Nutrient Deficiency in Plants
Objectives   Know the definition of element, compound,    macronutrient and micronutrient.   Know the 16 essential nutri...
Important Definitions    An element is a pure chemical that contains only one type of atom.    A compound is a molecule ...
Essential Elements   The 16 elements required by plants are obtained    from the soil, water and air.   Thirteen of thes...
Macronutrients                       Element      Symbol   Source   Macronutrients    are needed in      Oxygen       O  ...
Macronutrients – Form Used By PlantsNutrient           Form UsedCarbon             CO2                               Charg...
Micronutrients   Macronutrients are   Element      Symbol   Source    needed in            Iron         Fe       Soil    ...
Micronutrients – Form Used ByPlantsNutrient           Form Used                           Charge on theIron             Fe...
Nutrient Deficiency Symptoms   Nutrient deficiency symptoms usually appear    on the plant when one or more nutrients are...
Nutrient Deficiencies   Every soil is not susceptible to the same    nutrient deficiencies.   For example, coarse-textur...
Macronutrient Deficiencies & SoilsElement   Soil Factor Causing DeficiencyN&K       Excessive leaching on coarse-textured ...
Micronutrient Deficiencies & SoilsElement   Soil Factor Causing DeficiencyFe        Poorly drained soils, Low organic matt...
Deficiency Symptoms - N   General chlorosis.   Chlorosis progresses    from light green to    yellow.   Entire plant be...
Deficiency Symptoms - P   Leaves appear dull,    dark green, blue green,    or red-purple,    especially on the    unders...
Deficiency Symptoms - K   Leaf margins tanned,    scorched, or have necrotic    spots (may be small black    spots which ...
Deficiency Symptoms - Ca   Growing points usually    damaged or dead (die    back).   Margins of leaves    developing fr...
Deficiency Symptoms - Mg   Marginal chlorosis or    chlorotic blotches which    later merge.   Leaves show yellow    chl...
Deficiency Symptoms - S   Leaves uniformly light green, followed by    yellowing and poor spindly growth.   Uniform chlo...
Deficiency Symptoms - Cu   Leaves wilt, become    chlorotic, then necrotic.   Wilting and necrosis    are not dominant  ...
Deficiency Symptoms - Fe   Distinct yellow or white    areas appear between    veins, and veins    eventually become    c...
Deficiency Symptoms - Mn   Chlorosis is less    marked near veins.   Some mottling occurs    in interveinal areas.   Ch...
Deficiency Symptoms - Zn   Leaves may be abnormally small and necrotic.   Internodes are shortened.
Deficiency Symptoms - B   Young, expanding    leaves may be necrotic    or distorted followed by    death of growing    p...
Crops Highly Susceptible to DeficienciesElement   CropsMn        Soybean, Small Grain & PeanutsCu        Wheat & CornZn   ...
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Transcript of "12"

  1. 1. Nutrient Deficiency in Plants
  2. 2. Objectives Know the definition of element, compound, macronutrient and micronutrient. Know the 16 essential nutrient elements. Learn how to use the "Key to Nutrient Disorders ".
  3. 3. Important Definitions An element is a pure chemical that contains only one type of atom. A compound is a molecule that contains one or more elements.  “Mineral”: An inorganic element  Acquired mostly in the form of inorganic ions from the soil  “Nutrient”: A substance needed to survive or necessary for the synthesis of organic compounds
  4. 4. Essential Elements The 16 elements required by plants are obtained from the soil, water and air. Thirteen of these elements must be supplied by the soil. Six of the soil elements required by plants are needed in relatively large amounts and are usually added to the soil through fertilizer or lime. These are called macronutrients. The remaining 7 elements supplied by soil are required in very small amounts and are termed micronutrients.
  5. 5. Macronutrients Element Symbol Source Macronutrients are needed in Oxygen O Air/Water relatively large Hydrogen H Air/Water amounts by Carbon C Air/Water plants. Nitrogen N Soil Phosphorus P Soil Sulfur S Soil Potassium K Soil Calcium Ca Soil Magnesium Mg Soil
  6. 6. Macronutrients – Form Used By PlantsNutrient Form UsedCarbon CO2 Charge on theOxygen H2O moleculeHydrogen H2ONitrogen NO3-, NH4+Phosphorus H2PO4 & HPO42-Potassium K+Calcium Ca2+Magnesium Mg2+Sulfur SO4-
  7. 7. Micronutrients Macronutrients are Element Symbol Source needed in Iron Fe Soil relatively small Manganese Mn Soil amounts by plants. Boron B Soil They are usually Molybdenum Mo Soil supplied by fertilizers. Copper Cu Soil Zinc Zn Soil Chlorine Cl Soil
  8. 8. Micronutrients – Form Used ByPlantsNutrient Form Used Charge on theIron Fe2+ moleculeManganese Mn2+Boron H2B03-Molybdenum MoO42-Copper Cu2+Zinc Zn2+Chlorine Cl-
  9. 9. Nutrient Deficiency Symptoms Nutrient deficiency symptoms usually appear on the plant when one or more nutrients are in short supply. In many cases, deficiency may occur because an added nutrient is not in the form the plant can use. Deficiency symptoms for specific elements are included on the "Key to Nutrient Disorders".
  10. 10. Nutrient Deficiencies Every soil is not susceptible to the same nutrient deficiencies. For example, coarse-textured soils low in organic matter are susceptible to sulfur deficiencies whereas sulfur is usually in adequate supply in clayey soils or soils high in organic matter.
  11. 11. Macronutrient Deficiencies & SoilsElement Soil Factor Causing DeficiencyN&K Excessive leaching on coarse-textured low organic matter soilsP Acid low organic matter soils Cold wet soils such as occurs during early spring Newly cleared soilsS Excessive leaching on coarse-textured low organic matter soils in areas where air pollution is low (minimal levels of SO2 in the air)Ca & Mg Excessive leaching on coarse-textured low organic matter soils Soils where large amounts of K have been applied
  12. 12. Micronutrient Deficiencies & SoilsElement Soil Factor Causing DeficiencyFe Poorly drained soils, Low organic matter soils, pH>7.0, Soils high in PZn Cold wet soils low in organic matter and highly leached, High pH soils (pH>7.0), Soils high in P, Exposed subsoilsCu Peat and muck soils, High pH, sandy soils, Soils heavily fertilized with NB Excessive leaching on coarse-textured low organic matter soils, Soils with pH>7.0Mn Excessive leaching on coarse-textured low organic matter soils, Soil with pH>6.5Mo Soils high in Fe oxides, high adsorption of molybdenum, Soil cropped for a long time
  13. 13. Deficiency Symptoms - N General chlorosis. Chlorosis progresses from light green to yellow. Entire plant becomes yellow under prolonged stress. Growth is immediately restricted and plants soon become spindly and drop older leaves.
  14. 14. Deficiency Symptoms - P Leaves appear dull, dark green, blue green, or red-purple, especially on the underside, and especially at the midrib and vein. Petioles may also exhibit purpling. Re- striction in growth may be noticed.
  15. 15. Deficiency Symptoms - K Leaf margins tanned, scorched, or have necrotic spots (may be small black spots which later coalesce). Margins become brown and cup downward. Growth is restricted and die back may occur. Mild symptoms appear first on recently matured leaves.
  16. 16. Deficiency Symptoms - Ca Growing points usually damaged or dead (die back). Margins of leaves developing from the growing point are first to turn brown.
  17. 17. Deficiency Symptoms - Mg Marginal chlorosis or chlorotic blotches which later merge. Leaves show yellow chlorotic interveinal tissue on some species, reddish purple progressing to necrosis on others. Younger leaves affected with continued stress. Chlorotic areas may become necrotic, brittle, and curl upward. Symptoms usually occur late in the growing season.
  18. 18. Deficiency Symptoms - S Leaves uniformly light green, followed by yellowing and poor spindly growth. Uniform chlorosis does not occur
  19. 19. Deficiency Symptoms - Cu Leaves wilt, become chlorotic, then necrotic. Wilting and necrosis are not dominant symptoms.
  20. 20. Deficiency Symptoms - Fe Distinct yellow or white areas appear between veins, and veins eventually become chlorotic. Symptoms are rare on mature leaves.
  21. 21. Deficiency Symptoms - Mn Chlorosis is less marked near veins. Some mottling occurs in interveinal areas. Chlorotic areas eventually become brown, transparent, or necrotic. Symptoms may appear later on older leaves.
  22. 22. Deficiency Symptoms - Zn Leaves may be abnormally small and necrotic. Internodes are shortened.
  23. 23. Deficiency Symptoms - B Young, expanding leaves may be necrotic or distorted followed by death of growing points. Internodes may be short, especially at shoot terminals. Stems may be rough, cracked, or split along the vascular bundles.
  24. 24. Crops Highly Susceptible to DeficienciesElement CropsMn Soybean, Small Grain & PeanutsCu Wheat & CornZn CornMo Soybeans & CauliflowerB Alfalfa, Apples, Peanuts, Tobacco & TomatoesFe Ornamentals, Fruit Trees, Soybeans, Grain Sorghum & Some Grasses
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