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  • Patella; porcellanus - pocelain crab, F.vesiculosus, Enteromorpha, Nucella – dog whelk, flat periwinkle, Corallina, balanus, edible periwinkle, F.serratus, carcinus, Actinia
  • Genus and species are the two names used to identify specific organisms in the binomial system of classification. Division is used for plants.

Transcript

  • 1. Taxonomy
  • 2. What is taxonomy?Taxonomy is the branch ofbiology concerned with thegrouping and naming oforganismsBiologists who study this arecalled taxonomists
  • 3. How did it start?People wanted to organizetheir world so they begangrouping, or classifyingeverything they saw.
  • 4. Why classify?To help us study the earthTo help us organize all thespecies we discover . . .
  • 5. To give every species a namebased on a standard methodso scientists from differentcountries can talk about thesame animal withoutconfusion
  • 6. Who is Carolus Linnaeus?Carolus Linnaeus was aSwedish botanistDeveloped a 7-level (taxa)classification system basedon similarities betweenorganisms
  • 7. HISTORY OF CLASSIFICATION CAROLLUS LINNAEUS DEVELOPED THEARISTOTLE CLASSIFICATION ON ROBERT WHITTAKERDIVIDED LIVING SIMILAR PROPERTIES, THE CONSIDEREDTHINGS INTO FOUND BINOMIAL FIVE KINGDOMSTWO KINGDOMS NOMENCLATURE AS SYSTEM A SYSTEM TO GIVE A SCIENTIFIC NAME
  • 8. CAROLLUS LINNAEUSThe mnemonic device to help you remember the complete hierarchy King--Phillip--Came--Over--For--Good--Soup
  • 9. ROBERT WHITTAKERProkaryotic Cells Without Nuclei And Membrane-Bound Organelles 1. Kingdom Monera [10,000 species]: Unicellular and colonial--including the true bacteria (eubacteria) and cyanobacteria (blue-green algae).Eukaryotic Cells With Nuclei And Membrane-Bound Organelles: 2. Kingdom Protista (Protoctista) [250,000 species]: Unicellularprotozoans and unicellular & multicellular (macroscopic) algae with9 + 2 cilia and flagella (called undulipodia). 3. Kingdom Fungi [100,000 species]: Haploid and dikaryotic(binucleate) cells, multicellular, generally heterotrophic, without ciliaand eukaryotic (9 + 2) flagella (undulipodia). 4. Kingdom Plantae [250,000 species]: Haplo-diploid life cycles,mostly autotrophic, retaining embryo within female sex organ onparent plant. 5. Kingdom Animalia [1,000,000 species]: Multicellular animals,without cell walls and without photosynthetic pigments, formingdiploid blastula.
  • 10. How does it work?There are 6 broad kingdomsEvery living thing that weknow of fits into one of thesix kingdomsEach level gets more specificas fewer organisms fit intoany one group
  • 11. Sea-side Splat!
  • 12. An animal is known by two names…Canis lupus is the scientificname for a gray wolf.Canis is the genus namelupus is the species nameThis system uses a binomialnomenclature
  • 13. Genus…A genus consists of a groupof closely related speciesOther animals in the Canisgroup include dogs andcoyotesThe genus name is alwaysCapitalized
  • 14. Species...A species consists of animalsthat can mate and producefertile offspringOnly grey wolves are knownas lupus.The species name is alwayslowercase
  • 15. Binomial NomenclatureBi means twoNomen means nameA binomial nomenclature is aclassification system usingtwo names to identify anorganism
  • 16. ‘Binomial’ = 2 names species – all in lower case Fucus vesiculosusGenus – hasa capital letter Italics (or underlined) -to show the words are different to ordinary text.
  • 17. Taxon Cat ManKINGDOM Animalia AnimaliaPHYLUM Chordata ChordataCLASS Mammalia MammaliaORDER Carnivora PrimatesFAMILY Felidae - cats Anthropoids - apesGENUS Felis HomoSPECIES cattus sapiens
  • 18. Example: Cinnamon rose (Rosa cinnamomea) Specific epithet --- cinnamomea Genus --- Rosa Family --- Rosaceae Order --- Rosales Class --- Dicotyledonae Subdivision --- Angiospermae Division --- Spermatophyta Kingdom --- Plantae
  • 19. Early Taxonomists 2000 years ago,Aristotle was thefirst taxonomist Aristotle dividedorganisms into plants& animals He subdivided themby their habitat---land, sea, or airdwellers 19
  • 20. Early TaxonomistsJohn Ray, abotanist, was thefirst to use Latinfor namingHis names werevery longdescriptionstelling everythingabout the plant 20
  • 21. Carolus Linnaeus 1707 – 177818th centurytaxonomistClassifiedorganisms bytheir structureDevelopednaming systemstill used today 21
  • 22. Carolus LinnaeusCalled the “Father ofTaxonomy”Developed the modernsystem of naming known asbinomial nomenclatureTwo-word name (Genus &species) 22
  • 23. Confusion in Using Different Languages for Names
  • 24. Latin Names are Understood by allTaxonomists
  • 25. Binomial NomenclatureWhich TWO are more closely related? 25
  • 26. Rules for Naming OrganismsThe International Code forBinomial Nomenclature containsthe rules for naming organismsAll names must be approved byInternational Naming Congresses(International ZoologicalCongress)This prevents duplicated names 26
  • 27. Hierarchy-Taxonomic Groups Domain BROADEST TAXON Kingdom Phylum (Division – used for plants) Class Order Family Genus Most Species Specific 27
  • 28. DumbKingPhillipCameOverForGooseberrySoup! 28
  • 29. copyright cmassengale 29
  • 30. 30
  • 31. 31
  • 32. Where Do Viruses Fit?Not a cellNot “alive”?– Do not grow,– do not maintain homeostasis EarlyNucleic acids in protein shell Stage of InfluenzaUse host cell to replicate Virus
  • 33. Basis for Modern Taxonomy Homologous structures (same structure, different function) Similar embryo development Molecular Similarity in DNA, RNA, or amino acid sequence of Proteins 33
  • 34. Homologous Structures (BONES in the FORELIMBS) shows Similarities in mammals. 34
  • 35. Similarities in Vertebrate Embryos 35
  • 36. Embryology Embryology
  • 37. THE CAT FAMILYMountain lion, Puma,Panther,Cougar,Cheetah,Tiger,Leopard,Jaguor
  • 38. Felis concolor – mountain lion, puma, panther, cougarSumatran Tiger - Kingdom: Animalia, Phylum, Chordata, Class Mammalia,Order Carnivora, Family Felidae, Genus Pathera, Species tigris Panthera leo Panthera tigris Panthera pardus
  • 39. CHEETAH
  • 40. TIGER
  • 41. Panther
  • 42. Puma
  • 43. Cougar
  • 44. Mountain Lion
  • 45. Complete classsification
  • 46. TaxonomyRice CatKingdom : Plantae Kingdom : AnimaliaDivision : Angiospermae Phylum : ChordataClass :Monocotyledonae Class : MammaliaOrder : Poales Order :CarnivoreFamily : Poaceae Family : FelidaeGenus : Oryzae Genus : FelisSpecies : Oryza sativa Species : Felis domesticus
  • 47. “Latin is a language,as dead as dead can be.First it killed the Romans: Now it’s killing me.”
  • 48. “A name is a handle by which we get to knowcertain people, places and plants.” - Michael Dirr
  • 49. But what about “rilver” maple trees? PLANTS MAKE BUT DO NOT READ BOOKS!