Dos 16


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Dos 16

  1. 1. DOS
  2. 2. <ul><li>DOS stands for DISK OPERATING SYSTEM and Like MS Windows, MS-DOS is operating system. </li></ul><ul><li>DOS is the software program, which controls the input and output of your computer. </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike Microsoft Windows DOS requires the user to type commands instead of using a mouse. </li></ul><ul><li>DOS is a single-user, single-task operating system </li></ul>
  3. 3. Brief History <ul><li>MS-DOS is a non-graphical command line operating system created for IBM compatible computers. </li></ul><ul><li>DOS was first introduced by Microsoft in August 1981 and last updated in 1994 when MS-DOS 6.22 was released. </li></ul><ul><li>DOS operating system is not commonly used today. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>YEAR VERSION Released </li></ul><ul><li>1981 1.0 August, 1981 </li></ul><ul><li>1982 1.25 August, 1982 </li></ul><ul><li>1983 2.0 March, 1983. </li></ul><ul><li>1984 MS-DOS 3.0 IBM PC AT MS-DOS 3.1 For networks. </li></ul><ul><li>1986 3.2 April, 1986 </li></ul><ul><li>1987 3.3 April, 1987 </li></ul><ul><li>1988 4.0 July, 1988 </li></ul><ul><li>1988 4.01 November, 1988 </li></ul><ul><li>1991 5.0 June, 1991 </li></ul><ul><li>1993 6.0 August, 1993 </li></ul><ul><li>1993 6.2 November, 1993 </li></ul><ul><li>1994 6.21 March, 1994 </li></ul><ul><li>1994 6.22 April, 1994 </li></ul>
  5. 5. DOS Files <ul><li>Never erase the following files, if you do the computer will most likely not start these are called: </li></ul><ul><li>config.sys Loading OS & form kernel </li></ul><ul><li>msdos.sys System files Loading OS </li></ul><ul><li>io.sys System files Loading OS </li></ul><ul><li> Command interpreter: It maintain C: prompt & reads user commands. </li></ul><ul><li>auotexec.bat Create lists of commands to run in sequence once the batch file is executed. </li></ul><ul><li>Kernel is central module, it first loads OS and then remain in main memory. </li></ul>
  6. 6. File Attributes (Properties) <ul><li>Attributes is shortly named as attrib in DOS. </li></ul><ul><li>It has four different styles of file types, these are </li></ul><ul><li>Archive : Shows that file has not been archived yet </li></ul><ul><li>and its attributes can be changed </li></ul><ul><li>System: Denotes that file is system file whatever that functions. </li></ul><ul><li>Hidden: It hides file from an ordinary directory. </li></ul><ul><li>Read Only: Write-protection, i.e file only can be read. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Types of DOS <ul><ul><li>Apple DOS For Apple Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DOS Support FAT32 system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dr. DOS Support FAT32 & Boot Disk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PC-DOS Support FAT32 & Boot Disk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PTS-DOS 32 Support FAT32 system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Real/32 DOS FAT32 & multi-tasking </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Command Prompt <ul><li>Command Prompt is a native Windows program that lets you execute commands without using a GUI. </li></ul><ul><li>To open the Command Prompt. You can do this by going to Start > All Programs > Accessories > Command Prompt . </li></ul><ul><li>You should see a blinking cursor after a line that says C:Documents and Settingsusername. This shows that what directory you are currently in. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Root & Sub Directories <ul><li>Every disk you use under DOS has one main directory, called the root directory </li></ul><ul><li>C: Root Directory </li></ul><ul><li>C:DOS Root with sub directory </li></ul><ul><li>C:DOSNISTE Root with sub directory & </li></ul><ul><li>an other sub directory </li></ul><ul><li>Sub directory is itself a small file on hard disk. </li></ul><ul><li>DOS providing solution by adding sub directories to manage data or files. </li></ul>
  10. 10. DOS Commands <ul><li>If you want know the version of DOS just write </li></ul><ul><li>c:> ver </li></ul><ul><li>in command line prompt then the following message appears on your screen: </li></ul><ul><li>MS-DOS version 6.22 </li></ul><ul><li>The ver command displays the version number of MS-DOS </li></ul>
  11. 11. View contents of directory <ul><li>View the contents of a directory by using the dir command . The dir command stands for &quot;directory.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>c:>dir </li></ul><ul><li>A directory list appears. This is a list of all the files and subdirectories that a directory contains. </li></ul><ul><li>All the files and directories on your drive are stored in the root directory. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Change Root directory to the DOS directory <ul><ul><li>Write cd dos in command prompt then it changes to C:DOS> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Here command prompt shows which </li></ul><ul><li>directory you are in. </li></ul><ul><li>In this case, you know you successfully changed to the DOS directory because the command prompt displays the directory's name. </li></ul><ul><li>Now the current directory is DOS. </li></ul>
  13. 13. View the contents of a directory <ul><li>c:dir </li></ul><ul><li>c:dir/p </li></ul><ul><li>The p actually stands for &quot;page&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>To view the contents on next screen of information, press any key on your keyboard. Repeat this step until the command prompt appears at the bottom of your screen. </li></ul><ul><li>Another helpful switch you can use with the dir command is the /w , this could view the contents of a directory in wide format </li></ul><ul><li>c:dir/w </li></ul><ul><li>c:dir/p/w </li></ul>
  14. 14. Changing Back to the Root Directory <ul><li>The root directory is the directory you were in before you changed to the DOS directory. Before you begin this section, make sure your command prompt looks like the following: </li></ul><ul><li>c:DOS> </li></ul><ul><li>cd </li></ul><ul><li>No matter which directory you are in, this command always returns you to the root directory. Now it simply look like this </li></ul><ul><li>c:> </li></ul><ul><li>c:DOSEDIT.COM </li></ul><ul><li>If you want to come back on DOS sub directory then it will write </li></ul><ul><li>cd.. then prompt can back it to </li></ul><ul><li>c:DOS </li></ul>
  15. 15. Creating a Directory <ul><li>To create a directory, you will use the md command . </li></ul><ul><li>The md command stands for &quot;make directory.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>C:>md fruit </li></ul><ul><li>You have now created a directory named FRUIT and if you want to create an other directory within the FRUIT directory named GRAPES then again write md grapes then it will look like this </li></ul><ul><li>C:FRUITGRAPES> </li></ul><ul><li>To switch back to the FRUIT directory, type </li></ul><ul><li>cd .. </li></ul><ul><li>The command prompt should now look like the following: </li></ul><ul><li>C:FRUIT> </li></ul>
  16. 16. Deleting a Directory <ul><li>If you delete a Fruit directory </li></ul><ul><li>C:FRUIT </li></ul><ul><li>then use the rd command. </li></ul><ul><li>The rd command stands for &quot;remove directory.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>just write </li></ul><ul><li>C: d fruit </li></ul><ul><li>and press enter now fruit directory is removed and it will look like this </li></ul><ul><li>C: </li></ul>
  17. 17. Changing Drives <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If user writes a: then prompt will to switch drive A </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Floppy Drive) and look like this </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>A:> and type c: </li></ul><ul><li>Your command prompt should return to the following: </li></ul><ul><li>C: </li></ul><ul><li>You change to that drive, when you type a drive letter followed by a colon. </li></ul><ul><li>If you want to view files on drive A then type </li></ul><ul><li>dir a: </li></ul><ul><li>A list of the files on the floppy disk will appears, </li></ul><ul><li>Now if you want to view the contents of the DOS directory on drive C just type </li></ul><ul><li>dir c:dos </li></ul><ul><li>A list of the files in the DOS directory now appears. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Copying Files <ul><li>To copy a file, you will use the copy command. </li></ul><ul><li>When you use the copy command, you must include two parameters. The first is the location and name of the file you want to copy (Source). </li></ul><ul><li>The second is the location to which you want to copy the file (Destination) . You separate the source and destination with a space. </li></ul><ul><li>Here you will copy the EDIT.HLP and EDIT.COM files from the DOS directory to the FRUIT directory, You will specify </li></ul><ul><li> c:fruit </li></ul><ul><li>The following message appears: </li></ul><ul><li>1 file(s) copied </li></ul><ul><li>similarly </li></ul><ul><li>c:dosedit.hlp c:fruit </li></ul><ul><li>The following message appears: </li></ul><ul><li>1 file(s) copied </li></ul>
  19. 19. Copying a Group of Files <ul><li>Wildcards is used to copy a group of files from the DOS directory to the FRUIT directory. </li></ul><ul><li>C:DOS>dir*.txt </li></ul><ul><li>To list all files ending with the extension TXT type </li></ul><ul><li>C:DOS>dir *.txt </li></ul><ul><li>MS-DOS lists all the files that end with a TXT extension. </li></ul><ul><li>The wildcard ignores different beginnings of the files and focus only on the extensions now </li></ul><ul><li>copy C:DOS>dir*.txt c:fruit </li></ul>
  20. 20. Renaming Files <ul><li>To rename a file, you will use the ren command. </li></ul><ul><li>The ren command stands for &quot;rename.&quot; When you use the ren command, you must include two parameters. </li></ul><ul><li>The first is the file you want to rename, and the second is the new name for the file. You separate the two names with a space. </li></ul><ul><li>ren oldname newname </li></ul><ul><li>ren readme.txt peach.txt </li></ul><ul><li>To confirm that you renamed the file successfully, type the following at the command prompt: </li></ul><ul><li>dir </li></ul><ul><li>The name PEACH.TXT should appear instead of the name README.TXT. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Renaming a Group of Files <ul><li>Again use wildcards to rename a group of files. </li></ul><ul><li>To rename the files whose names begin with EDIT by using wildcards </li></ul><ul><li>To rename the files that begin with EDIT to the new name PEAR, type the following command: </li></ul><ul><li>ren edit.* pear.* </li></ul><ul><li>This command specifies that all the files that begin with EDIT should be renamed with PEAR, but extensions remains same. </li></ul><ul><li>To confirm that you renamed the files successfully type </li></ul><ul><li>dir pear.* </li></ul><ul><li>When the files were renamed, their extensions remained the same. For example, EDIT.COM became PEAR.COM, and EDIT.HLP became PEAR.HLP. </li></ul><ul><li>If you want to rename extensions of several files then use wildcards to rename the files. </li></ul><ul><li>ren *.txt *.old </li></ul><ul><li>To confirm that you renamed the files successfully, type the following at the command prompt: </li></ul><ul><li>dir </li></ul><ul><li>The files that had the extension TXT now have the extension OLD. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Deleting Files <ul><li>To delete a file, you will use the del command. The del command stands for &quot;delete.&quot; If you want to delete the PEAR.COM and PEAR.HLP files then type </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>del </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>del pear.hlp </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>dir </li></ul><ul><li>The PEAR.COM and PEAR.HLP files should no longer appears. </li></ul><ul><li>Deleting a Group of Files </li></ul><ul><li>To delete files in the current directory that end with the extension TXT by using wildcard. </li></ul><ul><li>First view all the files that end with the extension TXT by typing </li></ul><ul><li>dir *.TXT </li></ul><ul><li>del *.TXT </li></ul><ul><li>Confirm that all the files with the extension OLD have been deleted, type the following at the command prompt: </li></ul><ul><li>dir </li></ul><ul><li>When directory is empty, you can delete it by using the rd (remove directory) command </li></ul><ul><li>rd directory name. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Formatting a Floppy Disk <ul><li>If user want to format a floppy disk then type </li></ul><ul><li>format a: </li></ul><ul><li>During formatting the disk, MS-DOS displays the percentage of the disk that has been formatted. </li></ul><ul><li>When the format is complete, the following message appears: </li></ul><ul><li>Volume label (11 characters, ENTER for none)? </li></ul><ul><li>A volume label is a name for your disk. You can give your disk any name to 11 characters. </li></ul>
  24. 24. DOS Commands <ul><li>Here is a summary of what you can now do using the command prompt: </li></ul><ul><li>cd Change directory </li></ul><ul><li>dir see a content and detail of files in the directory </li></ul><ul><li>copy copy a file from one location to another, don’t forget file extension. </li></ul><ul><li>md Make or create a new directory </li></ul><ul><li>rd Remove a directory & its’ contents </li></ul><ul><li>ren Rename a file </li></ul><ul><li>help To see a detailed list of many commands. </li></ul><ul><li>help /? Shows DOS help commands </li></ul><ul><li>chkdsk checks a disk scandisk check a disk (only if running dos 6 or 6.2 or up versions) mem shows your memory usage consumption and know about remaining free space. </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>cls clears the screen date shows and allows the date to be changed time shows and allows the time to be changed vol show the volume label of a disk comp compares two files diskcomp a: b: compares two disks by several means. *.* It means any file name and any extension regardless of length. </li></ul><ul><li>*. Any file name ending with the extension </li></ul><ul><li>dir*.bat </li></ul><ul><li>copy *.* copies all files </li></ul><ul><li> copy a:*.* c:games </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>dir/w directory wide across the screen dir/p directory pause a page at a time dir/w/p wide and pause directory dir/o directory in order of alphabetic </li></ul><ul><li>dir/w/o/p All the above commands together (directory, wide, order, paused) </li></ul><ul><li>dir *.exe directory of files ending .exe dir *.bat directory of files ending .bat dir *.COM directory of files ending .com dir t*.* directory of files beginning with the letter t dir ta*.* directory of files starting ta dir /s directory show file size </li></ul><ul><li>dir /s *.txt Files with txt extension will be display in full size. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Format Commands <ul><li>format would not format a disk format a: format drive a: format b: format drive b: format a: /u formats without saving a mirror image/backup. </li></ul><ul><li>format a: /q supplies a quick format format a: /u /q Formats quick and without backup </li></ul><ul><li>format a: /s makes a bootable system disk </li></ul>
  28. 28. Delete commands <ul><li>del delete a file (don’t forget to include the file extension) </li></ul><ul><li>del *.* Removes all files but not directory or sub directories. </li></ul><ul><li>RD Removes an empty sub directory Deltree Removes a directory sub directories and all files within them. </li></ul><ul><li>UNDELETE: Accidentally erased file can be retrieved </li></ul>
  29. 29. 10 most useable Commands <ul><li>Top 10 DOS commands most commonly used in all versions. </li></ul><ul><li>1. cd Chang directory </li></ul><ul><li>2. dir Contents of directory </li></ul><ul><li>3. copy Copy files/contents </li></ul><ul><li>4. del remove file(s) </li></ul><ul><li>5. edit change file(s) </li></ul><ul><li>6. move cut file(s) </li></ul><ul><li>7. ren rename file(s) </li></ul><ul><li>8. deltree remove directory and sub directories </li></ul><ul><li>9. cls clear screen </li></ul><ul><li>10. format clear and form a floppy or disk </li></ul>