What is taxonomy?Taxonomy is the branch ofbiology concerned with thegrouping and naming oforganismsBiologists who study this arecalled taxonomists
How did it start?People wanted to organizetheir world so they begangrouping, or classifyingeverything they saw.
Why classify?To help us study the earthTo help us organize all thespecies we discover . . .
To give every species a namebased on a standard methodso scientists from differentcountries can talk about thesame animal withoutconfusion
Who is Carolus Linnaeus?Carolus Linnaeus was aSwedish botanistDeveloped a 7-level (taxa)classification system basedon similarities betweenorganisms
HISTORY OF CLASSIFICATION CAROLLUS LINNAEUS DEVELOPED THEARISTOTLE CLASSIFICATION ON ROBERT WHITTAKERDIVIDED LIVING SIMILAR PROPERTIES, THE CONSIDEREDTHINGS INTO FOUND BINOMIAL FIVE KINGDOMSTWO KINGDOMS NOMENCLATURE AS SYSTEM A SYSTEM TO GIVE A SCIENTIFIC NAME
CAROLLUS LINNAEUSThe mnemonic device to help you remember the complete hierarchy King--Phillip--Came--Over--For--Good--Soup
ROBERT WHITTAKERProkaryotic Cells Without Nuclei And Membrane-Bound Organelles 1. Kingdom Monera [10,000 species]: Unicellular and colonial--including the true bacteria (eubacteria) and cyanobacteria (blue-green algae).Eukaryotic Cells With Nuclei And Membrane-Bound Organelles: 2. Kingdom Protista (Protoctista) [250,000 species]: Unicellularprotozoans and unicellular & multicellular (macroscopic) algae with9 + 2 cilia and flagella (called undulipodia). 3. Kingdom Fungi [100,000 species]: Haploid and dikaryotic(binucleate) cells, multicellular, generally heterotrophic, without ciliaand eukaryotic (9 + 2) flagella (undulipodia). 4. Kingdom Plantae [250,000 species]: Haplo-diploid life cycles,mostly autotrophic, retaining embryo within female sex organ onparent plant. 5. Kingdom Animalia [1,000,000 species]: Multicellular animals,without cell walls and without photosynthetic pigments, formingdiploid blastula.
How does it work?There are 6 broad kingdomsEvery living thing that weknow of fits into one of thesix kingdomsEach level gets more specificas fewer organisms fit intoany one group
An animal is known by two names…Canis lupus is the scientificname for a gray wolf.Canis is the genus namelupus is the species nameThis system uses a binomialnomenclature
Genus…A genus consists of a groupof closely related speciesOther animals in the Canisgroup include dogs andcoyotesThe genus name is alwaysCapitalized
Species...A species consists of animalsthat can mate and producefertile offspringOnly grey wolves are knownas lupus.The species name is alwayslowercase
Binomial NomenclatureBi means twoNomen means nameA binomial nomenclature is aclassification system usingtwo names to identify anorganism
‘Binomial’ = 2 names species – all in lower case Fucus vesiculosusGenus – hasa capital letter Italics (or underlined) -to show the words are different to ordinary text.
Example: Cinnamon rose (Rosa cinnamomea) Specific epithet --- cinnamomea Genus --- Rosa Family --- Rosaceae Order --- Rosales Class --- Dicotyledonae Subdivision --- Angiospermae Division --- Spermatophyta Kingdom --- Plantae
Early Taxonomists 2000 years ago,Aristotle was thefirst taxonomist Aristotle dividedorganisms into plants& animals He subdivided themby their habitat---land, sea, or airdwellers 19
Early TaxonomistsJohn Ray, abotanist, was thefirst to use Latinfor namingHis names werevery longdescriptionstelling everythingabout the plant 20
Carolus Linnaeus 1707 – 177818th centurytaxonomistClassifiedorganisms bytheir structureDevelopednaming systemstill used today 21
Carolus LinnaeusCalled the “Father ofTaxonomy”Developed the modernsystem of naming known asbinomial nomenclatureTwo-word name (Genus &species) 22
Confusion in Using Different Languages for Names
Latin Names are Understood by allTaxonomists
Binomial NomenclatureWhich TWO are more closely related? 25
Rules for Naming OrganismsThe International Code forBinomial Nomenclature containsthe rules for naming organismsAll names must be approved byInternational Naming Congresses(International ZoologicalCongress)This prevents duplicated names 26
Hierarchy-Taxonomic Groups Domain BROADEST TAXON Kingdom Phylum (Division – used for plants) Class Order Family Genus Most Species Specific 27
copyright cmassengale 29
Where Do Viruses Fit?Not a cellNot “alive”?– Do not grow,– do not maintain homeostasis EarlyNucleic acids in protein shell Stage of InfluenzaUse host cell to replicate Virus
Basis for Modern Taxonomy Homologous structures (same structure, different function) Similar embryo development Molecular Similarity in DNA, RNA, or amino acid sequence of Proteins 33
Homologous Structures (BONES in the FORELIMBS) shows Similarities in mammals. 34
Similarities in Vertebrate Embryos 35
THE CAT FAMILYMountain lion, Puma,Panther,Cougar,Cheetah,Tiger,Leopard,Jaguor
Felis concolor – mountain lion, puma, panther, cougarSumatran Tiger - Kingdom: Animalia, Phylum, Chordata, Class Mammalia,Order Carnivora, Family Felidae, Genus Pathera, Species tigris Panthera leo Panthera tigris Panthera pardus
TaxonomyRice CatKingdom : Plantae Kingdom : AnimaliaDivision : Angiospermae Phylum : ChordataClass :Monocotyledonae Class : MammaliaOrder : Poales Order :CarnivoreFamily : Poaceae Family : FelidaeGenus : Oryzae Genus : FelisSpecies : Oryza sativa Species : Felis domesticus
“Latin is a language,as dead as dead can be.First it killed the Romans: Now it’s killing me.”
“A name is a handle by which we get to knowcertain people, places and plants.” - Michael Dirr
But what about “rilver” maple trees? PLANTS MAKE BUT DO NOT READ BOOKS!