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Cellsppt presentation-100813001954-phpapp02
Cellsppt presentation-100813001954-phpapp02
Cellsppt presentation-100813001954-phpapp02
Cellsppt presentation-100813001954-phpapp02
Cellsppt presentation-100813001954-phpapp02
Cellsppt presentation-100813001954-phpapp02
Cellsppt presentation-100813001954-phpapp02
Cellsppt presentation-100813001954-phpapp02
Cellsppt presentation-100813001954-phpapp02
Cellsppt presentation-100813001954-phpapp02
Cellsppt presentation-100813001954-phpapp02
Cellsppt presentation-100813001954-phpapp02
Cellsppt presentation-100813001954-phpapp02
Cellsppt presentation-100813001954-phpapp02
Cellsppt presentation-100813001954-phpapp02
Cellsppt presentation-100813001954-phpapp02
Cellsppt presentation-100813001954-phpapp02
Cellsppt presentation-100813001954-phpapp02
Cellsppt presentation-100813001954-phpapp02
Cellsppt presentation-100813001954-phpapp02
Cellsppt presentation-100813001954-phpapp02
Cellsppt presentation-100813001954-phpapp02
Cellsppt presentation-100813001954-phpapp02
Cellsppt presentation-100813001954-phpapp02
Cellsppt presentation-100813001954-phpapp02
Cellsppt presentation-100813001954-phpapp02
Cellsppt presentation-100813001954-phpapp02
Cellsppt presentation-100813001954-phpapp02
Cellsppt presentation-100813001954-phpapp02
Cellsppt presentation-100813001954-phpapp02
Cellsppt presentation-100813001954-phpapp02
Cellsppt presentation-100813001954-phpapp02
Cellsppt presentation-100813001954-phpapp02
Cellsppt presentation-100813001954-phpapp02
Cellsppt presentation-100813001954-phpapp02
Cellsppt presentation-100813001954-phpapp02
Cellsppt presentation-100813001954-phpapp02
Cellsppt presentation-100813001954-phpapp02
Cellsppt presentation-100813001954-phpapp02
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Cellsppt presentation-100813001954-phpapp02

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  • 1. Eukaryotic VersusProkaryotic Cells
  • 2. 1. nuclear bodyeukaryotic cella. The nuclear body is bounded by a nuclearmembrane having pores connecting it with theendoplasmic reticulumb. It contains one or more paired, linear chromosomescomposed of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) associatedwith histone proteins.c. A nucleolus is present.d. The nuclear body is called a nucleus.prokaryotic cella. The nuclear body is not bounded by a nuclearmembrane.b. It usually contains one circular chromosomecomposed of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) associatedwith histone-like proteins.c. There is no nucleolus.d. The nuclear body is called a nucleoid .
  • 3. 2.) cell divisioneukaryotic cella. The nucleus divides by mitosis.b. Haploid (1N) sex cells in diploidor 2N organisms are producedthrough meiosisprokaryotic cella. The cell usually divides by binaryfission. There is no mitosis.b. Prokaryotic cells are haploidMeiosis is not needed.
  • 4. Animal Cell
  • 5. Animal Cell
  • 6. The following is a glossary of animal cell terms:cell membrane - the thin layer of protein and fat that surrounds the cell. The cell membrane is semipermeable,allowing some substances to pass into the cell and blocking others.centrosome - (also called the "microtubule organizing center") a small body located near the nucleus - it has a densecenter and radiating tubules. The centrosomes is where microtubules are made. During cell division (mitosis), thecentrosome divides and the two parts move to opposite sides of the dividing cell. The centriole is the dense center ofthe centrosome.cytoplasm - the jellylike material outside the cell nucleus in which the organelles are located.Golgi body - (also called the Golgi apparatus or golgi complex) a flattened, layered, sac-like organelle that looks likea stack of pancakes and is located near the nucleus. It produces the membranes that surround the lysosomes. TheGolgi body packages proteins and carbohydrates into membrane-bound vesicles for "export" from the cell.lysosome - (also called cell vesicles) round organelles surrounded by a membrane and containing digestive enzymes.This is where the digestion of cell nutrients takes place.mitochondrion - spherical to rod-shaped organelles with a double membrane. The inner membrane is infolded manytimes, forming a series of projections (called cristae). The mitochondrion converts the energy stored in glucose intoATP (adenosine triphosphate) for the cell.nuclear membrane - the membrane that surrounds the nucleus.nucleolus - an organelle within the nucleus - it is where ribosomal RNA is produced. Some cells have more than onenucleolus.nucleus - spherical body containing many organelles, including the nucleolus. The nucleus controls many of thefunctions of the cell (by controlling protein synthesis) and contains DNA (in chromosomes). The nucleus is surroundedby the nuclear membrane.ribosome - small organelles composed of RNA-rich cytoplasmic granules that are sites of protein synthesis.rough endoplasmic reticulum - (rough ER) a vast system of interconnected, membranous, infolded and convolutedsacks that are located in the cells cytoplasm (the ER is continuous with the outer nuclear membrane). Rough ER iscovered with ribosomes that give it a rough appearance. Rough ER transports materials through the cell and producesproteins in sacks called cisternae (which are sent to the Golgi body, or inserted into the cell membrane).smooth endoplasmic reticulum - (smooth ER) a vast system of interconnected, membranous, infolded andconvoluted tubes that are located in the cells cytoplasm (the ER is continuous with the outer nuclear membrane). Thespace within the ER is called the ER lumen. Smooth ER transports materials through the cell. It contains enzymes andproduces and digests lipids (fats) and membrane proteins; smooth ER buds off from rough ER, moving the newly-made proteins and lipids to the Golgi body, lysosomes, and membranes.vacuole - fluid-filled, membrane-surrounded cavities inside a cell. The vacuole fills with food being digested andwaste material that is on its way out of the cell.
  • 7. The following is a glossary of plant cell anatomy terms.amyloplast - an organelle in some plant cells that stores starch. Amyloplasts are found in starchy plants like tubers and fruits.ATP - ATP is short for adenosine triphosphate; it is a high-energy molecule used for energy storage by organisms. In plant cells, ATP is produced in thecristae of mitochondria and chloroplasts.cell membrane - the thin layer of protein and fat that surrounds the cell, but is inside the cell wall. The cell membrane is semipermeable, allowing somesubstances to pass into the cell and blocking others.cell wall - a thick, rigid membrane that surrounds a plant cell. This layer of cellulose fiber gives the cell most of its support and structure. The cell wall alsobonds with other cell walls to form the structure of the plant.centrosome - (also called the "microtubule organizing center") a small body located near the nucleus - it has a dense center and radiating tubules. Thecentrosomes is where microtubules are made. During cell division (mitosis), the centrosome divides and the two parts move to opposite sides of the dividingcell. Unlike the centrosomes in animal cells, plant cell centrosomes do not have centrioles.chlorophyll - chlorophyll is a molecule that can use light energy from sunlight to turn water and carbon dioxide gas into sugar and oxygen (this process iscalled photosynthesis). Chlorophyll is magnesium based and is usually green.chloroplast - an elongated or disc-shaped organelle containing chlorophyll. Photosynthesis (in which energy from sunlight is converted into chemical energy- food) takes place in the chloroplasts.christae - (singular crista) the multiply-folded inner membrane of a cells mitochondrion that are finger-like projections. The walls of the cristae are the site ofthe cells energy production (it is where ATP is generated).cytoplasm - the jellylike material outside the cell nucleus in which the organelles are located.Golgi body - (also called the golgi apparatus or golgi complex) a flattened, layered, sac-like organelle that looks like a stack of pancakes and is located nearthe nucleus. The golgi body packages proteins and carbohydrates into membrane-bound vesicles for "export" from the cell.granum - (plural grana) A stack of thylakoid disks within the chloroplast is called a granum.mitochondrion - spherical to rod-shaped organelles with a double membrane. The inner membrane is infolded many times, forming a series of projections(called cristae). The mitochondrion converts the energy stored in glucose into ATP (adenosine triphosphate) for the cell.nuclear membrane - the membrane that surrounds the nucleus.nucleolus - an organelle within the nucleus - it is where ribosomal RNA is produced.nucleus - spherical body containing many organelles, including the nucleolus. The nucleus controls many of the functions of the cell (by controlling proteinsynthesis) and contains DNA (in chromosomes). The nucleus is surrounded by the nuclear membranephotosynthesis - a process in which plants convert sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide into food energy (sugars and starches), oxygen and water.Chlorophyll or closely-related pigments (substances that color the plant) are essential to the photosynthetic process.ribosome - small organelles composed of RNA-rich cytoplasmic granules that are sites of protein synthesis.rough endoplasmic reticulum - (rough ER) a vast system of interconnected, membranous, infolded and convoluted sacks that are located in the cellscytoplasm (the ER is continuous with the outer nuclear membrane). Rough ER is covered with ribosomes that give it a rough appearance. Rough ERtransport materials through the cell and produces proteins in sacks called cisternae (which are sent to the Golgi body, or inserted into the cell membrane).smooth endoplasmic reticulum - (smooth ER) a vast system of interconnected, membranous, infolded and convoluted tubes that are located in the cellscytoplasm (the ER is continuous with the outer nuclear membrane). The space within the ER is called the ER lumen. Smooth ER transport materials throughthe cell. It contains enzymes and produces and digests lipids (fats) and membrane proteins; smooth ER buds off from rough ER, moving the newly-madeproteins and lipids to the Golgi body and membranesstroma - part of the chloroplasts in plant cells, located within the inner membrane of chloroplasts, between the grana.thylakoid disk - thylakoid disks are disk-shaped membrane structures in chloroplasts that contain chlorophyll. Chloroplasts are made up of stacks ofthylakoid disks; a stack of thylakoid disks is called a granum. Photosynthesis (the production of ATP molecules from sunlight) takes place on thylakoid disks.vacuole - a large, membrane-bound space within a plant cell that is filled with fluid. Most plant cells have a single vacuole that takes up much of the cell. It Plant Cellhelps maintain the shape of the cell.
  • 8. Plant Cell
  • 9. Plant Cell
  • 10. Differences Between Plant and Animal Cell Animal Cell Plant CellNucleus: Present PresentMitochondria: Present PresentCytoplasm: Present Present Plant cells have chloroplasts becauseChloroplast: Animal cells dont have chloroplasts they make their own foodGolgi Apparatus: Present PresentCell wall: None YesPlasma Membrane: only cell membrane cell wall and a cell membraneMicrotubules/ Microfilaments: Present PresentLysosomes: Lysosomes occur in cytoplasm. Lysosomes usually not evident.Flagella: May be found in some cells May be found in some cellsRibosomes: Present PresentEndoplasmic Reticulum Present Present(Smooth and Rough):Plastids: No Yes One or more small vacuoles (much One, large central vacuole taking upVacuole: smaller than plant cells). 90% of cell volume.Centrioles: Present in all animal cells Only present in lower plant forms.Shape: Round (irregular shape) Rectangular (fixed shape)Cilia: Present It is very Rare
  • 11. 3 Basic Parts of a Cell
  • 12. the outermostboundary of animalcells. It is directly in contact with the environment. Cell membraneor plasma membrane
  • 13. Cytoplasmit covers the largest area within the cell and consists of a semi fluid portion, the cytosol. It is the part outside the nucleus.
  • 14. usually found suspended inthe cytoplasm at the centerof the cell. It is the controlcenter of the cell.Nucleoplasm- the semifluid material of thenucleus Nucleus
  • 15. Other Parts of the Cells
  • 16. NucleusLarge Oval body near thecentre of the cell.The control centre for allactivity.Surrounded by a nuclearmembrane.
  • 17. Nucleoplasmis the protoplasm in thenucleus.contains genetic material---> CHROMOSOMES(DNA)
  • 18. Nucleolusis found in thenucleus.contains more geneticinformation (RNA)
  • 19. Cell Membranethe outer boundary of thecell.it separates the cell fromother cells.it is porous ---> allowsmolecules to pass through.
  • 20. Cell Wall ( Plant Cells Only )non living structure thatsurrounds the plant cell.protects + supports thecell.made up of a tough fibercalled cellulose.
  • 21. Cytoplasmcell material outside thenucleus but within the cellmembrane.clear thick fluid.contains structures calledorganelles.
  • 22. Mitochondriapower house of the cell.centre of respiration ofthe cell.they release energy forcell functions
  • 23. Mitochondria
  • 24. Vacuolesare clear fluid sacs that act asstorage areas for food, minerals,and waste.in plant cell the vacuoles are largeand mostly filled with water. Thisgives the plant support.in animal cells the vacuoles aremuch smaller.
  • 25. Vacuoles
  • 26. Chloroplasts Plant cells only )contains a greenpigment known aschlorophyll which isimportant forphotosynthesis.
  • 27. Chloroplasts
  • 28. Ribosomestiny spherical bodiesthat help make proteins.found in the cyto plasmor attached to the endoplasmic reticulum.
  • 29. Endo Plasmic Reticulum ( ER ) systems of membranes throughout the cytoplasm.it connects the nuclear membrane to the cell membrane.passageway for material moving though the cell.
  • 30. Golgi Bodiestube like structuresthat have tiny sacs attheir ends.they help packageprotein.
  • 31. Lysosomes" suicide sacs “small structures thatcontain enzymes which areused in digestion.if a lysosome were to burstit could destroy the cell

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