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Zoology kingdom animalia

Zoology kingdom animalia






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    Zoology kingdom animalia Zoology kingdom animalia Document Transcript

    • Chapter 26 - 1 Introduction to the Animal KingdomMost diverse kingdom in appearanceEach phylum has its own typical body plan (arrangement)What is an Animal?Animals are heterotrophic, eukaryotic, and multicellular andlack cell walls.95% = invertebrates (do not have backbone)5% = vertebrates (have a backbone)What Animals do to SurvivePhysiology = Study of the functions of organsAnatomy = the structure of the organism/organsHomeostasis is maintained by internal feedback mechanismsFeedback inhibition = the product or results of a process stops or limits the processEx: dog panting releases heatThere are 7 essential functions of animals:Feeding:Herbivore = eats plantsCarnivore = eats animalsOmnivore = eats plants and animalsDetritivore = feed on decaying organic materialFilter Feeders = aquatic animals that strain food from waterParasite = lives in or on another organism (symbiotic relationship)Respiration:Take in O2 and give off CO2Lungs, gills, through skin, simple diffusionCirculation:Very small animals rely on diffusionLarger animals have circulatory systemExcretion:Primary waste product is ammoniaLiquid waste
    • Response:Receptor cells = sound, light, external stimuliNerve cells => nervous systemMovement:Most animals are motile (can move)Muscles usually work with a skeletonReproduction:Most reproduce sexually = genetic diversityMany invertebrates can also reproduce asexually = to increase their numbers rapidlyTrends in Animal EvolutionCell Specialization and Levels of Organization:Cells -->tissues -->organs -> organ systemsEarly Development:Zygote = fertilized eggBlastula = a hollow ball of cellsBlastopore = the blastula folds in creating this openingProtostome = mouth is formed from blastoporeDeuterosome = anus if formed from blastoporeAnus = opening for solid waste removal from digestive tractThe cells of most animal embryos differentiate into three layers called germ layersEndoderm = (innermost) develops into the lining of the digestive tract and respiratory tractMesoderm = (middle) muscle, circulatory, reproductive, and excretory systemsEctoderm = (outermost) sense organs, nerves, outer layer of skinBody Symmetry:
    • Body Symmetry - the body plan of an animal, how itsparts are arrangedAsymmetry - no pattern (corals, sponges)Radial Symmetry - shaped like a wheel (starfish,hydra, jellyfish)Bilateral Symmetry - has a right and left side(humans, insects, cats, etc)Cephalization - an anterior concentration of senseorgans (to have a head)*The more complex the animals becomes the morepronounced their cephalizationanterior - toward the headposterior - toward the taildorsal - back sideventral - belly sideSegmentation - "advanced"animals have body segments,and specialization of tissue(even humans are segmented,look at the ribs and spine)Body Cavity Formation: A fluid-filled space where internal organs can be suspendedTypes of Animals Phylum Examples Evolutionary Milestone Porifera sponges multicellularity Cnidaria jellyfish, hydra, coral tissues Platyhelminthes flatworms bilateral symmetry Nematoda roundworms pseudocoelom Mollusca clams, squids, snails coelom Annalida earthworms, leeches segmentation Arthropoda insects, spiders, crustaceans jointed appendages
    • Echinodermata starfish deuterostomesChordata vertebrates notochord