Bio ulva
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  • 1. List the characteristics of protists.They are the earliest eukaryotes  showed up a billion years before the othersAge  2.1 billion yearsThere are 60,000 living speciesExist as unicellular, colonial, and multicellularAerobic, cilia & flagella, asexual or sexualBottom line: a VERY diverse group 
  • 2. Explain what is meant by the statement thatthe Kingdom Protista is a polyphyletic group. Polyphyletic = ancestry from several possible sources or directions Example: Protists are  animal-like plant-like fungus-like 
  • 3. List five candidate kingdoms of protists and describe a major feature of each.• Archaezoa  lack mitochondria• Euglenozoa  are both autotrophic and heterotrophic flagellates• Alveolata  have subsurface cavities (alveoli)• Stramenopila  diatoms, golden brown algae, and water molds• Rhodophyta  red algae; lack flagella 
  • 4. Life Cycle overviewSporophyte  generally the adult form of an organism; exists as a diploid (2n); makes spores (ex: humans)Gametophyte  generally an intermediate step before fertilization; exists as a haploid (n); makes gametes (ex: sperm & eggs) 
  • 5. Outline the life cycles of Chlamydomonas, Ulva, and Laminaria and indicate whether the stages are haploid or diploid.• Chlamydomonas  at maturity it is a single haploid cell - asexual at first, then sexual only if stressed, creating a diploid zygote2. Ulva  diploid sporophyte and haploid gametophyte3. Laminaria  sporophyte (2n) with sporangia makes zoospores (n) which make gametes (n) and then fertilization to get diploid sporophyte again 
  • 6. Distinguish between isogamy and oogamy; sporophyte and gametophyte; and isomorphic and heteromorphic generations.Isogamy  when gametes are morphologically indistinguishableOogamy  flagellated sperm fertilize the nonmotile eggSporophyte  2n (diploid) generationGametophyte  n (haploid) generationIsomorphic  gametophytes and sporophytes look alikeHeteromorphic  gametophytes and sporophytes are structurally different 
  • 7. Compare the life cycles of plasmodial and cellular slime molds and describe the major differences between them. Plasmodial Slime Mold Cellular Slime MoldMultinucleated mass Solitary haploid cellsDiploid nuclei Cells will aggregate whenWhen stressed will form food supply is low sexual reproductive Fruiting bodies (sporangia) structures called sporangia function in asexual  reproduction 
  • 8. Provide evidence that the oomycetes are not closely related to true fungi.Have coenocytic (multinucleated) hyphae (branching filaments) that are analogous to fungal hyphaeCell walls are made of cellulose rather than the chitin in true fungiHave biflagellated cells  fungi lack flagellated cells 
  • 9. Give examples of oomycetes and describe theireconomic importance.• Water molds  grow on injured tissue but also will grow on the skin and gills of fish• White rusts• Downy mildews - both of these are parasitic on terrestrial plants – act as pathogens 
  • 10.  “sea lettuce” attached to rocks in the middle to low intertidal zone live primarily in marine environments Multicellular green algae
  • 11. MITOSIS MEIOSIS E MITOSIS GAMETESFertilization
  • 12. -Involves alternation of generations-Ulva species are isomorphic-They alternate between gametophytic andsporophytic life stages with similar morphologies-gametophytes are haploid and the sporophytesare diploid
  • 13. -sporophytes produce quadriflagellatehaploid spores through meiosis-gametophytes produce biflagellatehaploid gametes through mitosis