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2nd year

2nd year

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  • 1. Mendel’s Laws ofHeredityWhy we look the waywe look...
  • 2. What is heredity?The passing on ofcharacteristics (traits)from parents to offspringGenetics is the study ofheredity
  • 3. Mendel used peas...They reproduce sexuallyThey have two distinct,male and female, sex cellscalled gametesTheir traits are easy toisolate
  • 4. Mendel crossed themFertilization - the unitingof male and femalegametesCross - combining gametesfrom parents withdifferent traits
  • 5. QuestionsWhat did Mendel cross?What are traits?What are gametes?What is fertilization?What is heredity?What is genetics?
  • 6. What Did Mendel Find?He discovered differentlaws and rules that explainfactors affecting heredity.
  • 7. Rule of Unit FactorsEach organism has twoalleles for each trait – Alleles - different forms of the same gene – Genes - located on chromosomes, they control how an organism develops
  • 8. Rule of DominanceThe trait that is observedin the offspring is thedominant trait (uppercase)The trait that disappearsin the offspring is therecessive trait (lowercase)
  • 9. Law of SegregationThe two alleles for a traitmust separate whengametes are formedA parent randomly passesonly one allele for eachtrait to each offspring
  • 10. Law of IndependentAssortment The genes for different traits are inherited independently of each other.
  • 11. Questions...How many alleles are therefor each trait?What is an allele?How many alleles does aparent pass on to eachoffspring for each trait
  • 12. Questions...What do we call the traitthat is observed?What case (upper or lower)is it written in?What about the one thatdisappears?What case is it written in?
  • 13. Phenotype & GenotypePhenotype - the way anorganism looks – red hair or brown hairgenotype - the genecombination of an organism – AA or Aa or aa
  • 14. Heterozygous & Homozygous Heterozygous - if the two alleles for a trait are different (Aa) Homozygous - if the two alleles for a trait are the same (AA or aa)
  • 15. Dihybrid vs Monohybrid Dihybrid Cross - crossing parents who differ in two traits (AAEE with aaee) Monohybrid Cross - crossing parents who differ in only one trait (AA with aa)
  • 16. Questions...What is the phenotype?What is the genotype?What is homozygous?What is heterozygous?What is monohybridcrossing?