Cup Fungi – Ascomycete Fungi Note the cup shapes and orange peel colour
Kingdom Fungi – you must know 5 Major Phyla1. Phylum Zygomycota = the Bread Molds Rhizopus – black bread mold2. Oomycota = the Water Molds Water mold, potato blight, mildew3. Phylum Ascomycota = the Sac Fungi Yeast, morels, truffles4. Phylum Basidiomycota = the Club Fungi Mushrooms, puffballs, bracket fungi, rusts, smuts, toadstools5. Phylum Deuteromycota = the Fungi Imperfecti
Zygomycota (Rhizopus) the Common Molds-are primarily decomposers -asexual spores may be produced in sporangia -sexual reproduction occurs between + and – strains forming a 2n zygote; a zygospore develops and may lie dormant for a long period of time; meiosis occurs just before germination -only the zygote is diploid; all hyphae and asexual spores are haploid
Zygomycota – common moldsThe fungal mass ofhyphae, known asthe MYCELIUMpenetrates thebread andproduces thefruiting bodies ontop of the stalks Mycelia = a mass of hyphae or filaments
Rhizoids = root-like hyphae The zhizoids meet underground and mating occurs between hyphae of different molds (SEXUAL REPRODUCTION)
Bracket Fungi Puff BallsBasidiomycete Fungi that all produce Basiospores Jelly Fungi Mushrooms
Other Basidiomycetes Rusts and Smuts Rust infecting Rust infecting Whitrot Smutwheat leaves a Leaf digesting old wood
Deuteromycota (Imperfect Fungi)-Regarded as imperfect because they exhibit no sexual stage has been observed in their life cycle -Members are not closely related and are not necessarily similar in structure or appearance; do not share a common ancestry, polyphyletic = coming from many ancestors – hmm weird
Deuteromycota – the Fungi Imperfecti• Resemble Ascomycetes, but their reproductive Penicillium fungi cycle has never been observed• Different from Ascomycetes because there is a definite lack of Up Close sexual reproduction, which is why they are called Imperfect Fungi
Water Molds -- Oomycota The water molds are better known as the MILDEWS. Fish tank fuzz is an example. Protist-like mold because share common characteristics with plant-like protists, such as the cell wall
Things to Know about Oomycete Fungi1. Water molds or mildews2. Cause diseases such as potato blight3. Cell walls made of cellulose (like plant)4. Hyphae have multiple nuclei! Because the cell walls do not fully close off.5. Spore swims away like a flagellate, which is why it is protist like (think of Euglena)
Irish Potato Famine of 19th Century Devastated potato crops, causing devastating starvation in Ireland
Phylum Ex’s Characterist Asexual Sexual icsOomycota Mildew Cellulose cell Flagellated Gametes fuse Spud walls, 2N oospores in blight hyphae from gametangia sporangia creating oosporesZygomycota Rhizopus Chitin cell Unflagel. Gametangia a dung walls spores drop fuse to create fungus Coenocytic = from zygospore hyphae lack sporangia crosswallsAscomycota Yeast, Conidia on Hyphae + & - morels, conidophores fuse to create truffles ascospores in ascus
Basidiomycota Mushroo Cross Asexual by way Sexual when ms walls in of Conidophores hyphae fuse Puffballs, hyphae which produce in BASIDIA rusts, conidiospores to produce smuts basidiosporesFungi Penicilliu Similar Asexual by Sexual reproImperfecti m, To conidia which Not known Athlete’s Basidio produceDeuteromycota Foot conidophores and fungus, Zygomy Tomato Blight
Cross Walls of Hyphae Coenocytic hyphae where the nucleis of each cell is embedded in the cytoplasm without a cell wall Eg. Zygomycota, Oomycota Hyphae with cross walls Eg. Basidiomycota, Ascomycota
LichensLichens are mutualistic symbiotic organisms. They have an ____________ fungus and a _________ or cyanobacterial portion. There are three lichen growth forms which are predominant in nature: __________________________________________________
Mycorrhizae Mycorrhizae means “fungus-root”; mutualistic relationship between plant and fungi The plant photosynthesizes while the fungus more efficiently takes up nutrients and water from the rhizosphere than the roots would alone. Plant benefits include: •Improved nutrient/water uptake •Improved root growth •Improved plant growth and yield •Improved disease resistance •Reduced transplant shock •Reduced drought stress
Soredia are the asexual reproductive part of lichens, containing both symbionts. Rhizines may be present to anchor the lichen. Notice the distinctive algal layerand the fungal layer present in the above illustration.
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