automation: Continue…Between 1965 and 1968:LOC began the MARC IIn 1980:The use of microcomputers during the 1980s expanded tremendouslyinto the homes, schools, libraries and offices of many Americans. On-line Public Access Catalogs began to be used extensively the 1980s.The introduction of CD-ROMs in the late 80s has changed the waylibraries operate.In 1990:The world wide web which had its official start date as April of 1993 isbecoming the fastest growing new provider of information. Expertsystems and knowledge systems have become available in the 90s asboth software and hardware capabilities have improved.In 21stcentury:“IT + IM = IR”Information Technology + Information Management =Institutional Repository
History of Library Automation inPakistan :in 1968, Library automation in Pakistan began with the creation of a DataProcessing Unit at PASTIC in order to meet the demand ofmechanization of information.In 1970, There was almost a complete silence in this regard. in 1980,incorporation of information science into several courses. Examples ofthese courses are: Information Storage and Retrieval; Data Processingin Libraries; and Information Network, Data Bank and Systems (KarachiUniversity, 1981).in the mid-1980s, The first library in Pakistan “Central Library of SindhAgriculture University” to make use of modern technology. The systemcomprised a Commodore CBM 8032, with dual drive floppy disk and dotmatrix printer . At a similar time, the National Agriculture ResearchCentre (NARC) made use of computer-based techniques in itsinformation dissemination activities.
History of Library Automation inPakistan : Continue…By early 1986,Lahore University of Management Sciences (LUMS) and North-WesternFrontier Province (NWFP) Agricultural University was in the processof being computerized.The concept of network and networking started gaining ground in theshape of the LABELNET project. in 1989, CD-ROM searching wasintroduced for the first time at the National Agriculture ResearchCentre.The Pakistan Library Association, with the financial assistance of theNetherlands Library Development Project (Pakistan), establishedcomputer training centers in all four provincial capitals and inIslamabad for the training of working librarians.
Need for Library Automation• Increased operational efficiencies• Relieve professional staff from clerical chores so that they areavailable for user-oriented services• Improve the quality, speed and effectiveness of services• Improve access to remote users• Improve access to resources on other networks and systemsincluding the Web• Improve the management of their physical and financial resources,• Facilitate wider access to information for their clients,• Facilitate wider dissemination of their information products andservices• Enable their participation in resource-sharinglibrary networks, and• Enable rapid communication with other libraries(including outreach libraries) and professional peers.
Library software:What is software? Basically, software is the program that runs thecomputer to produce the required results. It is, in fact, the mostimportant component of the automation process. Someone said, “Acomputer without software is similar to a man without his brain, or alibrary with neither books nor librarians”. When we talk about librarysoftware, we mean the software needed for library housekeepingroutines and information retrieval services.Examples of Library softwares;• dBase• Foxpro• INMAGIC• CDS/ISIS• Kitabdar• Pak Library Software• LAMP• Koha
Library Management System:A library management system, also known as an automated library system issoftware that has been developed to handle basic housekeeping functions ofa library.– Single function.– Integrated
A library with an integrated library systemCatalogingFile Server:DatabaseCirculationAcquisition SerialsManagementOPACReferenceOPACOPACOPAC
General Features of an ILS:Functional modules – basic modules - cataloging, OPAC and circulation - - Add on- acquisition, serial control, interlibrary loan (ILL), andWeb OPACOperating systems Window, Ubuntu, Fedora, Linux, Sun Systems etc.Database systems - Oracle, Informix, MySQL, MS Access etc…Network architecture –client-server architecture that uses Transmission ControlProtocol / Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) to communicate acrossnetworks (LANs and WANs)User interface –graphical user interface (GUI) is the norm for current systemsbecause users find it easier to work with and it allows a widerange of tasks to be accomplished with a click of a mouseLibrary automation standards –library industry standards such as MARC and Z39.50
Cataloging Module:Used for the creation, storage, retrieval and management ofbibliographic records and/or indexes.Defines the record format used in the database and provides forauthority control author, subject headings etc.Usually there are two different interfaces for search and retrieval of theelectronic catalog : For catalogers that allows them to maintain the library database(the main cataloging module), For users that allows them to search and display the results – theOnline Public Access Catalog (OPAC)
OPAC:Cataloging activities using an ILS produce an electronic catalog. Themeans of access to the catalog for users which is limited to search anddisplay is called an Online Public Access Catalog or OPAC. An OPAC isusually offered as an add-on module that is integral with thecataloging module. The specific search and display features of anOPAC vary from system to system.
Recent developments inICT have enabledlibraries to publishtheir catalogs on theWeb making themaccessible locally (onsite) and/or remotelythrough the Web as aWeb OPAC.BibliographicdatabaseWeb serverPC’s in LANPC’s connectedto InternetWeb OPACOPACDevelopments in OPACs:
1) Handles circulation activities such as: lending, return, renewal, andplace on hold2) Manages library materials - circulation type, location and status;patron database - patron type, profiles, privileges; and othertransactions such as computation and payment of overdue fines, lostbooks, etc.3) May have added value functions like: import, export, and backup andrestore functions for the databases; inventory; report generation; andsupport for MARC, Z39.50, ILL standards.Circulation Module:
Acquisitions Module:1) Automates the acquisition process - ordering, receiving, claimingmaterials from suppliers, and returns, and cancellations of materials2) Used to maintain statistics, and in some cases manage accountingactivities.3) Acquisition can be done online if system is linked to an externalnetwork.
Serials Control Module:1) Manages placing, canceling, claiming of orders; returning defective,unwanted and unordered material; and accounting and statisticalinformation2) Provides a system for recording issues and keeping track ofundelivered issues by generating claim reports.3) May permit serial ordering online.
Add-on Module:Usually offer additional functions and features as optional to the basicfunctions or as an integral part of a module. Examples are Reportgeneration, Short loan transactions, import / export of records from /to MARC formats, Web OPAC, Z39.50 client and/or server services, andsecurity systems linked to or integrated with the cataloging /circulation module.
Library Automation Standards :The standards adopted by the library industry and community thatfacilitate data interchange between libraries and institutions, andwhich are supported by most systems are MARC (Machine ReadableCataloguing) standards and Z39.50, the information search andretrieve protocol standard
MARC:The Machine-Readable Cataloging (MARC) formats are standards usedfor the representation of bibliographic and related information forbooks and other library materials in machine-readable form andtheir communication to and from other computers.Need for MARC :1) The MARC standard allows libraries to share bibliographic resourceswith other libraries that also use it.2) It also enables libraries to easily migrate to commercially availablelibrary automation systems, a majority of which support only theMARC standard3) A bibliographic record in MARC format will allow the applicationsystem or library automation system to:– format the information correctly for printing a set of catalogcards or for displaying the information on a computer screen– search for and retrieve certain types of information withinspecific fields
Introduction to MARC Record:• History- Developed in the 1960s by the Library of Congress- Led to the foundation of national online catalogs such as OCLCand RLIN.• Uses– Flexible tool to describe books, serials, maps, non-book materials,computer files, etc.– Standardized format permits sharing records
Sources of MARC Records:• Bibliographic utilities– OCLC (Online Library Computer Catalogue)– RLIN (Research Libraries Information Network)• Vendor supplied/purchased– U.S.G.P.O (United States Government Printing Office)– OCLC PromptCat (Now merged in WorldCat*)• Z39.50 sources– Library of Congress
Structure of MARC Records:• All share the same structure• Each has a Leader Directory FieldLeader :1) The first section in a MARC record2) Contains coded information about the record (not the resource)3) Many elements are not displayed
Structure of MARC Records:Directory:1) The second section in a MARC record2) Lists the tag, length, and starting character position of each field in theMARC record3) Is machine-generated and is not displayed, nor can it be alteredmanually
Structure of MARC Records:Fields:• Logically divide information about the resource being described– Title– Author– Publication, etc.• Fields are defined by the MARC21 Standard
Field Tags:Tags– 3 character positions– Only numeric– Used as field names100 1_ ‡a Grahame, Kenneth,245 14 ‡a The wind in the willows
Indicators:– 2 character positions– Useful for computer manipulation– Not defined for all fields– Primarily numeric (and blank = undefined)– Must be read/assigned as individual values100 1_ ‡a Grahame, Kenneth, ‡d 1859- 1932.245 14 ‡a The wind in the willows / ‡c by KennethGrahame.
Subfields:Subfields– Further divides the MARC field– Marked by delimiters combined with a subfield code– Not defined for some fields100 1_ ‡a Grahame, Kenneth, ‡245 14 ‡a The wind in the willows
Frequently Seen Field Tags:• 100 Personal Name Main Entry (Author)• 245 Title Statement• 260 Publication Information• 300 Physical Description• 440 Series• 500 General Notes• 504 Bibliography• 520 Summary Note• 650 Topical Subject• 700 Personal Name Added Entry• 710 Corporate Body Added Entry
MARC Record:007680000000001930004500008003900000019001500039019001300054090000800067245017400075260003600249300003000285500007600315650002500391650002700416650002400443700003000467700002700497949005000524880831s1974 ur a jW 0000f eng00^a505001173610^a8818005900 ^nTAL30^aTales of theAmber Sea^bfairy tales of the peoples of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania^ecompiled and retold in English by Irina Zheleznova^e illustrated byAnatoly Bilyukin00^aMoscowbRaduga Publishers c197400 ^a259p.bcol. ill.c22 cm.00^aEnglish language ed. originally published byProgress Publishers, 1974.00^aFairy taleszEstonia00^aFairy taleszLithuania00^aFairy taleszLatvia11^aZheleznovahIrina Lvovna11^aBilyukinhAnatolyyill ^b71964487cFOLKlIHmORD p0s398.209474TALzi
MARC Advantages:• Timely – more accurate records of updates and changes. Maintenance istaken care of by regular reloading of records.• Automated – the size and ‘turbulence’ of databases make it timeconsuming to maintain records manually.• Increased use of product – improved access through the cataloguemaximizes the investment in the service.• Greater efficiencies for document delivery and reference staffthrough a comprehensive integrated catalogue.
MARC Disadvantages:• Record structure is difficult for a human to ‘read’• Record structure is difficult to program• Requires difficult control characters• Large files (say over 20 Mb) are difficult to manipulate
Z39.50 Protocol:Z39.50 is generally defined as the information search and retrieveprotocol standard used primarily by library and information relatedsystems.The standard specifies a client/server-based protocol for searching andretrieving information from remote databases simultaneously using asingle interface.
Library Automation: The Steps1) Technology Plan2) Selection and acquisition of ILMS3) Implementation
Technology Plan and Project Proposal:In planning and implementing library automation, a thoroughstudy of the library’s existing system as well as the library’svision is necessary to enable you to prepare a good technologyplan and project proposal.Steps:1) Vision2) Present status3) Requirement: Gaps4) Feasibility5) Technology Plan6) Project proposal
Technology Plan and Project Proposal:Continue…Vision:A vision is a dream. It is a vivid picture of what you would like yourlibrary to become in the near future. It is based on the mission of yourlibrary, the needs of your users and on the trends in library service. Avision provides direction and a philosophy for the library.Determining Present Status :It involves gathering data about the library’s operations, facilities,collections, procedures, staff expertise, etc.Data Source;•Statistics•Staff profile•Patron profile•Policies and procedures•Functional specifications
Technology Plan and Project Proposal:Continue…Determine your Requirements:By comparing the actual status with the objectivesof the project, the systems requirements canbe determined.Feasibility study:It is designed to answer:– Is the proposed system possible?– Is it necessary?– What other options are available?– Is it affordable?Technology Plan:Written document Contains: Vision, Goals and Objectives, Components ofthe project in terms of needs to achieve the vision , Specifications foryour system requirements, Financial estimates, Action plan and Timetable for the project.
Technology Plan and Project Proposal:Continue…Technology Plan:Proposals are-a. based on the technology plan.b. prepared for presentation to funding agencies, hence they must beaffordable for the funding agencyThey must follow the format of the funding agency and they must bewithin the thrust of the funding agency.
Selection and Acquisition of ILMS:Methods of Library Automation:To determine the best package for your library, analyze and identify yourneeds and match it with the features and functions of integrated librarysystems.
Steps in selecting an integrated librarysystem:• Analyze and identify your needs• Develop criteria for evaluation based on your needs assessment• Read relevant reviews of library automation systems and relatedtechnologies and standards• Prepare a short list of library software packages, their features,functional modules available, and standards supported• Ask libraries for an honest evaluation of their library managementsystem• If possible, visit local libraries or institutions using a librarymanagement system• Ask vendors for a demo version to try out, or if available downloadfrom their site on the Net• Determine and compare initial and total cost of each library system
Implementation and Integration ofILMS:Implementation includes all activities after management has decided toautomate the library and approved the plan.• Strategic Plan• Data Conversion• Pilot/test run• Full Implementation• Post Implementation Review
Interrelationships of key factors in the operations of alibrarySuppliers ofinformation:JobbersPublishersAuthorsThe Library:ManagementContent Collection)ServicesStaffInfrastructureNetworking activitiesUsers:NeedsKnowledgeSkill
Conclusion:In conclusion, it might be stated that library automation is in its infancy inPakistan. No serious efforts have been made in the field of librarysoftware in a proper manner. With only six or seven years’ experiencein library automation, very few people have been trained well inlibrary computerization. There is a lack of resourceful persons in thecountry. It is the duty of our professional associations and libraryschools to solve the problems of library software and its appropriatetraining in the country. A MARC format for Pakistan should bedeveloped. None of this can be done without the help of government.The Government should aid libraries and supervise their struggles forlibrary automation
Reference:• Haider, S. J. (1998). Library automation in Pakistan. InternationalInformation & Library Review, 30, 51-69.• Malik, K. M. (1996). The status of library automation in Pakistan.Library Review, 45(6), 36-42.• Mahmood, K. (1999). The development of computerised libraryservices in Pakistan. Asian Libraries, 8(9), 307-328.• http://infolab.stanford.edu/pub/voy/museum/pictures/display/2-2-ElecKeyPunch.htm• http://www.scaruffi.com/svhistory/sv/chap82.html• http://www.oclc.org/au/en/promptcat/default.htm