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Eportfolio ppt(revised)

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  • 1. Problem Problem Hypotheses Discovery & Encounter Analysis Reporting Solution Presentation Review & Evaluation TG03(Scenario 1) Muhammad Azil Allison Foo Dazzalyn Decruz Nina Karmiza Mohana .
  • 2. Problem Encounter Notes of Discussion We observed from the passage, that Andy encountered the following problems; Areas which show that he has low ability • Andy is unable to grasp concepts easily as compared to his other classmates. • He gets anxious during exams and it affects his memory • His way of studying is blindly memorizing from the textbook and doesn‟t understand how to apply the concepts he learnt. Areas which show that he has low motivation • He lost faith in his ability after he failed his science test. • He tries to study at home but gets distracted easily • The amount of effort he puts into studying does not directly equate to his results Next
  • 3. Problem Encounter (cont‟d) Notes of Discussion We observed from the passage, that Andy encountered the following problems; How teacher‟s teaching affects Andy: • Keeps picking on Andy in class, criticising and degrading him • Perception of Andy is fixed and expects little from him which in turn affects Andy‟s learning • She does not cater to the needs of the different abilities in her class • She does not explain concepts clearly and does not explain to the pupils what is expected of them • She does not monitor their learning • She does not set a good example, not a good role model for the pupils eg. She could say „shut up‟ but Andy was corrected for saying the same thing Next
  • 4. Problem Encounter Mind Map Andy Low Ability Lack of Low motivation support from • Cannot keep up teacher with the pace of the lesson • Unable to • Does not comprehend new • Gets distracted concepts taught. encourage him. easily • Difficulty doing • Constantly picks • Not focused homework on him when studying or • Does not show doing work. understanding for Next his low ability in • Low self-efficacy studies.
  • 5. Problem Encounter Mind Map Has wrong Teacher beliefs in Does not teaching and model proper learning behaviour Does not teach effectively • Has low expectations of • She can say shut Andy because he up but Andy has low ability cannot • Makes pupils • Uses harsh • Favours high- memorise words to scold ability pupils like concepts instead students and not Bee Choo of helping them encouraging Next understand them • Rushes through her teaching
  • 6. Problem Encounter Journal of Problem Enquiry Identify specific problems in the scenario • He lost faith in himself after failing his Science test. • He gets distracted easily by other factors like the television, and is not focused. • He has little intrinsic motivation to achieve goals he could have set for himself. • He does not have extrinsic motivation to learn as his teacher constantly degrades him and his classmates look down on him. Key questions of inquiry • Why does Andy have little intrinsic motivation? • Could his teachers or peers play a big role in increasing his motivation to learn? • Could his low motivation be due to his low ability in studies? The questions should consider application of learning theories. • How can Andy be motivated to learn? • How can his teacher and peers help him? • How can his teacher change his beliefs about teaching and learning to cater to Andy‟s learning ability? Next
  • 7. Problem Encounter Problem Statement Motivation directly relates to effective learning in students. Back to Main
  • 8. Problem Analysis Explanations/Hypotheses to the problems Dazzalyn‟s View • Andy has a self-concept of a failure • He is unable to comprehend the lessons taught • He has short concentration level, unable to focus on studying • His self-esteem declined over time due to the teachers‟ constant degradation of him. • He has low self-efficacy and does not set goals for himself. Azil‟s View • Teacher should not have a narrow viewpoint of Andy • Teacher should refine her teaching method to aid students ability to grasp concepts. • The teacher did not role model the correct behavior and attitude during class. • Instead of giving Andy encouragement to improve, she expected him to fail. • The teacher did not take Andy‟s feelings into consideration when she humiliated him for something he is weak at. Next
  • 9. Problem Analysis Explanations/Hypotheses to the problems Allison‟s View -Andy‟s beliefs result in low motivation: -He has an entity view about his own intelligence and he feels that it cannot change -He has low self-efficacy based on his past failures and feedback from his teachers. He focuses on negative past events and persists with ineffective study methods -Andy attributes time spent “studying” to good results. Nina‟sView -Teacher needs to be more encouraging towards Andy to boost his self-confidence. -Teacher shows favoritism. -Teacher should spend more time understanding the needs of the students, be it academically or emotionally. -Teacher should have more patience towards students with low ability Next
  • 10. Problem Analysis Explanations/Hypotheses to the problems Mohana‟s View • Teacher should reflect on her teaching method and materials so as to scaffold it according to her diversified students' abilities. • Teacher should have little discussions with Andy to show him that she cares, which will motivate him. • Role modeling was not done by teacher. • Teacher did not treat the students fairly, but showed favoritism. Group‟s View • Andy‟s low self efficacy potentially affects his level of self esteem. • Andy's lack of understanding of his own style of learning show that he is not metacognitive. • The teacher's attitude towards Andy affects his motivation to learn. • Teacher has a biased attribution towards Andy where low expectations of him could result in him being motivated to learn. Next
  • 11. Problem Analysis Learning Objectives • According to John Flavell (1979), Andy should identify his own learning style (metacognition). • Look into Skinner‟s theory to enhance his motivation in the subject. • Look into Bandura‟s theory to adopt different study methods. • Motivate Andy using the self determination theory, developed by Edward Deci and Richard Ryan. • Look into the Zone of Proximal Development Theory (ZPD) by Lev Vygotsky and Goal Setting Theory by Edwin A. Locke to help Andy work effectively towards doing well in Science. Next
  • 12. Problem Analysis Generating Ideas Why does Andy have little motivation? . • Various external distractions. • Easily distracted by his environment such as cartoons. • Knowledge content is not being taught to him properly He doesn‟t know this own learning style • May not been exposed to the various techniques for studying. • He studies with the method only known to him- Which is repetition and memorising of content without understanding. • He does not have a personal learning style hence not being able to enhance efficiency on his studies. Next
  • 13. Problem Analysis Generating Ideas Teacher has low expectations due to Andy's low ability • Teacher should not have a biased attribution towards him butinstead refine her teaching strategies to improve hislearning • Teachers should provide more visual materials/study methods to enhance his learning. (Diagrams, pictures, images, mindmaps etc). • Teachers and parents should engage him in learning. • The content knowledge is beyond is level of competence hence, he loses concentration when studying. Lack of parents‟ supervision • Parents spend long hours at work.(blue collar worker) • Parents can‟t afford a tuition teacher, Hence Andy studies on this own. Back to Main
  • 14. Hypotheses 1. A child‟s beliefs about himself influences his motivation to learn. 2. A teacher‟s beliefs about teaching and learning influences the student‟s motivation to learn. Back to Main
  • 15. Discovery & Reporting General Solutions to increase students' motivation. Azil's Reporting Next
  • 16. Discovery & Reporting Dazzalyn's reporting Why are people Next motivated? Value and Expectancy Classroom Climate and Teacher Expectancy Positive teacher expectancy has been linked to Students must have a increased student perceived value of a task in achievement. Developing a order to achieve success. supportive environment is Higher expectancies for important to allow students success from the teacher are to obtain meaningful positively related to various learning achievement behaviours.
  • 17. Discovery & Reporting Allison's Reporting Next
  • 18. Discovery & Reporting Mohana‟s Reporting Next
  • 19. Discovery & Reporting Statement on sources of learning, information and research Nina's Reporting Andy needs his teacher to reduce the negative extrinsic motivation. Strategies for reducing the Negative Impact of Extrinsic Motivation: - Use extrinsic rewards - Limit use of extrinsic rewards for low-calue tasks - Let the students know the consequences of particular actions in the classroom to add to their sense of control and self-determination - Use extrinsic rewards that are most "natural" to the settings - When using material rewards, accompany the reward with a word of praise and point it to the student's success being a result of his effort. - Encourage the student to self-praise and again point to the value of their effort in producing their success. Back to Main
  • 20. Solution Presentation Problem: Andy is easily distracted and has low self-confidence Causes: Andy allows his emotions to affect his motivation to learn, affecting his results and thus the level of his self-confidence drops. Solution: •Andy has to change his mindset of failure. He should not focus on his negative feelings but instea use failure as a stepping stone to improve himself in the future. •Andy has to learn to see what he is his strength and weaknesses and build up on his strengths and work on his weaknesses • Andy should set goals for himself and take small steps to reach those goalsProblem: -Pavlov‟s (Classical conditioning) theory By helping him associate Science with something fun, he will star liking Science and would not drag himself for Science lessons. Miss Wong should reduce her criticism on Andy, so that Andy can break the relationship between Scienc and Criticism( Extinction in -Classical Conditioning – weakening of the conditioned response in the absence of the unconditioned stimulus) -Classical conditioning (pavlov) he tells himself that he cant do it as he associate himself with being stupi based on past failures -Counter Conditioning (strategy used to extinguish classical conditioning by pairing the conditioned stimulus with a new stimulus that will interfere with the association between the conditioned stimulus an conditioned response)Problem: Andy is not motivated as he has not been doing well in school and even though he tries, his strategy is wrong and he continues failing Next
  • 21. Solution Presentation Problem: Andy does not believe that he is able to do well Causes: Andy has poor self-concept. He feels that he has low ability as a result of his past failures and negative feedback from his teachers. This further lowers his self- esteem and motivation to learn. Solution: •Andy should self-regulate his own learning and take responsibility for it - classical conditioning (Pavlov) he associates learning to memorizing. -(Zimmerman, Self Regulated Learning – Environment Restructuring) He should study in a more conducive environment. In order to allow himself to study better, he should close the door to focus on his revision, create a self study time table and make notes in class . -(Skinner, Operant Conditioning) Instead of seeing revising for his Science test as a punishment, Andy could finish a part of the water cycle first before doing what he wants. It could be repeated until he finishes his revision. -Premack Principle: Andy‟s mind was not focused due to all the distractions and temptations. It was not his preferred activity. Next
  • 22. Solution Presentation Problem: Teacher did not cater to the different learning needs of the students Causes: Teacher has little understanding of the pupil‟s learning needs. Solution: •To change her beliefs of teaching and learning so as to incorporate more differentiated teaching styles into her lessons for all pupils. •To build a more conducive environment for the students to be able to learn more. By providing more opportunities for pupils to be involved in the class and taking on more responsibility. •To show more care and concern for her students -(Zimmerman, Self-Regulated Learning) If Ms Wong wanted to encourage Self Directed Learning, she should elaborate, help the pupils organise their thoughts and reflect on their learning. -(Piaget, Constructivism) Ms Wong made no effort to relate the water cycle to the pupils‟ daily lives. She should break the water cycles into their stages and explain every stage. She can come up with real-life models to illustrate the process of water cycle more vividly. In that manner, students will be able to understand better. -(Vygotsky, Social Constructivism) She can then group the pupils in pairs to share knowledge and learn from one another. She can provide scaffolding for weaker pupils -(Skinner, Operant Conditioning) Ms Wong fails to manage Bee Chu both times.She should endorse punishment onto Bee Chu. She could have cued Bee Chu using body language, physical proximity or brief verbal cues (Bandura, Social Learning Theory) Ms Wong did not role-model the correct behaviour as sincerity and respect for students is lacking. Next
  • 23. Solution Presentation Problem: Teacher had a fixed perception on Andy which led to low expectations and biases Causes: Teacher felt that Andy's poor grades was something that could not be changed and did not expect him to do well. Solution: •Teacher should change her expectations of Andy and her teaching methods to suit his learning ability. •Teacher should give him more opportunities for Andy to display his strengths and not always pinpoint on his weakness. •Teacher should create a more mastery-focused classroom environment rather than a performance-focused one. -Students‟ self‐confidence in their ability to learn is affected by their teachers‟ expectations. To a large degree, students expect to learn if their teachers expect them to.‟ (Stipek, 1993) Back to Main
  • 24. Review and Evaluation Azil‟s Reflection This PBL has widen my views on how a teacher's pedagogy approach has different effects on the students. In my opinion, as teachers, we need to concentrate more on our professionalism while delivering and guiding the students rather than following our emotions. The classroom environment and culture are important factors to which students can grow in character and their potential ability. So, it is essential for a teacher to role-model and ensure that the classroom environment is conducive for learning and growing. In the process, I have learnt that teamwork is very important to make a collaboration successful. My teammates are very co-operative and are willing to teach and share with me on their knowledge and ideas. Next
  • 25. Review and Evaluation Allison‟s Reflection: This PBL has allowed me to gain deeper insight into the different factors that impact the motivation to learn in a person. It allowed me to understand that motivation comes not only extrinsically but intrinsically as well. The case study allowed me to see from both the views of the teacher and the student and how closely interlinked lack of self-esteem and low expectation of others can cause one to lose motivation. As a trainee teacher this PBL has helped be understand how great an impact a teacher has on the students both psychologically and emotionally. I would definitely be able to apply what I have learnt in this PBL to my job as a teacher in the future. This PBL has allowed me to collaborate and learn more about my group mates. Even though we had different thoughts and ideas at times, we openly communicated and critiqued each other for our common goal of completing our assignment with excellence in mind. Next
  • 26. Review and Evaluation Dazzalyn‟s Reflection: During this project, I have learnt the application of theories when reviewing a case study. It is imperative that the student's and teacher's point of view must be taken into account in order to gain a holistic analysis of the case. Motivation not only involves a child's psychological state but is also interrelated with their academic progress. It is therefore important that the teacher creates an optimum classroom setting to promote motivation in her students. However, a child's intrinsic motivation needs the collaboration of himself, teachers and his/her parents or caregivers in order to gain the most benefits for the child. I would definitely use the strategies we have come up with in my teaching career. I have also learnt the importance of teamwork and collaborative learning. This project has given me insight on each member's strengths and weaknesses and how to tap on each other's strengths to optimize our learning. It was an invaluable experience to work with my group-mates and meaningful sharing and learning is done between us. Next
  • 27. Review and Evaluation Nina‟s Reflection: Through the PBL project, I have learnt to work as a team and collaborate with one another. We had to be able to use each other's strengths in the group and cover up for each other's weakness. I have learnt through PBL how to find for specific information and theories and apply it to a situation. The whole PBL was a process of learning and actually applying theories learnt in class into real-life scenarios and this would benefit us in the future. The scenario we used provided an insight to how a child in a classroom is affected by the teacher. It made me think about how much a teacher's actions, as well as the actions of his peers, can affect them - and their learning. I learnt the different theories that were used to analyze the child's as well as the teacher's actions in a scenario. Next
  • 28. Review and Evaluation Mohana‟s Reflection: I have revisted the theories learnt in class, so as to analyse and apply the approprite theory into this PBL. In this way, I am aware of how a teacher impacts on a child's motivation level, which is linked to the child's learning process. I have further understood that little things, like verbal and non-verbal cues or body languages affect the child's motivation level. It has helped me to forsee the real world, and to reflect and further improve on my motivation skills. This PBL has also allowed me to take part in collaborative learning. I have learnt about my team mates' strengths and weaknesses. We understood that all of us have to achieve our goals to achieve the group goal finally, thus we worked together. We had different views, which led me to provide evidence to support my statement, and see from different perspectives. Now, I am able to look at a case in different angles, before speaking to a student or his parents. Overall, I definitely have useful ideas and meaningful learning to take back, and make use of it when I teach in the future. Back to Main