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Mende
 

Mende

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2nd year

2nd year

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    Mende Mende Presentation Transcript

    • Mendel’s Laws ofHeredityWhy we look the waywe look...
    • What is heredity?The passing on ofcharacteristics (traits)from parents to offspringGenetics is the study ofheredity
    • Mendel used peas...They reproduce sexuallyThey have two distinct,male and female, sex cellscalled gametesTheir traits are easy toisolate
    • Mendel crossed themFertilization - the unitingof male and femalegametesCross - combining gametesfrom parents withdifferent traits
    • QuestionsWhat did Mendel cross?What are traits?What are gametes?What is fertilization?What is heredity?What is genetics?
    • What Did Mendel Find?He discovered differentlaws and rules that explainfactors affecting heredity.
    • Rule of Unit FactorsEach organism has twoalleles for each trait – Alleles - different forms of the same gene – Genes - located on chromosomes, they control how an organism develops
    • Rule of DominanceThe trait that is observedin the offspring is thedominant trait (uppercase)The trait that disappearsin the offspring is therecessive trait (lowercase)
    • Law of SegregationThe two alleles for a traitmust separate whengametes are formedA parent randomly passesonly one allele for eachtrait to each offspring
    • Law of IndependentAssortment The genes for different traits are inherited independently of each other.
    • Questions...How many alleles are therefor each trait?What is an allele?How many alleles does aparent pass on to eachoffspring for each trait
    • Questions...What do we call the traitthat is observed?What case (upper or lower)is it written in?What about the one thatdisappears?What case is it written in?
    • Phenotype & GenotypePhenotype - the way anorganism looks – red hair or brown hairgenotype - the genecombination of an organism – AA or Aa or aa
    • Heterozygous & Homozygous Heterozygous - if the two alleles for a trait are different (Aa) Homozygous - if the two alleles for a trait are the same (AA or aa)
    • Dihybrid vs Monohybrid Dihybrid Cross - crossing parents who differ in two traits (AAEE with aaee) Monohybrid Cross - crossing parents who differ in only one trait (AA with aa)
    • Questions...What is the phenotype?What is the genotype?What is homozygous?What is heterozygous?What is monohybridcrossing?