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  1. 1. Phycology and Phycology Lab Course byDr. Mohamed Jawad Al-Haidarey Ecological Biogeochemistry / Phycology 1
  2. 2. Textbooks: Lectures, required reading :•Linda E Graham & Lee W Wilcox (2000)Algae , Prentice-Hall.•Marty Kelly & Richard Telford (2007)Common fresh water diatoms of Britain andIreland.•Janet R stein (1975) Hand book ofphcological methods, culture methods, andgrowth measurements.• ‫الس عدي، حس ين عل ي و نضال ادري س س ليمان )7002( علم‬‫الطحالب‬•‫مورس ، ايان )9791( مقدمة الطحالب‬‫بغدادي ، وفاء )5891( الشنات والطحالب البحرية‬ 2
  3. 3. Attendance politics: Regular attendance of lectures and lab classes is expected. It is further expected that students show up in time. For both the lecture and the lab classes, the student who comes late most will have to bring doughnuts or some food for the next lecture  . 3
  4. 4. Phycology Syllabus · Introduction to phycology · Cryptophytes · Basics of algal biology · Prymensiophytes (Haptophytes) · Reproduction in algae · Dinophytes (Dinoflagellates) · Introduction to the Ochrophytes · The role of algae in biogeochemistry · Diatoms · Algae in biological associations · Raphidophytes and Chrysophyceans · The role of algae in aquatic food webs · · Taxonomy and Systematics of Algae Synurophyceans, silicoflagellates, pedinelid · Phytoplankton size in ecology · Phaeophytes (Brown algae) · · Rhodophytes (Red algae) The physical environment: temperature, light, turbulence · Introduction to the Green algae · Prasinophyceans · Growth of phytoplankton · Ulvophyceans · Losses of phytoplankton · Trebouxiophyceans · Swimming and bouyancy · Chlorophyceans · Cyanobacteria · Charophyceans · · The origin of eukaryotic algae Ecology of macroalgae and periphyton · Euglenophytes 4
  5. 5. INTRODUCTION TO ALGAL CHARACTERISTICS AND DIVERSITYPHYCOLOGY=STUDY OF ALGAEPhycology is the science (gr. logos) ofalgae (gr. phycos). This discipline dealswith the morphology, taxonomy,phylogeny, biology, and ecology of algaein all ecosystems 5
  6. 6. FOSSIL HISTORY OF ALGAE 3.5 billion yrs ago Cyanobacteria—first algae Prokaryotes—lack membrane bound organelles Later eukaryotes evolved— mitochondria, chloroplasts, and chromosomes containing DNA. 6
  7. 7. Where are algae abound? Kelp forest up to 50 m height are the marine equivalent to terrestrial forest; mainly built by brown algae. Some algae encrust with carbonate, building reef- like structures; Cyanobacteria can from rock-like structures in warm tidal areas: stromatolites. 7
  8. 8. Where are algae abound? Algae grow or are attached to animals and serve as camouflage for the animal Algae live as symbionts in animals such as Hydra, corals, or the protozoan ciliate Paramecium; in corals they are referred to as zooxanthellae 8
  9. 9. Where are algae abound? Small algae live on top of larger algae: epiphyton Algae in free water: phytoplankton Terrestrial algae  Algae have adapted to life on land and occur as cryptobiotic crusts in desert and grassland soils or endocryptolithis algae in rocks 9
  10. 10. Where are algae abound? Algae live on the snow cover of glaciers and in the brine channels of sea ice. A symbiosis of algae and fungi produced the lichens, which are pioneer plants, help convert rock into soil by excreting acids, stabilize desert soil, are sensitive to air pollution 10
  11. 11. Where are algae abound? Algae can cover trees or buildings green or live in the hollow hairs of ice bears 11
  12. 12. Algal Blooms Algae can be so dominant that they discolor the water Higher amounts of nutrients are usually the cause Algal blooms can have harmful effects on life and ecosystem:  Reduced water clarity causes benthic communities to die off  Fish kills are common effects  50% of algal blooms produce toxins harmful to other organisms, including humans  Algal blooms produce a shift in food web structure and species composition Algal blooms can mostly be linked to sewage input or agricultural activities, leading to nutrient pollution: Eutrophication 12
  13. 13. 13
  14. 14. Summery of the lecture one We can find Algae in different Size (from some microns to more than 60 meters) We can find Algae in different region (soil, water, animal , plants … etc) Some of algae are prokaryotes and others are eukaryotes. 14
  15. 15. Summery of the lecture one In the aquatic ecosystems we can find algae as : Attachment:o Epipelic / on the clayo Epipzamic / on the sando Epilithic / on the rocks.o Epiphytic / on the plantso Epizoic / on the animalso Endozoic / in the animals bodyo Endophytic / in the plants body As Plankton:o Euphytoplankton / all the life cycle is planktono Tychophytoplankton / some of the life cycle is plankton 15
  16. 16. Summery of the lecture one According to environments we can subdivided Algae in to : Halophyts: in region with high salinity. Thermophyts: in region with high temperature. Cryptophyts: in the region with low temperature. In the trrastrial environments we can classified Algae in to : Lithophyts Epidaphics Endodaphics Casmolithics 16
  17. 17. Quiz: Please, in short, Clarified:what is Phycology means? And where are algae abound? Don’t be CheatIf you did you are cheater 17
  18. 18. Lecture two: 18
  19. 19. ALGAE How are algae similar to higher plants? How are algae different from higher plants? 19
  20. 20. Similarities Presence of cell wall—mostly cellulosic. Autotrophs/Primary producers— carry out photosynthesis Presence of chlorophyll a 20
  21. 21. Differences Algae lack the roots, stems, leaves, and other structures typical of true plants. Algae do not have vascular tissues—non vascular plants Algae do not form embryos within protective coverings—all cells are fertile. Variations in pigments. Variations in cell structure—unicellular, colonial and multicellular forms. 21
  22. 22. PROKARYOTIC VSEUKARYOTIC ALGAE  Prokaryote algal cellProkaryotes---No nuclear region and complex organelles— chloroplasts, mitochondria, golgi bodies, and endoplasmic reticula.-- Cyanobacteria. Chlorophylls are on internal membranes of flattened vesicles called thylakoids-contain photosynthetic pigments. Phycobiliproteins occur in granular structures called phycobilisomes. 22 Source:
  23. 23. Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Algae Eukaryotes---Distinct chlorplast, nuclear region and complex organelles.--- Thylakoids are grouped granum with a into grana Stack of thylakoidspyrenoids are centers of carbon dioxide fixation within the chloroplasts of algae and hornworts. pyrenoid Pyrenoids are not membrane-bound organelles, but specialized areas of the plastid that contain high levels of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/ 23 oxygenase
  24. 24. Forms of Algae BODY OF AN ALGA=THALLUS DIVERSITY IN MORPHOLOGY----MICROSCOPIC Unicellular, Colonial and Filamentous forms. Source: 24
  25. 25. Forms of Algae MACROALGAE 25
  26. 26. Forms of Algae MICRO ALGAE 26
  27. 27. Forms of Algae Unicells: single cells, motile with flagellate (like Chlamydomonas and Euglena) or nonmotile (like Diatoms) 27
  28. 28. 2. Multicellular form: the vegetation forms are in six forms: Colonies: Assemblage of individual cells with variable or constant number of cells that remain constant throughout the colony life in mucilaginous matrix (containing an extracellular matrix made of a gelatinous glycoprotein), these colonies may be motile (like Volvox and Pandorina) or nonmotile (like Scendesmus and Pediastrum). 28
  29. 29.  Coenobium:Colony with constant number of cells, which cannot survive alone; specific „tasks“ among groups of cells is common (is a colony containing a fixed number of cells, with little or no specialization) 29
  30. 30. b. Aggregations: is aggregation of cells that have ability to simple division (so, its colony but unconstant in form and size), the aggregations are in several types:• Palmelloid form: non-motile cells embedded in mucilage (like Tetraspora). 30
  31. 31. •Dendroid form: resembling a tree inform or in pattern of growth (Dinobryon). 31
  32. 32. •Amoeboid or Rhizopodial form such asChlorarachnion. 32
  33. 33. c. Filaments: daughter cells remain attached after cell division and form a cell chain; adjacent cells share cell wall (distinguish them from linear colonies!); maybe unbranched (uniseriate such as Zygnema and Ulthrix) or branched (regular mutiseriate such as Cladophora or unreguler mutiseriate such as Pithophora). 33 Cladophora Pithophora
  34. 34. d. Coenocytic or siphonaceaous forms: one large, multinucleate cell without cross walls such as Vaucheria 34
  35. 35. e. Parenchymatous (such as Ulva ) and algae: mostly macro-scopic algae with tissue of undifferentiated cells and growth originating from a meristem with cell division in three dimensions 35
  36. 36. ; pseudoparenchymatous (such as Batrachospermum)pseudoparenchymatous superficially resembleparenchyma but are composed of apprised filaments 36
  37. 37. f. Erect thallus forms: Thallus, from Latinized Greek (thallos), meaning a green shoot or twig, is an undifferentiated vegetative tissue (leaves, roots, and stems) of some non-mobile organisms such as Chara and Nitella.Chara 37
  38. 38. CELLULAR ORGANIZATION Flagella=organs of locomotion. Chloroplast=site of photosynthesis. Thylakoids are present in the chloroplast. The pigments are present in the thylakoids. Pyrenoid-structure associated with chloroplast. Contains ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate Carboxylase, proteins and carbohydrates. Eye-spot=part of chloroplast. Source: A Biology of the Algae By Philip Sze, third edition, WCB MCGraw-Hill Directs the cell towards light. 38
  39. 39. Variations in thepigment constitution Chlorophylls (green) Carotenoids (brown, yellow or red) Phycobilins (red pigment-phycoerythrin blue pigment –phycocyanin) 39
  40. 40. Summery of lecturetwo: Unicellular Multicellular 1. Colonies 2. Aggregations •Palmelloid (Tetraspora) •Dendroid (Dinobryon) •Amoeboid (Chlororachnion) 3.Filaments 4. Coenocytic / Vaucheria 5.Parenkematus/ Ulva 6. Psedoparenkematus / Batrachospermum 7. Erect thallus / Chara 40
  41. 41. Quiz of lecture two What is Pyrinoid ? Don’t be CheatIf you did you are cheater 41
  42. 42. Lecture Three 42
  43. 43. Growth in algae Diffuse or generalized growth: (Ulva). Localized growth:  Apical growth: (Chara, Cladophora).  Basal growth: (Bulbochaete).  Intercalary growth: (Laminaria, Oedogonium).  Trichothallic growth: (Ectocarpus) 43
  44. 44. Growth in algae Apical and intercalary Tricothallic 44
  45. 45. Reproduction in algae The reproduction of algae can be discussedunder two types, namely, asexual reproduction andsexual reproduction. The former type refers toreproduction in which a new organism is generatedfrom a single parent. In case of sexual type, twohaploid sex cells are fused to form a diploid zygotethat develops into an organism. Lets discuss inbrief about the asexual and sexual reproduction inalgae along with examples. 45
  46. 46. First: Asexual Reproduction includes:1. Vegetation reproduction: • In unicellular algae: simple cell division some time called binary fission (such as Gleocapsa). • In multicellular (colonies, filamentous, thallus, etc) by:  Fragmentation such as Microsystis.  Hormogonia: A small, motile filament, formed by some Cyanobacteria, that detaches and grows by cell division into a new filament such as Oscillatoria.  Propagules: a structure capable of producing a new individual such as Sphacelaria. 46
  47. 47. Vegetative reproduction Cell DivisionA cell could not keep growing bigger forever. Food molecules could notreach the inside of a large cell fast enough to keep it alive. So when a cellreached a certain size it had to divide into two smaller cells calleddaughters. The daughters grew and, when they reached that certain size,they too divided, this processes called binary fission.But this caused a problem, Why?. 47
  48. 48. Vegetative reproduction Hormogonia in Oscillatoria 48
  49. 49. Vegetative reproduction Propagules 49
  50. 50. 2. Another method of asexual reproduction in algae is by formation of spores; the algal species Ulothrix, Chlamydomonas and Chlorella reproduce by this method. Depending upon the algal species, the spores can be produced in normal vegetative cells or specialized cells called sporangia. They are either motile called zoo spores or non motile called akinete spores. 50
  51. 51. Ulotrix 51
  52. 52.  There are a lot of types of akinete spores such as:• Autospores: immobile spores that cannot develop flagella such as Chlorella.• Aplanospores: immobile spores that may nevertheless potentially grow flagella.• Hypnospores: A thick-walled resting cyst.• Tetraspores: spores produced by a tetrasporophyte, characteristic of red algae.• Statospores: spores that are not actively discharged from the algal fruiting body• Auxospores: A spore in diatom algae that leads to reformation of an enlarged vegetative cell. 52
  53. 53. Second: Sexual Reproduction:As already mentioned, sexual reproduction takesplace by the union of male and female gametes.The gametes may be identical in shape and sizecalled isogamy or different called heterogamy.Some of the simplest forms of algae like Spirogyrareproduce by the conjugation method of sexualreproduction. In the process of conjugation, twofilamentous strands (or two organisms) of thesame algae species exchange genetic materialthrough the conjugation tube. Among two strands,one acts as a donor and another serves as areceiver. After exchanging the genetic material,two strands separate from each other. The 53receiver then give rise to a diploid organism.
  54. 54. Second: Sexual Reproduction:Isogamy: is the form of sexual reproduction in which the gametesproduced are identical in shape, size and motility. There is nostructural distinction between "male" and "female" gametes. Pairs ofisogametes align themselves with their flagellar poles touching andafter several seconds, the motile gametes fuse to form a single, non-motile, diploid zygote. 54
  55. 55. Second: Sexual Reproduction:Isogametes, less commonly, may be non-motile structures. Aspecific example exhibiting non-motile isogametes is thereproductive process known as conjugation, in Figure below, theconjugating Spirogyra identify the four stages of the process asoutlined. 55 Isogamy in Spirogyra sp.
  56. 56. A. Resting filaments of alga cells.B. Formation of conjugation tubes between two adjacentfilaments.C. Cytoplasmic contents of each cell form a compact mass,representing an isogamete. The isogametes from onefilament migrate through the conjugation tubes into theadjacent filament.The two isogametes unite to form a zygote. Each zygoteeventually undergoes meiosis to form four haploid cells. Onehaploid cell will form a new filament by mitosis, the otherthree degenerate. 56
  57. 57. HeterogamyIn heterogamy, two different types of gametes are produced.The male gamete, the sperm cell, is typically very small,highly motile and is produced in very large numbers. Thefemale gamete, the egg cell, is much larger and non-motile,called Oogamy. Fewer female gametes are produced but eachis usually afforded some protection. Heterogametes are alsoproduced by higher plants and animals. Oedogonium sp. is a green alga that produces heterogametes. The figure bellow illustrates the life cycle of this alga. You can locate a mature egg cell and the small male filaments, which are the site of sperm production, the egg cells and male filaments are usually adjacent to one another on the same algal strand. 57
  58. 58. Heterogamy in Oedogonium sp. 58
  59. 59. SEXUAL REPRODUCTION ISOGAMY-Both gametes have flagella and similar in size and morphology. ANISOGAMY-Gametes have flagella but are dissimilar in shape and size. One gamete is distinctly smaller than the other one. OOGAMY-gamete with flagella (sperm) fuses with a larger, non flagellated gamete (egg). 59
  60. 60. REPRODUCTION Sexual- GametesVegetative Asexual ReproductionCell Zoospores after losing their flagella,divisions/Fragmentation form new filaments. No sexual fusion.=part of the filamentbreaks off from the restand forms a new one. 60
  61. 61. a, b, and c are zoosporesd, e, and f are aplanosporesg, and h are hypnosporesK is autospores.L is Isogamous, m is Anisogamous, and n 61is Oogamous
  62. 62. •Gametes look like vegetative cells or very different•Isogamy: both gametes look identical•Anisogamy: male and female gametes differmorphologically•Oogamy: One gamete is motile (male), one is nonmotile(female)•Monecious: both gametes produced by the sameindividual•Diecious: male and female gametes are produced bydifferent individuals•Homothallic: gametes from one individual can fuse(self-fertile)•Heterothallic gametes from one individual cannot fuse(self-sterile) 62
  63. 63. The life cycles in algae•Three different types of life cycle,depending on when miosis occurs, thetype of cells produced, and if there ismore than one free-living stage presentin the life-cycle. 63
  64. 64. The life cycles in algae•Life-cycle I (haploid life cycle): major part of life-cycle(vegetative phase) in haploid state, with meiosis upongermination of the zygote (zygotic meiosis) also referred toas haplontic life cycle, a single, predominant haploid phase 64
  65. 65. The life cycles in algae •Life-cycle II (Diploid life cycle): vegetative phase isdiploid, with meiosis upon formation of gametes (gametic meiosis) also referred to as diplontic life cycle, a single, predominant diploid phase 65
  66. 66. The life cycles in algae•Life-cycle III (Diplobiontic life cycle): three multicellular phases, thegametophyte and one or more sporophyte(s)Gametophyte: typically haploid, produces gametes by mitosisSporophyte: typically diploid, produces spores by meiosisIsomorphic: sporophyte and gametophyte look alikeHeteromorphic: sporo- and gametophyte look different 66
  67. 67. Basis of algal Classificationthe different groups of algae can be classified on the basis of a number of characteristics. 1. Color has been an important means of classifying algae, and gives many groups their names. However, other characteristics, such as type of photosynthetic food reserve, flagella type, cell wall structure and composition, and life history, have been important in further distinguishing the algal divisions. 67
  68. 68. FlagellaLocomotion in algae is largely based on the action of flagella. The figure below illustrates the wide variety of flagella present in the algae. The primary distinctions used for classification are the number of flagella, their location on the cell, and their morphology. Two major types of flagella are recognized: the smooth, or acronematic, and the hairy, or pleuronematic, types. The smooth flagella generally moves by whiplash motion and the hairy flagella moves by a pulling motion. 68
  70. 70. 70