Race & Gender Discrimination in the U.S labor market

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A sample presentation slide for my MBA Thesis on Race & Gender Discrimination in the U.S labor market

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  • For every problem, there must be certain preferred research method that provides the necessary results and the goal.

  • Data used for this research are from different sources of books, websites and journals of discrimination, equality, diversity and inclusion among others.
  • Racial stereotyping does not seem to fade away: many employers continue to perceive black workers, especially young black men as lazy, dishonest or violent. Rising incarceration rates among young black males, together with their minimal work experience, make them especially vulnerable to stereotyping.
  • On the other hand, women have also gained from the Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. As with the case of African-Americans
  • Race & Gender Discrimination in the U.S labor market

    1. 1. Race and Gender Discrimination in the U.S. Labor Market Araf, Muhammad D. Moaraf.five8@gmail.com
    2. 2. Discrimination Defined Discrimination occurs when one person or a group of people are treated differently because of a particular trait or characteristic (King, 2011). Bases: skin color, age, religion or sexual orientation. Occurrence: on the job, in the housing market, in public places and in interpersonal relationships. It is important to realize that discrimination may not be nice, but only in specific circumstances is it illegal. Federal, state and local laws protect certain groups of people (known as protected classes) against certain types of discrimination. For example, under federal law, it’s illegal for employers to discriminate against job applicants & employees based on their: Race, Color, Gender, National origin, Disability, Age (if the employee is at least 40 years old).
    3. 3. HYPOTHESIS Literature Review Hypothesis/key points to be discussed include: Compensation in discrimination in violation of Title VII, ADEA, or ADA, why African-American employees receive unequal pay compared to their Caucasian-American colleagues, and employer discriminatory practices as the causes of inequality in pay of compensation for African- American employees. Pay discrepancy for women compared to men, women wedged in stumpy pay jobs, and women who are prohibited from any promotions.
    4. 4. Hypothesis One Background of Compensation Discrimination of African-American Employees in the U.S. Private and Public Employment Sector Compensation discrimination in violation of Title VII, ADEA, or ADA Inequality in pay for African-American employees Employer discriminatory practices as the causes of inequality in pay of compensation for African-American employees
    5. 5. Experimental Results
    6. 6. Hypothesis Two Background of Gender Discrimination of Women in the U.S. Labor Market Discriminatory Pay Practices against Women It is important to realize that discrimination may not be nice, but only in specific circumstances is it illegal. Federal, state and local laws protect certain groups of people (known as protected classes) against certain types of discrimination. For example, under federal law, it’s illegal for employers to discriminate against job applicants and employees based on their: Race, Color, Gender, National origin, Disability, Age (if the employee is at least 40 years old).
    7. 7. Discriminatory Hiring Practices against Women Discriminatory Promotion Practices against Women
    8. 8. Summary After the Title VII Act was passed, women were still designated the lowest paid jobs in the U.S. labor market. Many women are paid very low compared to their male counterparts in the same job field. Statistics has shown that more women are now allowed to compete with their male counterparts in the same job field compared to 50 years back. Gender equity, in that sense, is gradually improving but the male workers are still paid better compared to women in the same job category. Although the Equal Pay Act was enforced in 1963, men are still paid better than women in the same category or in similar jobs. People hold the believe that women are less capable than men regardless if that they have the same qualifications, basically because most jobs in the past involved labor work and men are obviously more capable of doing the job faster. Women are discriminated upon when it comes to hiring practices. They are normally given lower paid jobs which make it difficult for them to find financial freedom. Managerial positions will normally be assigned to the men because most employers are not confident that women can handle the decision making position in the organization. In most job vacancies, males are still given more priority over women.
    9. 9. METHODOLOGY Research Methodology Using a qualitative research method, the paper critically discussed several Court cases and Americans laws related to this concept. Method Nevertheless, this research approach is more appropriate to analyze and understand discrimination as a social phenomenon because as much as many U.S employers still practice discrimination despite all the laws forbidding it, several others do find themselves caught in the middle between actual discrimination and corporate ignorance. A qualitative research : Deals with the complete understanding of social and human behavior. Qualitative research is to discover and understand new ideas and patterns of behavior, which is exactly what discrimination in a work place is all about.
    10. 10. METHODOLOGY Data/Approach QUALITITAVE RESEARCH PRIMARY RESEARCH SECONDARY RESEARCH This legal paper consists mainly of secondary research data collection as the discrimination topic solely focuses about the labor markets in the United States. Data used : books, websites and journals of discrimination, equality, diversity and inclusion among others.
    11. 11. ANALYSIS Data Analysis and Findings • Compensation discrimination in violation of Title VII, ADEA, or ADA • Inequality in pay for African-American employees • Employer discriminatory practices as the causes of inequality in pay of compensation for African-American employees • Discriminatory Pay Practices against Women • Discriminatory Hiring Practices against Women • Discriminatory Promotion Practices against Women
    12. 12. CONCLUSIONS Conclusions A Rutgers University study showed that: Twenty-eight percent of African Americans and twenty-two percent of Hispanics/Latinos have experienced workplace discrimination, compared with 6 percent of whites (Van Horn, 2013). Forty-six percent of African American workers believe they have been treated unfairly by their employers, compared with 10 percent of whites.
    13. 13. CONCLUSION Conclusions Discrimination of any kind can result to: Bad mental health in a workplace. As such, firms should try by all means to eliminate discriminatory acts. Donna R. Kemp, (1994), stated in his book that sources of stress include: • Time pressure, • Repetitive tasks, • Machine-controlled jobs, • Sex discrimination, • Organizational politics, • Lack of opportunity for job advancement, • And incompatible managers or coworkers
    14. 14. CONCLUSIONS Conclusions Additionally, discrimination in the workplace and academia leads to more than just a bad day. Stress and depression don't just affect employees at work but also at home among family, friends and loved ones. It takes a toll on the physical, mental and emotional well-being of employees and students as it brings about the feelings of hopelessness, mistrust, despair and alienation common among people facing bias don't stop at the end of the workday.
    15. 15. CONCLUSIONS Conclusions A study of racial differences found that black respondents were more likely than white respondents to identify a factor related to an individual, such as a supervisor, as a source of job stress. That finding suggested that blacks may encounter more work problems as a result of personal interactions (Kemp, 1994). Racial discrimination in the workplace may play a role in this. Therefore, employers should understand that discriminating certain employees based on whatever does not only affect their compensation and add to their job stress but also affect their health.
    16. 16. CONCLUSIONS Conclusions Although black women generally have higher educational levels than black men, and a higher likelihood of holding managerial and professional positions, black men earn more than comparable black women, pointing to sex discrimination in remuneration. As a result, a lower proportion of black men are in poverty than black women (22.8 compared to 26.7 per cent).
    17. 17. RECOMMENDATIONS Recommendations Government 1) Encouragement to employers to take the opportunity to identify data on race or gender from equal pay reviews. 2) Encouragement to all employers to have equality proof pay systems and pay settlements/agreements on a periodic basis regardless of race and gender. 3) Change in regulations to allow for group and representative actions in relation to the pay arrangements covering the bargaining unit in question. 4) Continue to develop measures designed to tackle social exclusion of African-American employees and other minorities, so as to prevent these discriminated employees from being taken advantage of and being paid a lower compensation than others.
    18. 18. RECOMMENDATIONS Recommendations Unions Unions should target recruitment on African- American workers and make sure that they are compensated in pay and other benefits either exactly the same or similar to non-African American employees. Unions should audit all activities involving compensation of African-American employees to ensure improved practices and procedures.
    19. 19. RECOMMENDATIONS Recommendations Below are some recommendations that can help prevent gender discrimination: 1) Employers should try to evaluate yearly their supervisors and managers who make hiring and promotion decisions on their performance as to make sure that they have not been discriminatory against women on pay, hiring, and promotions. If they are found to practice such discrimination, it will be a negative factor with regard to the decision-makers incentives pay, bonus, or pay raises.
    20. 20. RECOMMENDATIONS Recommendations 2) An employer should also attempt to monitor how it rates hiring and promotion of female employees compare with the rates of other employers in the same industry. If an employer’s female hiring or promotion rates are lagging behind its competitors in the same industry, it should put in extra effort to recruit and promote female employees.
    21. 21. RECOMMENDATIONS Recommendations Employers should as much as possible, follow a practice of posting job vacancies, and permit all employees to express interest, regardless of their gender, in vacancies, for which they have the minimum qualifications. Employees should not be required to obtain permission to express interest in a vacant position.
    22. 22. Any Questions? Contact: moaraf.five8@gmail.com
    23. 23. THANK YOU!!

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