For every problem, there must be certain preferred research method that provides the necessary results and the goal.
Data used for this research are from different sources of books, websites and journals of discrimination, equality, diversity and inclusion among others.
Racial stereotyping does not seem to fade away: many employers continue to perceive black workers, especially young black men as lazy, dishonest or violent. Rising incarceration rates among young black males, together with their minimal work experience, make them especially vulnerable to stereotyping.
On the other hand, women have also gained from the Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. As with the case of African-Americans
Race & Gender Discrimination in the U.S labor market
Race and Gender Discrimination
in the U.S. Labor Market
Araf, Muhammad D.
Discrimination occurs when one person or a group of people
are treated differently because of a particular trait or
characteristic (King, 2011).
Bases: skin color, age, religion or sexual orientation.
Occurrence: on the job, in the housing market, in public
places and in interpersonal relationships.
It is important to realize that discrimination may not be
nice, but only in specific circumstances is it illegal. Federal,
state and local laws protect certain groups of people
(known as protected classes) against certain types of
discrimination. For example, under federal law, it’s illegal for
employers to discriminate against job applicants &
employees based on their: Race, Color, Gender, National
origin, Disability, Age (if the employee is at least 40 years
Hypothesis/key points to be discussed include:
Compensation in discrimination in violation of Title VII,
ADEA, or ADA, why African-American employees receive
unequal pay compared to their Caucasian-American
colleagues, and employer discriminatory practices as the
causes of inequality in pay of compensation for African-
Pay discrepancy for women compared to men, women
wedged in stumpy pay jobs, and women who are prohibited
from any promotions.
Background of Compensation Discrimination of African-American
Employees in the U.S. Private and Public Employment Sector
Compensation discrimination in violation of Title VII, ADEA,
Inequality in pay for African-American employees
Employer discriminatory practices as the causes of inequality in pay of
compensation for African-American employees
Background of Gender Discrimination of Women in the U.S. Labor Market
Discriminatory Pay Practices against Women
It is important to realize that discrimination may not be nice,
but only in specific circumstances is it illegal. Federal, state and
local laws protect certain groups of people (known as protected
classes) against certain types of discrimination. For example,
under federal law, it’s illegal for employers to discriminate
against job applicants and employees based on their: Race,
Color, Gender, National origin, Disability, Age (if the employee is
at least 40 years old).
Discriminatory Hiring Practices against Women
Discriminatory Promotion Practices against Women
After the Title VII Act was passed, women were still designated the lowest
paid jobs in the U.S. labor market. Many women are paid very low
compared to their male counterparts in the same job field.
Statistics has shown that more women are now allowed to compete with their
male counterparts in the same job field compared to 50 years back. Gender
equity, in that sense, is gradually improving but the male workers are still paid
better compared to women in the same job category. Although the Equal Pay Act
was enforced in 1963, men are still paid better than women in the same category
or in similar jobs. People hold the believe that women are less capable than men
regardless if that they have the same qualifications, basically because most jobs in
the past involved labor work and men are obviously more capable of doing the job
Women are discriminated upon when it comes to hiring practices. They are
normally given lower paid jobs which make it difficult for them to find
financial freedom. Managerial positions will normally be assigned to the men
because most employers are not confident that women can handle the
decision making position in the organization. In most job vacancies, males
are still given more priority over women.
Using a qualitative research method, the paper critically discussed several
Court cases and Americans laws related to this concept.
Nevertheless, this research
approach is more appropriate
to analyze and understand
discrimination as a social
phenomenon because as much
as many U.S employers still
practice discrimination despite
all the laws forbidding it,
several others do find
themselves caught in the
middle between actual
discrimination and corporate
A qualitative research :
Deals with the complete
understanding of social and
Qualitative research is to
discover and understand new
ideas and patterns of behavior,
which is exactly what
discrimination in a work place is
PRIMARY RESEARCH SECONDARY RESEARCH
This legal paper consists mainly of secondary research data
collection as the discrimination topic solely focuses about the
labor markets in the United States.
Data used :
books, websites and journals of discrimination, equality,
diversity and inclusion among others.
Data Analysis and Findings
• Compensation discrimination in violation of Title VII, ADEA,
• Inequality in pay for African-American employees
• Employer discriminatory practices as the causes of
inequality in pay of compensation for African-American
• Discriminatory Pay Practices against Women
• Discriminatory Hiring Practices against Women
• Discriminatory Promotion Practices against Women
A Rutgers University study showed that:
Twenty-eight percent of African Americans and
twenty-two percent of Hispanics/Latinos have
experienced workplace discrimination, compared
with 6 percent of whites (Van Horn, 2013).
Forty-six percent of African American
workers believe they have been treated
unfairly by their employers, compared with
10 percent of whites.
Discrimination of any kind can result to:
Bad mental health in a workplace. As such,
firms should try by all means to eliminate
Donna R. Kemp, (1994), stated in his book that sources of stress include:
• Time pressure,
• Repetitive tasks,
• Machine-controlled jobs,
• Sex discrimination,
• Organizational politics,
• Lack of opportunity for job advancement,
• And incompatible managers or coworkers
Additionally, discrimination in the workplace and academia
leads to more than just a bad day.
Stress and depression don't just affect
employees at work but also at home
among family, friends and loved ones.
It takes a toll on the physical, mental and emotional
well-being of employees and students as it brings
about the feelings of hopelessness, mistrust,
despair and alienation common among people
facing bias don't stop at the end of the workday.
A study of racial differences found that black respondents
were more likely than white respondents to identify a factor
related to an individual, such as a supervisor, as a source of
job stress. That finding suggested that blacks may encounter
more work problems as a result of personal interactions
Racial discrimination in the workplace may play a
role in this. Therefore, employers should
understand that discriminating certain employees
based on whatever does not only affect their
compensation and add to their job stress but also
affect their health.
Although black women generally have higher educational levels
than black men, and a higher likelihood of holding managerial
and professional positions, black men earn more than
comparable black women, pointing to sex discrimination in
remuneration. As a result, a lower proportion of black men are
in poverty than black women (22.8 compared to 26.7 per cent).
1) Encouragement to employers to take the
opportunity to identify data on race or gender from equal pay
2) Encouragement to all employers to have equality
proof pay systems and pay settlements/agreements on a
periodic basis regardless of race and gender.
3) Change in regulations to allow for group and
representative actions in relation to the pay arrangements
covering the bargaining unit in question.
4) Continue to develop measures designed to tackle
social exclusion of African-American employees and other
minorities, so as to prevent these discriminated employees
from being taken advantage of and being paid a lower
compensation than others.
Unions should target
recruitment on African-
American workers and
make sure that they are
compensated in pay and
other benefits either
exactly the same or
similar to non-African
audit all activities
Below are some recommendations that can help prevent
1) Employers should try to evaluate
yearly their supervisors and managers who
make hiring and promotion decisions on
their performance as to make sure that
they have not been discriminatory against
women on pay, hiring, and promotions. If
they are found to practice such
discrimination, it will be a negative factor
with regard to the decision-makers
incentives pay, bonus, or pay raises.
2) An employer should also attempt to
monitor how it rates hiring and promotion
of female employees compare with the
rates of other employers in the same
industry. If an employer’s female hiring or
promotion rates are lagging behind its
competitors in the same industry, it should
put in extra effort to recruit and promote
Employers should as much as possible,
follow a practice of posting job vacancies,
and permit all employees to express
interest, regardless of their gender, in
vacancies, for which they have the
minimum qualifications. Employees should
not be required to obtain permission to
express interest in a vacant position.