Animalia

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Animalia

  1. 1. Kingdom Animalia
  2. 2. ~ Characteristics ~ Multicellular Eukaryotic with no cell walls Heterotrophs (consumers)
  3. 3. ~ Characteristics ~ Have a nervous system to respond to their environment Locomotion relates to ability to obtain food Most animals develop from a zygote becoming a A single layer of cells surrounding a fluid- filled space forming a hollow ball of cells called a gastrula. gastrula
  4. 4. ~ Developmental Characteristics ~ The gastrula is made up of three parts: – Ectoderm, a layer of cells on the outer surface Ectoderm of the gastrula, grows and divides developing into skin and nervous tissue. – Endoderm, a layer of cells lining the inner Endoderm surface of the gastrula, develops into the lining of the animal’s digestive tract. – Mesoderm, made up of two layers of cells lying between the ectoderm and endoderm, forms muscles, reproductive organs and circulatory vessels.
  5. 5. ~ Developmental Characteristics ~ Animals that develop a mouth from the indented space in the gastrula are protostomes. Animals that develop an anus from the opening in the gastrula are deuterostomes.
  6. 6. ~ Body Plans ~ Animals that are irregular in shape are asymmetrical. Animals that are regular in shape are symmetrical.
  7. 7. ~ Body Plans ~  An animal has radial symmetry if it can be divided along any plane, through a central axis, into equal halves.  An animal has bilateral symmetry if it can be divided down its length into similar right and left halves forming mirror images of each other.
  8. 8. Which figure has bilateral symmetry?Which has radial symmetry?
  9. 9. ~ Body Plans ~ Acoelomates – animals have three cell layers with a digestive tract but no body cavities. Pseudocoelomates – animals with a fluid- filled body cavity partly lined with mesoderm. Coelomates – animals with a body cavity completely surrounded by mesoderm.
  10. 10. ~ Protection and Support ~ Though not all animals have a skeleton, those that do can be divided into two groups: – Those with an exoskeleton – a hard, waxy coating on the outside of the body that protects internal organs, provides a framework for support, and a place for muscle attachment. – Those with an endoskeleton – support framework within the body that protects some organs and a brace for muscles to pull against.
  11. 11. ~Invertebrates~ 8 main phyla No backbones 95% of all animals are in this group
  12. 12. ~Invertebrate Phylum Porifera~ Sponges simplest form of animal life live in water Do not move around no symmetry Pores (holes) all over body
  13. 13. ~Invertebrate Phylum Porifera~ Filter Feeders: a sponge filters particles of food from water using collar cells and then pumps the water out the osculum.
  14. 14. ~Invertebrate Phylum Porifera~ Examples: Tube Sponge, Glass Sponge, Sea Sponge
  15. 15. ~Invertebrate Phylum Cnidaria~ Live in water Most have tentacles catch food with stinging cells gut for digesting
  16. 16. ~Invertebrate Phylum Cnidaria~  2 different shapes  Medusa - like a jellyfish  Polyp - like a hydra
  17. 17. ~Invertebrate Phylum Cnidaria~ Examples - Jellyfish, Hydra, sea anemones, and corals
  18. 18. ~Invertebrate Phylum Platyhelminthes ~  Flatworms  Flat, ribbon-like body  Live in water or are parasites  bilateral symmetry
  19. 19. ~Invertebrate Phylum Platyhelminthes ~  Examples: Planaria  eyespots detect light  food and waste go in and out the same opening
  20. 20. ~Invertebrate Phylum Platyhelminthes ~  Examples: Tapeworm  Parasite that lives in intestines of host absorbing food
  21. 21. ~Invertebrate Phylum Platyhelminthes ~  Examples: Fluke  parasite  lives inside of host
  22. 22. ~Invertebrate Phylum Nematoda ~ Roundworms – Round, tubular body – small or microscopic – bilateral symmetry – have both a mouth and anus – Live in water or are parasites
  23. 23. ~Invertebrate Phylum Nematoda ~ Examples: – Hookworm – Trichinella
  24. 24. ~Invertebrate Phylum Mollusca ~ Soft bodies Hard Shells Live on land or in water have a circulatory system and a complex nervous system. Important food source for humans
  25. 25. ~Invertebrate Phylum Mollusca ~ Class Gastropoda – snails and slugs – may have 1 shell – stomach-footed - move on stomach
  26. 26. ~Invertebrate Phylum Mollusca ~ Class Bivalves – 2 shells hinged together – clams, oysters, scallops and mussels
  27. 27. ~Invertebrate Phylum Mollusca ~ Class Cephalopods – squids and octopuses – internal mantel
  28. 28. ~Invertebrate Phylum Annelida ~ – Segemented worms – Body divided into segments(sections) – Live in water or underground – have a nervous and circulatory system
  29. 29. ~Invertebrate Phylum Annelida ~ Class Earthworms eat soil and breakdown organic matter, wastes provide nutrients to soil
  30. 30. ~Invertebrate Phylum Annelida ~  Class bristleworms
  31. 31. ~Invertebrate Phylum Annelida ~ Class leeches parasites that feed on blood of other animals
  32. 32. ~Invertebrate Phylum Echinodermata ~ Hard, spiny skin Live in salt water Radial symmetry name means ‘spiney skinned’ endoskeleton
  33. 33. ~Invertebrate Phylum Echinodermata ~ Examples: seastar, sea urchin, sand dollar and sea cucumber
  34. 34. ~Invertebrate Phylum Arthropoda ~ Body divided into sections/segments Exoskeleton Jointed legs well developed nervous system largest group of organisms on earth
  35. 35. ~Invertebrate Phylum Arthropoda ~ 3 subphylums: Classified into classes according to the number of legs, eyes and antennae they have.
  36. 36. ~Invertebrate Phylum Arthropoda ~Subphylum Chilicerata is divided into 3 classes Arachnida – spiders, scorpions, ticks, mites Merostomata – horseshoe crabs Pycnogonida – sea spiders
  37. 37. ~Invertebrate Phylum Arthropoda ~ Subphylum Chilicerata  Class – Arachnida  no antennae  4 pairs of legs  2 body regions - cephalothorax & abdomen  spiders, scorpions, mites & ticks
  38. 38. ~Invertebrate Phylum Arthropoda ~ Subphylum Chilicerata  Class Merostomata  Horseshoe crabs – Ancient group of species – Changed little over 350 million years – Aquatic, mostly found on Atlantic & gulf coasts of United States.
  39. 39. ~Invertebrate Phylum Arthropoda ~ Subphylum Chilicerata  Class Pycnogonida – Sea spider
  40. 40. ~Invertebrate Phylum Arthropoda ~ Subphylum - Crustacea 5 Classes  Aquatic ones have gills  2 antennae  2 body regions or segmented  Shrimp, lobsters, crabs, barnacles, isopods  Many species taste delicious in butter
  41. 41.  Subphylum Uniramia: 3 classes Class Insecta (insects) Class Chilopoda (Centipedes) Class Diplopoda (Millipedes)
  42. 42. ~Invertebrate Phylum Arthropoda ~ Subphylum Uniramia  Class Insecta  no antennae  3 pairs of legs  2 body regions - head, thorax & abdomen  grasshoppers, ants, butterflies, bees
  43. 43. ~InvertebratePhylum Arthropoda ~ Subphylum Uniramia  Class Diplopoda  Millipedes  segmented animals  Have 2 pairs of legs per segment  Primarily herbivores & decomposers
  44. 44. ~Invertebrate Phylum Arthropoda ~ Subphylum Uniramia  Class Chiopoda  Centipedes Usually terrestrial carnivores  Have 1 pair of antennae  Are often poisonous, using modified front claws to immobilize prey
  45. 45. ~ Phylum Chordata ~ subphylum Vertebrata 5 classes  Fish  Mammals  Reptiles  Amphibians  Birds

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