CONTENTS AT A GLANCE<br />TopicPageProduct: The Pizza3Pizza Defined3Varieties in Pizza3Product Development: The Pizza4Ingredients and Varieties Selection4Quality Function Deployment5What’s QFD?5House of Quality6House of Quality of Pizza9Identify the customer wants9Identify how the product will satisfy the customer’s wants10Identify relations between our “hows”12Develop importance ratings13Evaluate competing products14Determine the technical attributes14Final HOQ of Pizza15Areas of Applications of QFD16References17<br />PRODUCT: The PIZZA<br />Pizza Defined<br />1905067945Basically, Pizza is an oven-baked, flat, disc shaped bread usually topped with tomato sauce and mozzarella (made from domesticated water buffalo milk) and then a selection of meats, salamis, seafood, cheeses, vegetables and herbs depending on taste and culture. So, simply it means that Pizza constitutes of (1) disc shaped bread, (2) sauce, (3) meat, (4) seafood, (5) vegetables and/or (6) herbs. So, pizza should have many varieties depending upon either the quantities of these components being added, or upon the types of components being added according to the culture.<br />Varieties in Pizza<br />There are many varieties of pizza depending upon the eatable they are having, the method of baking and size of pizza. Some with there ingredients are given below:<br />Neapolitan Pizza<br />(Fresh tomato, mozzarella, wheat flour, yeast, salt and water)<br />Lazio-styled Pizza<br />(Rectangular pizza, tomato, sliced mozzarella, olive oil)<br />White Pizza<br />(Omits tomatoes, substituting sour cream)<br />Pizza Romana<br />(Tomato, mozzarella, anchovies, oregano, oil)<br />Four Seasons Pizzas<br />(In this kind of pizza, ingredients are not gently mixed with each other; they just are placed on the bread slices and send to oven for baking)<br />Four Cheese Pizzas<br />(Tomatoes, mozzarella, stracchino, fontina, gorgonzola)<br />Sicilian-styled pizza<br />(Tomato sauce, cheese, garlic, basil, and oregano)<br />PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT: The PIZZA<br />Ingredients and Varieties Selection<br />We’ve seen above that pizza consists of many ingredients. Selection of ingredients depends upon the type of pizza we want to offer our customers. So, now we’ll enlist the basic ingredients required to make and cook pizza.<br />So, these 8 ingredients are necessary for pizza. We’ve got to either make them our self in our factory or to purchase them from third-party seller. Fresh tomatoes, Meat and Olive Oil cannot be stored for a long time, whereas custom-manufactured (artificial) Mozzarella, Salt, Cheese and Bread Slices can be stored. Water is available everywhere and of course; it’s free of any cost. Sausages are to be purchased from market according to culture and taste.<br />Now, we would discuss the way of making pizzas in our factory. Since we know there are a lot of technical requirements for making pizzas, so we will first draw a chart for displaying the Pizza Development Stages being involved in its making.<br />The most important component in designing the product before its final launch is house of quality of Quality Function Deployment.<br />QUALITY FUNCTION DEPLOYMENT<br />What’s QFD?<br />Quality Function Deployment refers to both (1) determining what will satisfy the customer and (2) translating those customer desires into the target design. So, in short we can say that:<br />“A process for determining customer requirements (customer “wants”) and translating them into the attributes (the “hows”) that each functional area can understand and act on.”<br />Quality function deployment (QFD) is a “method to transform user demands into design quality, to deploy the functions forming quality, and to deploy methods for achieving the design quality into subsystems and component parts, and ultimately to specific elements of the manufacturing process.” as described by Dr. Yoji Akao, who originally developed QFD in Japan in 1966, when the author combined his work in quality assurance and quality control points with function deployment used in Value Engineering.<br />QFD is designed to help planners focus on characteristics of a new or existing product or service from the viewpoints of market segments, company, or technology-development needs. The technique yields graphs and matrices.<br />QFD helps transform customer needs (the voice of the customer [VOC]) into engineering characteristics (and appropriate test methods) for a product or service, prioritizing each product or service characteristic while simultaneously setting development targets for product or service.<br />House of Quality<br />One of the tools of QFD is the house of quality. The house of quality is a graphic technique for defining the relationship between customer desires and product (or services). Defined as:<br />“House of Quality is a part of Quality Function Deployment process that utilizes a planning matrix to relate customer “wants” to “how” the firm is going to meet those “wants”.”<br />House of Quality is a diagram, resembling a house, used for defining the relationship between customer desires and the firm/product capabilities. It is a part of the Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and it utilizes a planning matrix to relate what the customer wants to how a firm (that produces the products) is going to meet those wants. It looks like a House with a "
as its roof, customer wants versus product features as the main part, competitor evaluation as the porch etc. It is based on "
the belief that products should be designed to reflect customers' desires and tastes"
. It also is reported to increase cross functional integration within organizations using it, especially between marketing, engineering and manufacturing.<br />Every successful company has always used data and information to help in its planning processes. In planning a new product, engineers have always examined the manufacturing and performance history of the current product. They look at field test data, comparing their product to that of their competitor’s product. They examine any customer satisfaction information that might happen to be available. Unfortunately, much of this information is often incomplete. It is frequently examined as individual data, without comparison to other data that may support or contradict it. By contrast, Quality Function Deployment (QFD) uses a matrix format to capture a number of issues that are vital to the planning process. The House of Quality Matrix is the most recognized and widely used form of this method. It translates customer requirements, based on marketing research and benchmarking data, into an appropriate number of engineering targets to be met by a new product design. Basically, it is the nerve center and the engine that drives the entire QFD process. According to Hauser and Clausing, it is “a kind of conceptual map that provides the means for inter-functional planning and communication.”<br />There are many different forms of the House of Quality, but its ability to be adapted to the requirements of a particular problem make it a very strong and reliable system to use. Its general format is made up of six major components. These include customer requirements, technical requirements, a planning matrix, an interrelationship matrix, a technical correlation matrix, and a technical priorities/benchmarks and targets section.<br />The basic structure is a table with "
as the labels on the left and "
across the top. The roof is a diagonal matrix of "
hows vs. hows"
and the body of the house is a matrix of "
whats vs. hows"
. Both of these matrices are filled with indicators of whether the interaction of the specific item is a strong positive, a strong negative, or somewhere in between. Additional annexes on the right side and bottom hold the "
(market research, etc.) and the "
. Rankings based on the Whys and the correlations can be used to calculate priorities for the hows. House of Quality analysis can also be cascaded, with "
from one level becoming the "
of a lower level; as this progress the decisions get closer to the engineering/manufacturing details.<br />The initial steps in forming the House of Quality include determining, clarifying, and specifying the customers’ needs. These steps lay the foundation for a clearly defined venture and will ensure a project or process is well thought out prior to any further development.<br />Clarifying Customer Needs<br />Customers buy benefits and producers offer features. This seems like a relatively simple notion; however, unless customers and producers are perfectly in tune with one another, it may be very difficult to anticipate these features, or each underlying benefit from each producer. It is of utter importance to translate the wishes of each and every customer into some tangible values that can be turned into engineering specifications.<br />Specifying the Customer Needs<br />After determining what items are most important to the customer, organizations must translate them into particulate specifications. Nothing can be produced, serviced or maintained without detailed specifications or some set of given standards. Each aspect of the desired item must be clearly defined: Measurements must be defined, heights specified, torques stated, and weights targeted.<br />To build the house of quality, basic seven steps are performed. These steps are:<br />Basic graphic diagram for any house of quality resembles this one:<br />Co-relationshipsTechnical requirementsRelationship MatrixCustomer RequirementsTechnical attributesTechnical evaluationImp. RatingsCompetitive Assessment<br />HOUSE OF QUALITY OF PIZZA<br />Identify the customer wants<br />Main features that any customer desires in a Pizza are:<br /><ul><li>Good taste
Good texture</li></ul>Good taste<br />Taste is the first that that a customer demands in any eatable. Better the taste more will be the demand for it. So, taste of Pizza should be well and good. It should taste fresh, hot and spicy all the time.<br />Low price<br />Price is the second most important factor according to the customers. Customer always tends to purchase such an eatable that tastes good and costs low. So, there shouldn’t be any compromise on taste while keeping the price as low as possible to meet the customer requirements.<br />Low fats and Healthy<br />No one wants to get sick or becomes fat when eat something delicious and spicy. So, the pizza being sold to the customers should consist of lower fats and it should be a healthy diet for customer. This is the key for winning the customer’s order.<br />Appetizing appearance<br />First impression is the last impression even if it’s pizza. All customers want is to have a pizza that could lower their appetite, keeping enough paper in their pocket for a second order. The look of pizza should water one’s mouth. It should be looking delicious, appetizing and spicy even if customer hasn’t yet tasted one.<br />Fresh and hot delivery<br />No one wants to have a staled pizza. Everyone wants a fresh and hot pizza, even if they’d ordered it home. Quick-n-Hot delivery should be maintained for customer or we’ll lose our customers.<br />Good texture<br />Well, texture is the lowest priority of customers. It’s same as the appearance of pizza. But it’s affected by shape, size, method of baking, and ingredients. Good texture for every variety of pizza should be maintained.<br />So, according to customers, we’ve determined these importance ratings (out of 6):<br />Good taste6Low price5Low fats and healthy4Appetizing appearance3Fresh and Hot delivery2Good texture1<br />Identify how the product will satisfy the customer’s wants<br />In this step, we, the firm’s manager, have to reflect the customer’s desires and demand into our company product. We’ve to consider those before we finally approve the making and cooking of Hot-n-Spicy pizza. Our product i.e. pizza would be able to provide these stunning features to customer:<br /><ul><li>Delicious and Fresh toppings (sausages, meat, bread slices etc.)
Variety and Density of toppings</li></ul>Delicious and Fresh toppings<br />“Toppings” is basically the layer of mixed ingredients. It actually served for the eatable purposes. Since it is sandwiched between a bread slice and sausage, so it should be fresh as it is key material for pizza. Delicious and fresh topping from us would surely help customers’ winning orders.<br />Appropriate weight, size, thickness, and shape<br />These features of pizza are directly related to pizza price. Heavier the pizza, more it’d cost. Larger size and thicker it is, more it’d cost to customer. So, pizza should be in different sizes and weights so that every customer would be able to purchase the one which best fit him. That is why we’re going to introduce: Size, Medium and Large pizzas.<br />Low fatty eatables<br />Everyone wants a healthy pizza. So, we’re going to use those ingredients which have lowest fats. Some ingredients are essential for taste of pizza but they have a high fat-value, so we’ll definitely try to use them as lower as possible.<br />Optional eatables<br />Optional eatables are purely concerned with taste and variety in pizzas. For providing great and delicious varieties in our Pizzas, we’ll use different optional eatables to amuse our customers. This factor is also concerned with price and texture.<br />Pizza color<br />For appetizing appearance of a pizza, we would have to use some artificial flavored colors to our pizza product. Additionally, these flavored colors also add spicy tastes to pizzas.<br />Density of toppings<br />Density of topping is directly concerned with the thickness and price of pizza. To provide varieties in pizza we’ll use Low, Medium and High density toppings.<br />Now, we’ll develop the “hows”. This mean that how will our product satisfy customers. For this purpose, we’ll again develop a table displaying how this will satisfy them.<br />Pizza colorAppropriate weight, size, shape and thicknessLow fatty eatablesOptional eatables for taste and textureDelicious and Fresh toppingsDensity of toppings<br />Identify relations between our hows<br />Pizza colorApp. Weight, shape, size, thicknessLow fatty eatablesOptional eatablesDelicious and Fresh toppingsDensity of toppingsIn this step, we’ll develop a relationship matrix between our ‘hows’. For example in many cases, some ‘hows’ are related to one-another. According to our diagram, we’ve got the following relations:<br />Relationship Matrix<br />Develop importance ratings<br />This step is quite difficult and longer. In this step, first we’ll draw the relationship matrix between the “hows” and the “wants”. Then we determine the importance ratings for our final work to be started.<br />Pizza colorApp. Weight, shape, size, thicknessLow fatty eatablesOptional eatablesDelicious and Fresh toppingsDensity of toppingsGood tasteLow priceGood textureLow fats and healthyFresh and hot deliveryAppetizing appearance651423Relationship MatrixThis step is done here, quite simplified and explanatory:<br />Our Importance Ratings34530111212High relationship (6)Medium relationship (3)Low relationship (1)Customer Importance ratingsCustomer “wants”<br />These importance ratings are determined as follows:<br />Pizza color3 x 13App. Weight, size, etc.6 x 6 + 3 x 345Low fatty eatables6 x 4 + 3 x 230Optional eatables5 x 1 + 3 x 211Delicious and Fresh toppings3 x 1 + 3 x 312Density of toppings1 x 6 + 3 x 212<br />Evaluate competing products<br />Company BCompany AIn this step, we’ll compare features of competing products of other companies. For example, in market, we say two companies (Pizza House and Pizza Club) are competing our products, so, we’ll first discuss and compare their pizzas to ours to get a more comprehensive and detailed report about our pizza.<br />G = goodF = fairP = poor<br />Good tasteLow priceGood textureLow fats and healthyFresh and hot deliveryAppetizing appearance651423<br />FG<br />PP<br />GG<br />FF<br />GG<br />FG<br />Determine the technical attributes<br />The last step is determining of technical attributes and checking our performance with respect to market products. Since this topic is out of scope of our course, so we won’t discuss it.<br />Now, we shall only consider our final and full House of Quality for Pizza. It’s given below:<br />FINAL HOQ OF PIZZA<br />FGFGPFGGFGPGCompany BCompany AHigh relationship (6)Medium relationship (3)Low relationship (1)G = goodF = fairP = poorTechnical EvaluationTechnical AttributesDensity of toppingsDelicious and Fresh toppingsOptional eatablesLow fatty eatablesApp. Weight, shape, size, thicknessPizza color12121130453Our Importance RatingsGood tasteLow priceGood textureLow fats and healthyFresh and hot deliveryAppetizing appearance651423<br />AREAS OF APPLICATION OF QFD<br />QFD is applied in a wide variety of services, consumer products, military needs (such as the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter and emerging technology products. The technique is also used to identify and document competitive marketing strategies and tactics (see example QFD House of Quality for Enterprise Product Development, at right). QFD is considered a key practice of Design for Six Sigma (DFSS - as seen in the referenced roadmap). It is also implicated in the new ISO 9000:2000 standard which focuses on customer satisfaction.<br />Results of QFD have been applied in Japan and elsewhere into deploying the high-impact controllable factors in Strategic planning and Strategic management (also known as Hoshin Kanri, Hoshin Planning, or Policy Deployment).<br />Acquiring market needs by listening to the Voice of Customer (VOC), sorting the needs, and numerically prioritizing them (using techniques such as the Analytic Hierarchy Process) are the early tasks in QFD. Traditionally, going to the Gemba (the "
where value is created for the customer) is where these customer needs are evidenced and compiled.<br />While many books and articles on "
how to do QFD"
are available, there is a relative paucity of example matrices available. QFD matrices become highly proprietary due to the high density of product or service information found therein.<br />REFERENCES<br />The content above is taken from following websites:<br /><ul><li>Wikipedia (Wikipedia.org)
iSixSigma – House of Quality (isixsigma.com/tt/qfd)</li></ul>Additionally the following book helped me:<br /><ul><li>Operations Management by Jay Heizer</li></ul>Online PDF resources used:<br /><ul><li>Public State HOQ (public.iastate.edu/~vardeman/IE361/f01mini/johnson.pdf)
Stanford University (mml.stanford.edu/publications/1998/1998.WISC.QFD.Martin.pdf)
US Csuchi Corp. (www.csuchico.edu/~jtrailer/HOQ.pdf)