Taxonomy2

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  • Patella; porcellanus - pocelain crab, F.vesiculosus, Enteromorpha, Nucella – dog whelk, flat periwinkle, Corallina, balanus, edible periwinkle, F.serratus, carcinus, Actinia
  • Genus and species are the two names used to identify specific organisms in the binomial system of classification. Division is used for plants.
  • Taxonomy2

    1. 1. Taxonomy
    2. 2. What is taxonomy?Taxonomy is the branch ofbiology concerned with thegrouping and naming oforganismsBiologists who study this arecalled taxonomists
    3. 3. How did it start?People wanted to organizetheir world so they begangrouping, or classifyingeverything they saw.
    4. 4. Why classify?To help us study the earthTo help us organize all thespecies we discover . . .
    5. 5. To give every species a namebased on a standard methodso scientists from differentcountries can talk about thesame animal withoutconfusion
    6. 6. Who is Carolus Linnaeus?Carolus Linnaeus was aSwedish botanistDeveloped a 7-level (taxa)classification system basedon similarities betweenorganisms
    7. 7. HISTORY OF CLASSIFICATION CAROLLUS LINNAEUS DEVELOPED THEARISTOTLE CLASSIFICATION ON ROBERT WHITTAKERDIVIDED LIVING SIMILAR PROPERTIES, THE CONSIDEREDTHINGS INTO FOUND BINOMIAL FIVE KINGDOMSTWO KINGDOMS NOMENCLATURE AS SYSTEM A SYSTEM TO GIVE A SCIENTIFIC NAME
    8. 8. CAROLLUS LINNAEUSThe mnemonic device to help you remember the complete hierarchy King--Phillip--Came--Over--For--Good--Soup
    9. 9. ROBERT WHITTAKERProkaryotic Cells Without Nuclei And Membrane-Bound Organelles 1. Kingdom Monera [10,000 species]: Unicellular and colonial--including the true bacteria (eubacteria) and cyanobacteria (blue-green algae).Eukaryotic Cells With Nuclei And Membrane-Bound Organelles: 2. Kingdom Protista (Protoctista) [250,000 species]: Unicellularprotozoans and unicellular & multicellular (macroscopic) algae with9 + 2 cilia and flagella (called undulipodia). 3. Kingdom Fungi [100,000 species]: Haploid and dikaryotic(binucleate) cells, multicellular, generally heterotrophic, without ciliaand eukaryotic (9 + 2) flagella (undulipodia). 4. Kingdom Plantae [250,000 species]: Haplo-diploid life cycles,mostly autotrophic, retaining embryo within female sex organ onparent plant. 5. Kingdom Animalia [1,000,000 species]: Multicellular animals,without cell walls and without photosynthetic pigments, formingdiploid blastula.
    10. 10. How does it work?There are 6 broad kingdomsEvery living thing that weknow of fits into one of thesix kingdomsEach level gets more specificas fewer organisms fit intoany one group
    11. 11. Sea-side Splat!
    12. 12. An animal is known by two names…Canis lupus is the scientificname for a gray wolf.Canis is the genus namelupus is the species nameThis system uses a binomialnomenclature
    13. 13. Genus…A genus consists of a groupof closely related speciesOther animals in the Canisgroup include dogs andcoyotesThe genus name is alwaysCapitalized
    14. 14. Species...A species consists of animalsthat can mate and producefertile offspringOnly grey wolves are knownas lupus.The species name is alwayslowercase
    15. 15. Binomial NomenclatureBi means twoNomen means nameA binomial nomenclature is aclassification system usingtwo names to identify anorganism
    16. 16. ‘Binomial’ = 2 names species – all in lower case Fucus vesiculosusGenus – hasa capital letter Italics (or underlined) -to show the words are different to ordinary text.
    17. 17. Taxon Cat ManKINGDOM Animalia AnimaliaPHYLUM Chordata ChordataCLASS Mammalia MammaliaORDER Carnivora PrimatesFAMILY Felidae - cats Anthropoids - apesGENUS Felis HomoSPECIES cattus sapiens
    18. 18. Example: Cinnamon rose (Rosa cinnamomea) Specific epithet --- cinnamomea Genus --- Rosa Family --- Rosaceae Order --- Rosales Class --- Dicotyledonae Subdivision --- Angiospermae Division --- Spermatophyta Kingdom --- Plantae
    19. 19. Early Taxonomists 2000 years ago,Aristotle was thefirst taxonomist Aristotle dividedorganisms into plants& animals He subdivided themby their habitat---land, sea, or airdwellers 19
    20. 20. Early TaxonomistsJohn Ray, abotanist, was thefirst to use Latinfor namingHis names werevery longdescriptionstelling everythingabout the plant 20
    21. 21. Carolus Linnaeus 1707 – 177818th centurytaxonomistClassifiedorganisms bytheir structureDevelopednaming systemstill used today 21
    22. 22. Carolus LinnaeusCalled the “Father ofTaxonomy”Developed the modernsystem of naming known asbinomial nomenclatureTwo-word name (Genus &species) 22
    23. 23. Confusion in Using Different Languages for Names
    24. 24. Latin Names are Understood by allTaxonomists
    25. 25. Binomial NomenclatureWhich TWO are more closely related? 25
    26. 26. Rules for Naming OrganismsThe International Code forBinomial Nomenclature containsthe rules for naming organismsAll names must be approved byInternational Naming Congresses(International ZoologicalCongress)This prevents duplicated names 26
    27. 27. Hierarchy-Taxonomic Groups Domain BROADEST TAXON Kingdom Phylum (Division – used for plants) Class Order Family Genus Most Species Specific 27
    28. 28. DumbKingPhillipCameOverForGooseberrySoup! 28
    29. 29. copyright cmassengale 29
    30. 30. 30
    31. 31. 31
    32. 32. Where Do Viruses Fit?Not a cellNot “alive”?– Do not grow,– do not maintain homeostasis EarlyNucleic acids in protein shell Stage of InfluenzaUse host cell to replicate Virus
    33. 33. Basis for Modern Taxonomy Homologous structures (same structure, different function) Similar embryo development Molecular Similarity in DNA, RNA, or amino acid sequence of Proteins 33
    34. 34. Homologous Structures (BONES in the FORELIMBS) shows Similarities in mammals. 34
    35. 35. Similarities in Vertebrate Embryos 35
    36. 36. Embryology Embryology
    37. 37. THE CAT FAMILYMountain lion, Puma,Panther,Cougar,Cheetah,Tiger,Leopard,Jaguor
    38. 38. Felis concolor – mountain lion, puma, panther, cougarSumatran Tiger - Kingdom: Animalia, Phylum, Chordata, Class Mammalia,Order Carnivora, Family Felidae, Genus Pathera, Species tigris Panthera leo Panthera tigris Panthera pardus
    39. 39. CHEETAH
    40. 40. TIGER
    41. 41. Panther
    42. 42. Puma
    43. 43. Cougar
    44. 44. Mountain Lion
    45. 45. Complete classsification
    46. 46. TaxonomyRice CatKingdom : Plantae Kingdom : AnimaliaDivision : Angiospermae Phylum : ChordataClass :Monocotyledonae Class : MammaliaOrder : Poales Order :CarnivoreFamily : Poaceae Family : FelidaeGenus : Oryzae Genus : FelisSpecies : Oryza sativa Species : Felis domesticus
    47. 47. “Latin is a language,as dead as dead can be.First it killed the Romans: Now it’s killing me.”
    48. 48. “A name is a handle by which we get to knowcertain people, places and plants.” - Michael Dirr
    49. 49. But what about “rilver” maple trees? PLANTS MAKE BUT DO NOT READ BOOKS!

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