Transcript of "Grammar for Matric & Intermediate by Muhammad Azam, Shaheen Academy, G-6/1-3, Islamabad "
BASIC GRAMMATICAL TERMSAdjective: A word which qualifies or modifies the meaning of a noun; as in a red hat or aquick fox. They can be used to complement the verbs to be or to seem (Sue seems happytoday). Adjectives are sometimes formed from nouns or verbs by the addition of a suffix such as-able (lovable), -ful (heedful), -ic (heroic), -ish (foolish), -ive (combative), -ous (famous),or -y (needy).Adverb: A word which qualifies or adds to the action of a verb: as in he ran quickly, or he ranfast. Adverbs can also qualify adjectives, as in the grass is intensely green. They are usuallyformed by adding -ly to an adjective: playfully, combatively, foolishly. They can alsosometimes be formed by the addition of -wise to a noun (the hands went round clockwise).Clause: The word is often used but very hard to define. It is a sentence or sentence-likeconstruction included within another sentence. A main clause might be a simple noun plus verb(I did it). A co-ordinate clause is of equal status with the main clause: I did it and she did it atthe same time. A subordinate clause might be nested within a sentence using the conjunctionthat: he said that the world was flat. Here he said is the main clause and the subordinate clauseis the world was flat. Relative clauses are usually introduced by a relative pronoun: I read thebook which was falling to pieces; She spoke to the man who was standing at the bar.Conjunction: A word used to connect words or constructions. Co-ordinating conjunctionssuch as and, and but link together elements of equal importance in a sentence (Fish and chipsare of equal importance). Subordinating conjunctions such as because, if, although, connecta subordinate clause to its superordinate clause (We will do it if you insist; We did it becausehe insisted).Noun: A word used as the name or designation of a person or thing, such as duck or river.Abstract nouns denote abstract properties, such as invisibility, gentleness. Proper nouns arenouns that designate one thing, as, for example, personal names.Object: Usually the thing to which the action of a verb is done. More technically a substantiveword, phrase, or clause, immediately dependent on, or ‘governed by’, a verb, as expressing, inthe case of a verb of action, the person or thing to which the action is directed, or on which it isexerted; that which receives the action of the verb. So the man patted the dog, the woman wasreading the book. An indirect object of a verb denotes that which is indirectly affected by anaction, but wihch is not the immediate product of it, as ‘Give him the book’, ‘Make me a coat’.Participle: a word derived from a noun which functions like an adjective, as in let sleepingdogs lie. More technically A word that partakes of the nature of a verb and an adjective; aderivative of a verb which has the function and construction of an adjective (qualifying a noun),while retaining some of those of the verb. Present participles usually end in -ing and usuallydescribe an action which is going on at the same time as the verb: so in the sentence "Go andplay on your own street," she said, kicking the ball, the saying and the kicking are simultaneous.Past participles usually end in -ed or -en (the door was kicked in; the door was broken).They are used in two main ways: combined with the verb have they form a past or perfect tense(so called because it describes an action which has been completed or perfected), as in I have 1|Page MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
smashed the plate. Past participles can also be used in passive constructions (which describewhat was done to something rather than what something did), as in the plate was smashed.Preposition: A part of speech which indicates a connection, between two other parts ofspeech, such as to, with, by or from. She came from China, He gave the chocolates to me.Pronoun: A part of speech which stands for a noun: he, she, him, her, them. Possessivepronouns express ownership (his, hers). Reflexive pronouns are herself, himself, myselfand are used either for emphasis (he did it all himself), or when an action reflects back on theagent who performs it (he shot himself in the foot). Relative pronouns include who, which,that and are usually used in the form he rebuked the reader who had sung in the library.Interrogative pronouns ask questions (Who stole the pie?; Which pie?). Indefinitepronouns do not specify a particular person or thing: Anyone who studies grammar must bemad. Somebody has to know about this stuff.Sentence: This is a term which professional linguists still find impossible to define adequately.It is usually supposed to be A sequence of words which makes complete sense, containingsubject, object and main verb, and concluded by a full-stop.Subject: Usually the person or thing who is performing the action of a verb. More technicallythe grammatical subject is the part of a sentence of which an action is predicated: the man pattedthe dog. It can be a single noun, or it can been a complex clause: the bald man who had justpicked up the ball gave it to the dog.Verb: Usually a word which describes an action (such as he reads poems, she excels atcricket). More technically That part of speech by which an assertion is made, or which serves toconnect a subject with a predicate. This technical definition includes the most frequent verb inthe language: the verb to be which can be used to connect a subject, such as he, with apredicate, such as good at hockey. There are verbs which take an object (he takes tea), whichare called transitive verbs. Other verbs do not, and are termed intransitive verbs (I sit, helives). Some verbs can be used either transitively or intransitively: I sing is an intransitiveusage; Paul McCartney sings "God save the Queen" is a transitive usage. The main verb is theverb on which the structure of the sentence depends, and without which the sentence would notmake any sense.In the following sentence the verb fell is the main verb: The boy, who had runtoo quickly, fell.INTERJECTION Interjections are words or phrases used to exclaim or protest or command. They sometimesstand by themselves, but they are often contained within larger structures. • Wow! I won the lottery! • Oh, I dont know about that. • I dont know what the heck youre talking about. • No, you shouldnt have done that. THE NOUN
The name given to a person, place and thing is called a noun. The subject of a sentence is thenoun. Take this sentence, for example: Michael is a very good name. The subject of the sentence – who or what the sentence is about – is shown in bold letters. It is a noun. TYPES OF NOUNS NOU There are many types of nouns. 1. PROPER NOUNS PROPE The first letter of a proper noun is written using a capital letter. Proper nouns represent a particular thing, rather than just a general thing. For instance, people’s names start with a capital letter, because they represent the name of a particular person. Other common proper nouns are the days of the week, names of cities, countries, and organisations. 2. COMMON NOUNS NOUN The opposite of a proper noun is a common noun. These are nouns that don’t represent specific people or things, but just people or things in general. For instance, if we were talking about a fire-fighter named Bob, we could say something like: Common Noun Bob is a good firefighter Proper Noun Because ‘Bob’ refers to a specific person, it is a proper noun and starts with a capital ‘B’. The noun ‘fire-fighter’, however is a common noun, because it represents people who fight fires – but not a specific person. 3. CONCRETE NOUNS Nouns that represent something you can perceive through one of your five physical senses are known as concrete nouns. These nouns represent something concrete that you can physically touch or hear, for instance. The five senses are sight, touch, hearing, smell, and taste. ‘Tree’, ‘door’, ‘cat’, ‘basketball’, and ‘road’ are all examples of concrete nouns. 4. ABSTRACT NOUNS These are nouns representing things that you can’t perceive through any of your five senses. Any sentence about emotions usually involves abstract nouns. Here are a couple of sentences with abstract nouns (in bold font): There is a lot of love in that relationship. Johnson had never felt so much hate before. 5. COLLECTIVE NOUNS COL LEC These are nouns that represent a group of more than one thing. The collective noun in this sentence is highlighted in bold font: 3|Page MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
My uncle owns a flock of sheep.One of the most common uses of collective nouns is to describe groups of various types ofanimals. Some of the names used to describe groups of animals are very weird. Here aresome of them: Group name Animals used with Herd Buffalo, cattle, deer, donkeys, elephants, horses, kangaroos, pigs Destruction Feral cats Pod Whales, dolphins, seals Nest Vipers, snakes Ambush Tigers Muster Storks, peacocks Host Sparrows Murder Crows Crash Rhinoceros Litter Pups, pigs, cubs, dogs, kittens Shoal Most types of fish Flock Most types of birds, sheep Pride Lions Brood Hens, chickens Colony Ants, beavers, penguins, frogs, rabbits Swarm Bees, flies, rats Convocation Eagles Kine Cows Sloth Bears Culture Bacteria Shrewdness Apes6. COMPOUND NOUNSCompound nouns are nouns made up of two or more words. Some compound nouns arehyphenated. E.g. Air force, classroom Mother-in-law, Paper-clip etc.
7. POSSESSIVE NOUNS POSSESSIVE NOUPossessive nouns and pronouns demonstrate ownership or some similar relationship over something else.Plural nouns indicate more than one person, place or thing. Possessive nouns typically include anapostrophe. For example: • Jennifer’s imagination ran wild as she pictured the accident. • The kitten’s toy is a stuffed catnip mouse. 5|Page MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
PRONOUN & TYPES OF PRONOUNSA pronoun is a word such as we, them, or anyone that replaces a noun or another pronoun. Pronounsmust match the number and gender of the noun they stand for and be in a case (form) that matches itsfunction. Pronouns have the same functions as nouns: They may act as subjects and subjectcomplements, direct objects, indirect objects, and objects of prepositions. The noun that a pronounrefers to is called the antecedent of the pronoun. In the sentence “George wrote the essay in class andtyped it later” the noun essay is the antecedent of the pronoun it. If you cannot point to the antecedent of apronoun in your writing, you need to change the wording so that your meaning will be clear to the reader.For more on antecedents as well as number and case agreement, gender bias, and other specific pronounissues, see other resources. Here is an explanation of the nine types of pronouns:A. PERSONAL PRONOUNS: Personal pronouns refer to specific persons, places, or things.1. Subjective Case: A personal pronoun should be in the subjective case (form) if the pronoun functionsas a subject or subject complement. A subject pronoun usually comes before the verb; a subjectcomplement pronoun follows a linking verb. Singular Plural Examples: First person: I we We are successful. (Subject) Second person: you you They like pizza. (Subject) Third person: he/she/it they The winners were Kim and I. (Subject complement)2. Objective case: If a pronoun stands for any other noun than a subject or subject complement, use the objective case. Object pronouns can be direct objects (DO), indirect objects(IO), or objects of prepositions (OP). Notice that you and it are in both lists. Singular Plural Examples: First person: me us The secretary notified us today. (DO) Second person: you you My aunt wrote me a letter. (IO) Third person: him/her/it them For her, I would do anything. (OP)B. POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS: Possessive pronouns act as adjectives that show ownership. 1. These possessive pronouns act as adjectives showing ownership: Singular Plural Examples: First person: my our My friend found his dog. Second person: your your Their cat sharpened its claws. Third person: his/her/its their Note: Do not confuse the pronoun its with the contraction it’s, which means it is. 2. These possessive pronouns stand for an adjective possessive pronoun plus a noun: Example: That backpack is mine. (“mine” = “my backpack”) Singular Plural Example: First person: mine ours The decision is yours to make. Second person: yours yours (yours = “your decision”) Third person: his/hers theirs
C. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS: Indefinite pronouns are noun substitutes that are not specific (definite) in meaning. 1. Indefinite pronouns fall into two categories: List 1. Pronouns that refer to a non-specific noun: anybody, anyone, anything, everybody, everyone, everything, nobody, none, no one, nothing, somebody, someone, something Example: Nothing gets accomplished without some effort. List 2. Pronouns that refer to a specific noun whose meaning is clear only because of a previous mention or because of words that follow the indefinite pronoun: all, another, any, both, each, either, few, many, neither, one, some, several. Examples: Several are planning to fly to New York. (The identity of the group that is flying to New York would have already been mentioned.) Do you want some of these books? (Books makes clear the meaning of some.) Note: The indefinite pronouns in List 2 function simply as adjectives when they are are directly followed by nouns. Examples: Several students received awards. My mother baked some pies for the picnic.2. Indefinite pronouns may be singular or plural. The verbs (underlined) must match in number. another neither anybody nobody Examples: anyone no one There are four groups of students, anything nothing and each has its own assignment. Singular each one Something unexpected is happening. either somebody everybody something everyone someone everything both Examples: few Both of the documents were signed. Plural many Many in the audience agree with the speaker. several Note: When these indefinite pronouns are followed by a prepositional phrase, the Pronoun should agree in number with the noun that is the object of the preposition. Singular all more Examples: Some of the planning is finished. or Plural any most Some of the apples are ripe. either (depending on none Remember that the verb must agree in number with the noun it some the bolded antecedent. “Planning” takes a stands for) singular verb and “apples” takes a plural verb. 7|Page MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
D. RELATIVE PRONOUNS: A relative pronoun connects (relates) an adjective clause or a noun clause to the rest of the sentence. 1. Relative pronouns that introduce adjective clauses: When a relative pronoun introduces an adjective clause, the pronoun refers to a noun already mentioned in the main clause of thesentence. who whose whom which that Examples (Adjective clauses are underlined): The mystery novel that she recently completed will be published next year. (That refers back to novel and acts as a direct object in the adjective clause.) Healing is more rapid for patients who have a positive attitude. (Who refers back to patients and acts as the subject of the adjective clause.) 2. Relative pronouns that introduce noun clauses: who whom what which whose whoever whomever whatever whichever thatWithin a sentence, a noun clause may function as a subject, complement, appositive, or object of a verb orpreposition. The relative pronoun acts as a subject or object within the noun clause, though the normalword order may be changed. Note: Who and whoever are used as subject pronouns, and whom andwhomever are used as object pronouns. (Noun clauses are underlined.)Examples: Whoever uses the kitchen should wash the dishes. (The noun clause is the subject of the sentence. Whoever is the subject of the noun clause.) The criminal got what he deserved. (The noun clause is the direct object of the verb got. Within the noun clause, what is the direct object of the verb deserved, even though it comes before the verb.)E. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS: An interrogative pronoun introduces a question. who whom what which whose whoever whomever whatever whichever Notice the similarity of this list to the relative pronoun list. Like relative pronouns, interrogative pronouns can have different grammatical functions. As in all questions,the word order may not be normal. Examples: Whose books are those? (adjective modifying books) Whom will Mr. Broder select as head of the committee? (direct object of the verb will select) In which of his two poems does the author express himself most effectively? (object of the preposition in)F. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS: The four demonstrative pronouns point out nouns. They often act as 1.) adjectives, indicating which person(s), places(s), or thing(s) are being referred to or as 2.) noun substitutes when the noun is understood.
this that these those Examples: These problems are easy to solve. (adjective modifying problems) Do you like this wallpaper? (adjective modifying wallpaper) You like these apples, but I prefer those. (These acts as an adjective modifying apples; those acts as a pronoun that stands for the noun apples.)G. INTENSIVE PRONOUNS: Intensive pronouns emphasize nouns or other pronouns. They immediately follow the noun they emphasize. If an intensive pronoun is omitted, the sentence will still make sense grammatically. Singular: myself yourself himself herself itself Plural: ourselves yourselves themselves Examples: The bank president himself called to apologize for the error. (Himself emphasizes president.) She herself was not as concerned as others were about the problem. (Herself emphasizes she.)H. REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS: Reflexive pronouns rename subjects of action verbs. They function as various types of objects. If the reflexive pronoun is omitted, the sentence will not make sense. Note that the following list is the same as the list of intensive pronouns above. Singular: myself yourself himself herself itself Plural: ourselves yourselves themselves Examples: The logger cut himself with his ax. (direct object of the verb cut) Kim poured herself a cup of coffee. (indirect object of the verb cut) The old man was talking loudly to himself. (object of the preposition to)I. RECIPROCAL PRONOUNS: Reciprocal pronouns refer to individual parts of a preceding plural noun. each other one another Examples: The children waved goodbye to each other as they parted. The students helped one another study before the test. ********************************* 9|Page MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
TYPES OF VERBSYou will meet different types of verbs as you learn English grammar. Some people get confused. Dontbe. This page tells you (a) the names of different kinds of verbs and (b) their relationship to each other.The Verbs Role in a SentenceVerbs can be divided according to the job they do in a sentence. The grammar-experts way of sayingthis is that we can divide verbs syntactically. These are the divisions and sub-divisions according tosyntax: Finite Verbs transitive verbs intransitive verbs linking Verbs Non-Finite Verbs infinitives gerunds participles present participle past participle perfect participle Helping Verbs (Auxiliaries) o primary auxiliaries o modal auxiliariesFormation of the Verb-WordWe know that verbs are words, just like any other part of speech. The words that represent the verbsfollow different patterns of spelling or sound. Verbs can, therefore, be divided into various kindsdepending upon how they are formed. Grammarians would call this a morphological division. regular verbs irregular verbs compound verbs phrasal verbsVerbs According to MeaningI have earlier answered the question: what is a verb? There I used this division of verbs according tomeaning to explain what a verb is. Those who know grammar well call this division of verbs a semantic
classification. action words (action verbs) being having FINITE VERBSFinite verbs and non-finite verbs are two broad categories of verbs.Look at these two groups of sentences. Group A Group B I am fond of eating mangoes.I like to sing songs. We are fond of eating mangoes.We like to sing songs. You are fond of eating mangoes.You like to sing songs.He likes to sing songs. He is fond of eating mangoes.She likes to sing songs. She is fond of eating mangoes.Anita likes to sing songs. Antony is fond of eating mangoes.They like to sing songs. They are fond of eating mangoes.In sentences in Group A, we have the verbs like and sing. The verb like takes on different forms (like,likes) in the six sentences in the group. The verb sing has the same unchangeable form to sing in all thesentences.So, in group 1, we have one verb which changes and the other which does not change.In the sentences in Group B, we have a similar thing. We have the verb be in different forms (am, is, are)and the unchangeable verb form eating of the verb eat.So in group 2, we have again one changing verb and the other an unchanging verb.What are Finite Verbs?The verb like in group A and the verb be in group B are verbs which change. The reason these verbschange their forms must surely be because of the words I, we, you, he, she, Anita, they...since it is clearthat all other words within the same group of sentences are the same.These verbs which change according to words I, we, you, he, she, Anita, and they, are called FiniteVerbs. The word finite means limited. Since the words I, we, you, he, etc., can make these verbschange, the power of these verbs must be limited indeed! This idea will help us to remember what theseverbs are.What are Non-finite Verbs?They are verbs which do not change. In group A above, the verb to sing and in group B, the verb eatingare non-finite verbs of two different types. No word in a sentence can impose a change on these verbs. Isuppose, that is why we call them non-finite, which means not limited by other words in a sentence. 11 | P a g e MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
Verbs of this type are... the infinitive, the gerund, and the participle.Are Finite Verbs Necessary?Yes. Every sentence in English needs such a verb. It is an essential part of a sentence. You may findsentences in which a noun or a pronoun is missing (because its hidden), but you dont usually find asentence in which a finite verb is missing.What are their types?They may be transitive, intransitive or linking. In a sentence you can have any one of these types.What is there to learn about them?About these verbs we need to understand important things like: • agreement with the subject; • tense; • aspect; • voice; and • mood.We can think of these as properties of the verb or as "rules" which finite verbs obey. They are obedientand reliable verbs!Non-finite verbs are the wayward ones. Though they are born in the verb family, the non-finites often actlike nouns, and sometimes like adjectives or adverbs. TRANSITIVE VERBA transitive verb is a type of finite verb. A finite verb is considered transitive or intransitive dependingupon its relationship with some other words in the sentence. Another way of saying this is that thedivision into transitive and intransitive is based on syntax.What is a transitive verb?Look at these sentences. 1. He met her yesterday. 2. She wrote a story last year. 3. Rust destroys iron.In these sentences, the verbs are the words met, wrote and destroys. In each sentence, you ask the
question , met whom/what? You will get the answers as follows: • sentence 1 — question: met whom? — answer: her • sentence 2 — question: wrote what? — answer: story • sentence 3 — question: destroys what? — answer: iron(note that we use whom in the questions for human beings and what for things and also for animals.)The words her, story and iron in the sentences above are called objects in grammar.A transitive verb is, therefore, a verb which has an object.What is an object?An object, we may say, is the aim or purpose or destination or target of a verbs action. In our threeexample-sentences above, the verbs met, wrote and destroys have the words her, story and iron as theirtargets. These targets are called objects. With a transitive verb, we can expect these objects.Why do we use the word transitive?We call these verbs transitive because these verbs have the property of transitivity.What is transitivity?To transit means to pass through. Each of the verbs met, wrote and destroys in our examples has itsaction conveyed (carried) to the object. We might also say that the action begins with the subject (he, she,rust in our sentences) and passes through the verb to the object. This property of the verb is transitivity.Hence we call these verbs transitive.Understanding these verbs in this way helps us to remember what they are.Heres a list of transitive verbs.eat, drink, read, write, play, see, hear, answer, buy, find, love, like, understand, catch, bring, sing, meet,give, take, get, forget, buy, sell, pay, help.Here are some of these verbs used in sentences.Sentence verb object(a) The teacher answered the question. answered question(b) My friend bought a house. bought house(c) The children found the money. found money(d) Most Indians love cricket. love cricket(e) Keralites like football. like footballWhat is an intransitive verb? 13 | P a g e MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
Simple, I suppose. It is a verb which is not transitive—a verb which does not take an object. Here aresome examples along with some sentences.walk, jump, sleep, sit, lie, stand, weep, kneel, fall, fly, flow,remain, die, belong, wait, come, go.(a) We walk to the railway station.(b) The children jump with joy.(c) Babies sleep for many hours.(d) My brother stood there.(e) Jesus wept.Some ExceptionsYou will often find transitive verbs used intransitively, i.e. without an object. • They are eating. • We play in the evening. • I understand.At rare times intransitive verbs are used transitively. How did you cover all that distance? We walked it. (walked has the object it in this sentence) I cannot stand such nonsense. (stand has the object nonsense in this sentence)Besides transitive and intransitive verbs, we have linking verbs in the finite verbs family.What are Non-finite Verbs?They are verbs which do not change. In group A above, the verb to sing and in group B, the verb eatingare non-finite verbs of two different types. No word in a sentence can impose a change on these verbs. Isuppose, that is why we call them non-finite, which means not limited by other words in a sentence.Verbs of this type are... the infinitive, the gerund, and the participle.Are Finite Verbs Necessary?Yes. Every sentence in English needs such a verb. It is an essential part of a sentence. You may findsentences in which a noun or a pronoun is missing (because its hidden), but you dont usually find asentence in which a finite verb is missing.What are their types?They may be transitive, intransitive or linking. In a sentence you can have any one of these types.What is there to learn about them?About these verbs we need to understand important things like:
agreement with the subject; tense; aspect; voice; and mood.We can think of these as properties of the verb or as "rules" which finite verbs obey. They are obedientand reliable verbs!Non-finite verbs are the wayward ones. Though they are born in the verb family, the non-finites oftenactlike nouns, and sometimes like adjectives or adverbs. 15 | P a g e MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
GERUNDSA gerund is a verbal that ends in -ing and functions as a noun. The term verbal indicates that a gerund,like the other two kinds of verbals, is based on a verb and therefore expresses action or a state of being.However, since a gerund functions as a noun, it occupies some positions in a sentence that a nounordinarily would, for example: subject, direct object, subject complement, and object of preposition.Gerund as subject: Traveling might satisfy your desire for new experiences. (Traveling is the gerund.) The study abroad program might satisfy your desire for new experiences. (The gerund has been removed.)Gerund as direct object: They do not appreciate my singing. (The gerund is singing.) They do not appreciate my assistance. (The gerund has been removed)Gerund as subject complement: My cats favorite activity is sleeping. (The gerund is sleeping.) My cats favorite food is salmon. (The gerund has been removed.)Gerund as object of preposition: The police arrested him for speeding. (The gerund is speeding.) The police arrested him for criminal activity. (The gerund has been removed.)A Gerund Phrase is a group of words consisting of a gerund and the modifier(s) and/or (pro)noun(s) ornoun phrase(s) that function as the direct object(s), indirect object(s), or complement(s) of the action orstate expressed in the gerund, such as: • THE GERUND PHRASE FUNCTIONS AS THE SUBJECT OF THE SENTENCE. Finding a needle in a haystack would be easier than what were trying to do. Finding (gerund) a needle (direct object of action expressed in gerund) in a haystack (prepositional phrase as adverb) • THE GERUND PHRASE FUNCTIONS AS THE DIRECT OBJECT OF THE VERB APPRECIATE. I hope that you appreciate my offering you this opportunity. my (possessive pronoun adjective form, modifying the gerund) offering (gerund) you (indirect object of action expressed in gerund) this opportunity (direct object of action expressed in gerund) • The gerund phrase functions as the subject complement. Newts favorite tactic has been lying to his constituents. lying to (gerund) his constituents (direct object of action expressed in gerund) • The gerund phrase functions as the object of the preposition for.
You might get in trouble for faking an illness to avoid work. faking (gerund) an illness (direct object of action expressed in gerund) to avoid work (infinitive phrase as adverb) • The gerund phrase functions as the subject of the sentence. Being the boss made Jeff feel uneasy. Being (gerund) the boss (subject complement for Jeff, via state of being expressed in gerund) • Points to remember: 1. A gerund is a verbal ending in -ing that is used as a noun. 2. A gerund phrase consists of a gerund plus modifier(s), object(s), and/or complement(s). 3. Gerunds and gerund phrases virtually never require punctuation.GERUNDS AND INFINITIVESUse of the gerundas the subject of a sentence Buying Rover was a big mistake for BMW.as the object after certain verbs* Most people enjoy driving.after certain verbs + prepositions I look forward to hearing from you soon.after certain adjectives + prepositions Hes not very good at managing people.after certain nouns + prepositions Well have no difficulty in selling the product.after verbs of perception (action going on) I saw him staggering down the road towards the pub.*Verb + gerund: avoid, cant help, deny, dread, enjoy, (cant) face, fancy, feel like. finish, give up,imagine, keep (on), mind, miss, postpone, practise, put off, resent, risk, spend time, (cant) stand, suggestUse of the infinitivea) without to after modal auxiliaries We cant raise the prices by more than 5%. make and let My boss wouldnt let me leave early. She made me do overtime. verbs of perception I saw him open the safe and help himself to the money. (completed action)b) with to after adjectives Im sorry, but Im not ready to go yet. certain verbs* She wants to find a job in marketing after shes graduated. question words Can you tell me where to park my car? the first/last/only Henry Ford was the first to use flow production in a car factory. adjectives + for Until then cars had been too expensive for most people to buy.*Verb + infinitive with to: afford, agree, aim, dare, decide, expect, fail, happen, hope, manage, mean,offer, prepare, pretend, promise, refuse, seem, threaten, want, wish 17 | P a g e MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
Gerund or infinitive - little difference in meaningI began to play the piano when I was six. I began playing the piano when I was six.We must continue to look for new staff. We must continue looking for new staff.After some verbs (begin, start, continue, like, love, hate, intend and prefer) you can usually use either agerund or an infinitive. There is practically no difference in meaning.Exception: After would/should + like/love, only the infinitive can be used.GERUND OR INFINITIVE - IMPORTANT DIFFERENCE IN MEANING Ive stopped smoking. The activity (smoking) stops. We stopped to smoke a cigarette. The activity is the reason for stopping. I remember playing with Lego. The activity or event has already Ill never forget driving into that brick happened. wall. I regret not learning Latin. Remember to take back those library The activity has not yet happened. It books. can or is/was supposed to be done. She forgot to lock the door. We regret to say that we are unable to help you. I didnt mean to interrupt. to intend to A 7.45 lesson means getting up early. to have as a result/an effect They tried giving him penicillin, but it to test something to see if it works had no effect. I tried to lift the crate, but it was too to attempt something difficult heavy. **************************
PARTICIPLESA participle is a verbal that is used as an adjective and most often ends in -ing or -ed. The term verbalindicates that a participle, like the other two kinds of verbals, is based on a verb and therefore expressesaction or a state of being. However, since they function as adjectives, participles modify nouns orpronouns. There are two types of participles: present participles and past participles. Present participlesend in -ing. Past participles end in -ed, -en, -d, -t, or -n, as in the words asked, eaten, saved, dealt, andseen. The crying baby had a wet diaper. Shaken, he walked away from the wrecked car. The burning log fell off the fire. Smiling, she hugged the panting dog.A participial phrase is a group of words consisting of a participle and the modifier(s) and/or (pro)noun(s)or noun phrase(s) that function as the direct object(s), indirect object(s), or complement(s) of the action orstate expressed in the participle, such as:Removing his coat, Jack rushed to the river. • The participial phrase functions as an adjective modifying Jack. Removing (participle) his coat (direct object of action expressed in participle)Delores noticed her cousin walking along the shoreline. • The participial phrase functions as an adjective modifying cousin. walking (participle) along the shoreline (prepositional phrase as adverb)Children introduced to music early develop strong intellectual skills. • The participial phrase functions as an adjective modifying children. introduced (to) (participle) music (direct object of action expressed in participle) early (adverb) Having been a gymnast, Lynn knew the importance of exercise. • The participial phrase functions as an adjective modifying Lynn. Having been (participle) a gymnast (subject complement for Lynn, via state of being expressed in participle)Placement: In order to prevent confusion, a participial phrase must be placed as close to the noun itmodifies as possible, and the noun must be clearly stated. Carrying a heavy pile of books, his foot caught on a step. * Carrying a heavy pile of books, he caught his foot on a step.In the first sentence there is no clear indication of who or what is performing the action expressed in theparticiple carrying. Certainly foot cant be logically understood to function in this way. This situation is anexample of a dangling modifier error since the modifier (the participial phrase) is not modifying anyspecific noun in the sentence and is thus left "dangling." Since a person must be doing the carrying for thesentence to make sense, a noun or pronoun that refers to a person must be in the place immediately after 19 | P a g e MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
the participial phrase, as in the second sentence.Punctuation: When a participial phrase begins a sentence, a comma should be placed after the phrase. Arriving at the store, I found that it was closed. Washing and polishing the car, Frank developed sore muscles.If the participle or participial phrase comes in the middle of a sentence, it should be set off with commasonly if the information is not essential to the meaning of the sentence. Sid, watching an old movie, drifted in and out of sleep. The church, destroyed by a fire, was never rebuilt.Note that if the participial phrase is essential to the meaning of the sentence, no commas should be used: The student earning the highest grade point average will receive a special award. The guy wearing the chicken costume is my cousin.If a participial phrase comes at the end of a sentence, a comma usually precedes the phrase if it modifiesan earlier word in the sentence but not if the phrase directly follows the word it modifies. The local residents often saw Ken wandering through the streets.(The phrase modifies Ken, not residents.) Tom nervously watched the woman, alarmed by her silence.(The phrase modifies Tom, not woman.)Points to remember 1. A participle is a verbal ending in -ing (present) or -ed, -en, -d, -t, or -n (past) that functions as an adjective, modifying a noun or pronoun. 2. A participial phrase consists of a participle plus modifier(s), object(s), and/or complement(s). 3. Participles and participial phrases must be placed as close to the nouns or pronouns they modify as possible, and those nouns or pronouns must be clearly stated. 4. A participial phrase is set off with commas when it: a) comes at the beginning of a sentence b) interrupts a sentence as a nonessential element c) comes at the end of a sentence and is separated from the word it modifies.
COMPARATIVES & SUPERLATIVESWe use Comparatives and Superlatives to compare two or more nouns.The formation of the comparative and superlative depends on the number of syllables in the adjective:One-syllable AdjectivesTo form the comparative, we add -er to the end of the adjective.To form the superlative, we add -est to the end of the adjective. Adjective Comparative Superlative small smaller the smallest cold colder the coldest light lighter the lightest short shorter the shortestRemember that comparatives are often followed by than. London is bigger than Santiago. Mike is taller than John but James is the tallest.Two-syllable Adjectives ending in -YTo form the comparative, we remove the -y and add -ier to the end of the adjective.To form the superlative, we remove the -y and add -iest to the end of the adjective. Adjective Comparative Superlative crazy crazier the craziest happy happier the happiest early earlier the earliest It was the happiest day of my life. My joke was funnier than your one.Adjectives with Two or more SyllablesFor Adjectives with 2 syllables (that dont end in -y) and higher (3, 4 syllables etc), we use more forcomparatives and the most for superlatives. 21 | P a g e MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
Adjective Comparative Superlative handsome more handsome the most handsome nervous more nervous the most nervous enthusiastic more enthusiastic the most enthusiastic My girlfriend is more beautiful than yours. Alex is more intelligent than you but I am the most intelligent.Irregular Forms Adjective Comparative Superlative good better the best bad worse the worst far further / farther the furthest / farthest I am a better tennis player than you but Marcelo is the best. Steve is a worse liar than me but Adrian is the worst.Note: Further / farther, furthest / farthest are all used for distance.Only Further / furthest are used to mean additional or more advanced. Puerto Montt is further / farther than Valdivia is from here (in Santiago). If you require further information, please contact reception.Remember that the opposites of more and most are less and least, respectively.
MUCH - MANY - LOT - FEWWe use these words as quantifiers that come at the start of noun phrases and they tell us something aboutquantity.A lot of vs. Lots ofA lot of and lots of are used to express that there is a large quantity of something.We use a lot of in positive sentences, negative sentences and questions. This expression can be used withcountable or uncountable nouns. There are a lot of dogs in the street. (Countable noun) I have a lot of time to answer your questions. (Uncountable noun) I saw a lot of people waiting in the queue. (Countable) We did have a lot of fun, didnt we? (Uncountable)We use lots of in positive and negative sentences, however it is more informal. It can be used withcountable or uncountable nouns, and occasionally in questions. We have lots of time to catch the plane, lets relax. (Uncountable noun) There are lots of people in the queue today. (Countable) Oh my, you have spent lots of money on clothes! (Uncountable) I have lots of questions. (Countable)She has a lot of money = She has lots of moneyMuch vs. Many • Much and Many are used to express that there is a large quantity of something. • Much and Many are used in negative sentences and questions. Many is used with countable nouns Much is used with uncountable nouns. I dont have many CDs in my collection. (Countable noun) They dont have much money to buy a present. (Uncountable noun) How many brothers do you have? (Countable noun) Is there much milk in the fridge? (Uncountable noun)Note: we dont use Much and Many in positive sentences, we use a lot of or lots of.I have much money. (Incorrect because the sentence is positive / affirmative)I have a lot of money. (Correct)Few vs. LittleWe use Few and Little to suggest a small quantity.Few is used with countable nounsLittle is used with uncountable nouns. There are only a few days left until Christmas. (Countable noun) There is little hope of finding your wallet. (Uncountable noun)While Few and Little usually have positive meanings, very few and very little have negative meanings. He is sad because he has very few friends. (Countable noun) 23 | P a g e MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
They have very little knowledge about politics. (Uncountable noun)
TENSES & USAGE SIMPLE PRESENTFORM: [VERB] + s/es in third personExamples: • You speak English. • Do you speak English? • You do not speak English.Complete List of Simple Present FormsUSE 1 Repeated ActionsUse the Simple Present to express the idea that an action is repeated or usual. The action can be a habit, ahobby, a daily event, a scheduled event or something that often happens. It can also be something aperson often forgets or usually does not do.Examples: • She does not play tennis. • The train leaves every morning at 8 AM. • The train does not leave at 9 AM. • When does the train usually leave? • She always forgets her purse. • He never forgets his wallet. • Every twelve months, the Earth circles the Sun. • Does the Sun circle the Earth?USE 2: Facts or GeneralizationsThe Simple Present can also indicate the speaker believes that a fact was true before, is true now, and willbe true in the future. It is not important if the speaker is correct about the fact. It is also used to makegeneralizations about people or things.Examples: • Cats like milk. • Birds do not like milk. • California is in America. • California is not in the United Kingdom. • Windows are made of glass. • Windows are not made of wood. 25 | P a g e MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
• New York is a small city. IT IS NOT IMPORTANT THAT THIS FACT IS UNTRUE.USE 3: Scheduled Events in the Near FutureSpeakers occasionally use Simple Present to talk about scheduled events in the near future. This is mostcommonly done when talking about public transportation, but it can be used with other scheduled eventsas well.Examples: • The train leaves tonight at 6 PM. • The bus does not arrive at 11 AM, it arrives at 11 PM. • When do we board the plane? • The party starts at 8 oclock. • When does class begin tomorrow?USE 4 : Now (Non-Continuous Verbs)Speakers sometimes use the Simple Present to express the idea that an action is happening or is nothappening now. This can only be done with Non-Continuous Verbs and certain Mixed Verbs.Examples: • I am here now. • She is not here now. • He needs help right now. • He does not need help now. • He has his passport in his hand. • Do you have your passport with you?ADVERB PLACEMENTThe examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still,just, etc.Examples: • You only speak English. •Do you only speak English?ACTIVE / PASSIVEExamples: • Once a week, Tom cleans the car. ACTIVE • Once a week, the car is cleaned by Tom. PASSIVE Present Continuous
FORM[am/is/are + present participle]Examples: • You are watching TV. • Are you watching TV? • You are not watching TV.Complete List of Present Continuous FormsUSE 1 NowUse the Present Continuous with Normal Verbs to express the idea that something is happening now, atthis very moment. It can also be used to show that something is not happening now.Examples: • You are learning English now. • You are not swimming now. • Are you sleeping? • I am sitting. • I am not standing. • Is he sitting or standing? • They are reading their books. • They are not watching television. • What are you doing? • Why arent you doing your homework?USE 2 Longer Actions in Progress NowIn English, "now" can mean: this second, today, this month, this year, this century, and so on. Sometimes,we use the Present Continuous to say that we are in the process of doing a longer action which is inprogress; however, we might not be doing it at this exact second.Examples: (All of these sentences can be said while eating dinner in a restaurant.) • I am studying to become a doctor. • I am not studying to become a dentist. • I am reading the book Tom Sawyer. • I am not reading any books right now. • Are you working on any special projects at work? 27 | P a g e MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
• Arent you teaching at the university now?USE 3 Near FutureSometimes, speakers use the Present Continuous to indicate that something will or will not happen in thenear future.Examples: • I am meeting some friends after work. • I am not going to the party tonight. • Is he visiting his parents next weekend? • Isnt he coming with us tonight?USE 4 Repetition and Irritation with "Always"The Present Continuous with words such as "always" or "constantly" expresses the idea that somethingirritating or shocking often happens. Notice that the meaning is like Simple Present, but with negativeemotion. Remember to put the words "always" or "constantly" between "be" and "verb+ing."Examples: • She is always coming to class late. • He is constantly talking. I wish he would shut up. •I dont like them because they are always complaining.REMEMBER Non-Continuous Verbs/ Mixed VerbsIt is important to remember that Non-Continuous Verbs cannot be used in any continuous tenses. Also,certain non-continuous meanings for Mixed Verbs cannot be used in continuous tenses. Instead of usingPresent Continuous with these verbs, you must use Simple Present.Examples: • She is loving this chocolate ice cream. Not Correct •She loves this chocolate ice cream. CorrectADVERB PLACEMENTThe examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still,just, etc.Examples: • You are still watching TV. • Are you still watching TV?ACTIVE / PASSIVEExamples: • Right now, Tom is writing the letter. ACTIVE
• Right now, the letter is being written by Tom. PASSIVE Present Perfect TenseThe Present Perfect Tense is formed using the following structure:Affirmative: Subject + Have/Has + Past ParticipleNegative: Subject + Havent/Hasnt + Past ParticipleQuestion: Have/Has + Subject + Past ParticipleAffirmative Sentences Past Subject Have Rest of the Sentence Participle I have studied for the exam. You have bought a new computer. He has eaten my chocolate.Negative SentencesThe contraction of the perfect tense in negative form is:Have not = HaventHas not = Hasnt Subjec Past Have Rest of the Sentence t Participle I havent studied for the exam. You havent bought a new computer. He hasnt eaten my chocolate.Questions Subjec Past Have Rest of the Sentence t Participle Have I been chosen for the team? 29 | P a g e MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
Have you bought a new car? Has he eaten my sandwich?When do we use the Present Perfect Tense?1. Unspecified point in the pastI have been to Spain three times.(At some unspecified time in the past, I went to Spain).Compare with the simple past:I went to Spain three times in 2005.(specified time in the past - the year 2005)2. An action that occurred in the past, but has a result in the present (now)We cant find our luggage. Have you seen it?(The luggage was lost in the past, do you know where it is now?)3. Talking about general experiences (ever, never)It usually refers to an event happening at some moment in your life. • Has she ever tried Chilean wine before? (in her life) • Ive never eaten monkey brains before. (in my life)4. Events that recently occurred (just)Do you want to go to a restaurant with me?No, thanks. Ive just eaten lunch. (I recently ate lunch.)5. Events that have occurred up to now (yet) • Are Carlos and Rodrigo here? No, they havent arrived yet. (theyre still not here now)6. Events that occurred before you expected (already) • Ive already graduated from University. (I expected to graduate at a later date.)7. Events that began in the past and haven’t changed (for, since)Mike has worked at Woodward for 3 years.(Mike started working at Woodward 3 years ago and he still works there now.)Julie has worked at Woodward since September of last year.(Julie began working at Woodward in September of last year, and that hasnt changed - she still workshere now.) PRESENT PERFECTFORM[has/have + past participle]Examples: • You have seen that movie many times. • Have you seen that movie many times?
• You have not seen that movie many times.Complete List of Present Perfect FormsUSE 1 Unspecified Time Before NowWe use the Present Perfect to say that an action happened at an unspecified time before now. The exacttime is not important. You CANNOT use the Present Perfect with specific time expressions such as:yesterday, one year ago, last week, when I was a child, when I lived in Japan, at that moment, that day,one day, etc. We CAN use the Present Perfect with unspecific expressions such as: ever, never, once,many times, several times, before, so far, already, yet, etc.Examples: • I have seen that movie twenty times. • I think I have met him once before. • There have been many earthquakes in California. • People have traveled to the Moon. • People have not traveled to Mars. • Have you read the book yet? • Nobody has ever climbed that mountain.A: Has there ever been a war in the United States?B: Yes, there has been a war in the United States.How Do You Actually Use the Present Perfect?The concept of "unspecified time" can be very confusing to English learners. It is best to associate PresentPerfect with the following topics:TOPIC 1 ExperienceYou can use the Present Perfect to describe your experience. It is like saying, "I have the experience of..."You can also use this tense to say that you have never had a certain experience. The Present Perfect isNOT used to describe a specific event.Examples:I have been to France.THIS SENTENCE MEANS THAT YOU HAVE HAD THE EXPERIENCE OF BEING IN FRANCE. MAYBE YOU HAVE BEEN THERE ONCE, ORSEVERAL TIMES.I have been to France three times.YOU CAN ADD THE NUMBER OF TIMES AT THE END OF THE SENTENCE.I have never been to France.THIS SENTENCE MEANS THAT YOU HAVE NOT HAD THE EXPERIENCE OF GOING TO FRANCE.I think I have seen that movie before.He has never traveled by train.Joan has studied two foreign languages.A: Have you ever met him? 31 | P a g e MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
B: No, I have not met him.TOPIC 2 Change Over TimeWe often use the Present Perfect to talk about change that has happened over a period of time.Examples: • You have grown since the last time I saw you. • The government has become more interested in arts education. • Japanese has become one of the most popular courses at the university since the Asian studies program was established. • My English has really improved since I moved to Australia.TOPIC 3 AccomplishmentsWe often use the Present Perfect to list the accomplishments of individuals and humanity. You cannotmention a specific time.Examples: • Man has walked on the Moon. • Our son has learned how to read. • Doctors have cured many deadly diseases. • Scientists have split the atom.TOPIC 4 An Uncompleted Action You Are ExpectingWe often use the Present Perfect to say that an action which we expected has not happened. Using thePresent Perfect suggests that we are still waiting for the action to happen.Examples: • James has not finished his homework yet. • Susan hasnt mastered Japanese, but she can communicate. • Bill has still not arrived. • The rain hasnt stopped.TOPIC 5 Multiple Actions at Different TimesWe also use the Present Perfect to talk about several different actions which have occurred in the past atdifferent times. Present Perfect suggests the process is not complete and more actions are possible.Examples: • The army has attacked that city five times. • I have had four quizzes and five tests so far this semester. • We have had many major problems while working on this project. • She has talked to several specialists about her problem, but nobody knows why she is sick.Time Expressions with Present PerfectWhen we use the Present Perfect it means that something has happened at some point in our lives beforenow. Remember, the exact time the action happened is not important.
Sometimes, we want to limit the time we are looking in for an experience. We can do this withexpressions such as: in the last week, in the last year, this week, this month, so far, up to now, etc.Examples: • Have you been to Mexico in the last year? • I have seen that movie six times in the last month. • They have had three tests in the last week. • She graduated from university less than three years ago. She has worked for three different companies so far. •My car has broken down three times this week.NOTICE"Last year" and "in the last year" are very different in meaning. "Last year" means the year before now,and it is considered a specific time which requires Simple Past. "In the last year" means from 365 daysago until now. It is not considered a specific time, so it requires Present Perfect.Examples: I went to Mexico last year. I WENT TO MEXICO IN THE CALENDAR YEAR BEFORE THIS ONE. I have been to Mexico in the last year. I HAVE BEEN TO MEXICO AT LEAST ONCE AT SOME POINT BETWEEN 365 DAYS AGO AND NOW.USE 2 Duration From the Past Until Now (Non-Continuous Verbs)With Non-Continuous Verbs and non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, we use the Present Perfect toshow that something started in the past and has continued up until now. "For five minutes," "for twoweeks," and "since Tuesday" are all durations which can be used with the Present Perfect.Examples: • I have had a cold for two weeks. • She has been in England for six months. • Mary has loved chocolate since she was a little girl.Although the above use of Present Perfect is normally limited to Non-Continuous Verbs and non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, the words "live," "work," "teach," and "study" are sometimes used inthis way even though they are NOT Non-Continuous Verbs.ADVERB PLACEMENTThe examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still,just, etc.Examples: 33 | P a g e MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
• You have only seen that movie one time. • Have you only seen that movie one time?ACTIVE / PASSIVEExamples: Many tourists have visited that castle. ACTIVE That castle has been visited by many tourists. PASSIVE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUSFORM [has/have + been + present participle]Examples: • You have been waiting here for two hours. • Have you been waiting here for two hours? • You have not been waiting here for two hours.Complete List of Present Perfect Continuous FormsUSE 1 Duration from the Past Until NowWe use the Present Perfect Continuous to show that something started in the past and has continued upuntil now. "For five minutes," "for two weeks," and "since Tuesday" are all durations which can be usedwith the Present Perfect Continuous.Examples: • They have been talking for the last hour. • She has been working at that company for three years. • What have you been doing for the last 30 minutes? • James has been teaching at the university since June. • We have been waiting here for over two hours! • Why has Nancy not been taking her medicine for the last three days?USE 2 Recently, LatelyYou can also use the Present Perfect Continuous WITHOUT a duration such as "for two weeks." Withoutthe duration, the tense has a more general meaning of "lately." We often use the words "lately" or"recently" to emphasize this meaning.Examples: • Recently, I have been feeling really tired. • She has been watching too much television lately. • Have you been exercising lately? • Mary has been feeling a little depressed.
• Lisa has not been practicing her English. • What have you been doing?IMPORTANTRemember that the Present Perfect Continuous has the meaning of "lately" or "recently." If you use thePresent Perfect Continuous in a question such as "Have you been feeling alright?", it can suggest that theperson looks sick or unhealthy. A question such as "Have you been smoking?" can suggest that you smellthe smoke on the person. Using this tense in a question suggests you can see, smell, hear or feel theresults of the action. It is possible to insult someone by using this tense incorrectly.REMEMBER Non-Continuous Verbs/ Mixed VerbsIt is important to remember that Non-Continuous Verbs cannot be used in any continuous tenses. Also,certain non-continuous meanings for Mixed Verbs cannot be used in continuous tenses. Instead of usingPresent Perfect Continuous with these verbs, you must use Present Perfect.Examples: • Sam has been having his car for two years. Not Correct •Sam has had his car for two years. CorrectADVERB PLACEMENTThe examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still,just, etc.Examples: • You have only been waiting here for one hour. • Have you only been waiting here for one hour?ACTIVE / PASSIVEExamples: • Recently, John has been doing the work. ACTIVE • Recently, the work has been being done by John. PASSIVE 35 | P a g e MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
Simple PastFORM[VERB+ed] or irregular verbsExamples: • You called Debbie. • Did you call Debbie? • You did not call Debbie.Complete List of Simple Past FormsUSE 1 Completed Action in the PastUse the Simple Past to express the idea that an action started and finished at a specific time in the past.Sometimes, the speaker may not actually mention the specific time, but they do have one specific time inmind.Examples: • I saw a movie yesterday. • I didnt see a play yesterday. • Last year, I traveled to Japan. • Last year, I didnt travel to Korea. • Did you have dinner last night? • She washed her car. • He didnt wash his car.USE 2 A Series of Completed ActionsWe use the Simple Past to list a series of completed actions in the past. These actions happen 1st, 2nd,3rd, 4th, and so on.Examples: • I finished work, walked to the beach, and found a nice place to swim. • He arrived from the airport at 8:00, checked into the hotel at 9:00, and met the others at 10:00. • Did you add flour, pour in the milk, and then add the eggs?USE 3 Duration in PastThe Simple Past can be used with a duration which starts and stops in the past. A duration is a longeraction often indicated by expressions such as: for two years, for five minutes, all day, all year, etc.Examples:
• I lived in Brazil for two years. • Shauna studied Japanese for five years. • They sat at the beach all day. • They did not stay at the party the entire time. • We talked on the phone for thirty minutes.A: How long did you wait for them?B: We waited for one hour.USE 4 Habits in the PastThe Simple Past can also be used to describe a habit which stopped in the past. It can have the samemeaning as "used to." To make it clear that we are talking about a habit, we often add expressions suchas: always, often, usually, never, when I was a child, when I was younger, etc.Examples: • I studied French when I was a child. • He played the violin. • He didnt play the piano. • Did you play a musical instrument when you were a kid? • She worked at the movie theater after school. • They never went to school, they always skipped class.USE 5 Past Facts or GeneralizationsThe Simple Past can also be used to describe past facts or generalizations which are no longer true. As inUSE 4 above, this use of the Simple Past is quite similar to the expression "used to."Examples: • She was shy as a child, but now she is very outgoing. • He didnt like tomatoes before. • Did you live in Texas when you were a kid? •People paid much more to make cell phone calls in the past.IMPORTANT When-Clauses Happen FirstClauses are groups of words which have meaning but are often not complete sentences. Some clausesbegin with the word "when" such as "when I dropped my pen..." or "when class began..." These clausesare called when-clauses, and they are very important. The examples below contain when-clauses.Examples: • When I paid her one dollar, she answered my question. • She answered my question when I paid her one dollar.When-clauses are important because they always happen first when both clauses are in the Simple Past. 37 | P a g e MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
Both of the examples above mean the same thing: first, I paid her one dollar, and then, she answered myquestion. It is not important whether "when I paid her one dollar" is at the beginning of the sentence or atthe end of the sentence. However, the example below has a different meaning. First, she answered myquestion, and then, I paid her one dollar.Example: • I paid her one dollar when she answered my question.ADVERB PLACEMENTThe examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still,just, etc.Examples: • You just called Debbie. •Did you just call Debbie?ACTIVE / PASSIVEExamples: • Tom repaired the car. ACTIVE • The car was repaired by Tom. PASSIVE
Past Continuous Tense FORM [was/were + present participle]Examples: • You were studying when she called. • Were you studying when she called? • You were not studying when she called.USE 1- Interrupted Action in the PastUse the Past Continuous to indicate that a longer action in the past was interrupted. The interruption isusually a shorter action in the Simple Past. Remember this can be a real interruption or just aninterruption in time.Examples: • I was watching TV when she called. • When the phone rang, she was writing a letter. • While we were having the picnic, it started to rain. • What were you doing when the earthquake started? • I was listening to my iPod, so I didnt hear the fire alarm. • You were not listening to me when I told you to turn the oven off. • While John was sleeping last night, someone stole his car. • Sammy was waiting for us when we got off the plane. • While I was writing the email, the computer suddenly went off.A: What were you doing when you broke your leg?B: I was snowboarding.USE 2 Specific Time as an InterruptionIn USE 1, described above, the Past Continuous is interrupted by a shorter action in the Simple Past.However, you can also use a specific time as an interruption.Examples: • Last night at 6 PM, I was eating dinner. • At midnight, we were still driving through the desert. •Yesterday at this time, I was sitting at my desk at work.IMPORTANTIn the Simple Past, a specific time is used to show when an action began or finished. In the PastContinuous, a specific time only interrupts the action.Examples:Last night at 6 PM, I ate dinner. 39 | P a g e MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
I STARTED EATING AT 6 PM.Last night at 6 PM, I was eating dinner.I STARTED EARLIER; AND AT 6 PM, I WAS IN THE PROCESS OF EATING DINNER.USE 3 Parallel ActionsWhen you use the Past Continuous with two actions in the same sentence, it expresses the idea that bothactions were happening at the same time. The actions are parallel.Examples: • I was studying while he was making dinner. • While Ellen was reading, Tim was watching television. • Were you listening while he was talking? • I wasnt paying attention while I was writing the letter, so I made several mistakes. • What were you doing while you were waiting? • Thomas wasnt working, and I wasnt working either. • They were eating dinner, discussing their plans, and having a good time.USE 4 AtmosphereIn English, we often use a series of parallel actions to describe the atmosphere at a particular time in thepast.Example: • When I walked into the office, several people were busily typing, some were talking on the phones, the boss was yelling directions, and customers were waiting to be helped. One customer was yelling at a secretary and waving his hands. Others were complaining to each other about the bad service.USE 5 Repetition and Irritation with "Always"The Past Continuous with words such as "always" or "constantly" expresses the idea that somethingirritating or shocking often happened in the past. The concept is very similar to the expression "used to"but with negative emotion. Remember to put the words "always" or "constantly" between "be" and"verb+ing."Examples: • She was always coming to class late. • He was constantly talking. He annoyed everyone. • I didnt like them because they were always complaining.While vs. WhenClauses are groups of words which have meaning, but are often not complete sentences. Some clausesbegin with the word "when" such as "when she called" or "when it bit me." Other clauses begin with"while" such as "while she was sleeping" and "while he was surfing." When you talk about things in thepast, "when" is most often followed by the verb tense Simple Past, whereas "while" is usually followed
by Past Continuous. "While" expresses the idea of "during that time." Study the examples below. Theyhave similar meanings, but they emphasize different parts of the sentence.Examples: • I was studying when she called. •While I was studying, she called.REMEMBER Non-Continuous Verbs / Mixed VerbsIt is important to remember that Non-Continuous Verbs cannot be used in any continuous tenses. Also,certain non-continuous meanings for Mixed Verbs cannot be used in continuous tenses. Instead of usingPast Continuous with these verbs, you must use Simple Past.Examples: • Jane was being at my house when you arrived. Not Correct •Jane was at my house when you arrived. CorrectADVERB PLACEMENTThe examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still,just, etc.Examples: • You were just studying when she called. • Were you just studying when she called?ACTIVE / PASSIVEExamples: • The salesman was helping the customer when the thief came into the store. ACTIVE • The customer was being helped by the salesman when the thief came into the store. PASSIVE 41 | P a g e MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
PAST PERFECTFORM[had + past participle]Examples: • You had studied English before you moved to New York. • Had you studied English before you moved to New York? • You had not studied English before you moved to New York.Complete List of Past Perfect FormsUSE 1 Completed Action Before Something in the PastThe Past Perfect expresses the idea that something occurred before another action in the past. It can alsoshow that something happened before a specific time in the past.Examples: • I had never seen such a beautiful beach before I went to Kauai. • I did not have any money because I had lost my wallet. • Tony knew Istanbul so well because he had visited the city several times. • Had Susan ever studied Thai before she moved to Thailand? • She only understood the movie because she had read the book. • Kristine had never been to an opera before last night. • We were not able to get a hotel room because we had not booked in advance.A: Had you ever visited the U.S. before your trip in 2006?B: Yes, I had been to the U.S. once before.USE 2 Duration Before Something in the Past (Non-Continuous Verbs)With Non-Continuous Verbs and some non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, we use the Past Perfect toshow that something started in the past and continued up until another action in the past.Examples: • We had had that car for ten years before it broke down. • By the time Alex finished his studies, he had been in London for over eight years. • They felt bad about selling the house because they had owned it for more than forty years.Although the above use of Past Perfect is normally limited to Non-Continuous Verbs and non-continuoususes of Mixed Verbs, the words "live," "work," "teach," and "study" are sometimes used in this way eventhough they are NOT Non-Continuous Verbs.IMPORTANT Specific Times with the Past Perfect
Unlike with the Present Perfect, it is possible to use specific time words or phrases with the Past Perfect.Although this is possible, it is usually not necessary.Example: • She had visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996.MOREOVERIf the Past Perfect action did occur at a specific time, the Simple Past can be used instead of the PastPerfect when "before" or "after" is used in the sentence. The words "before" and "after" actually tell youwhat happens first, so the Past Perfect is optional. For this reason, both sentences below are correct.Examples: • She had visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996. • She visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996.HOWEVERIf the Past Perfect is not referring to an action at a specific time, Past Perfect is not optional. Compare theexamples below. Here Past Perfect is referring to a lack of experience rather than an action at a specifictime. For this reason, Simple Past cannot be used.Examples: • She never saw a bear before she moved to Alaska. Not Correct • She had never seen a bear before she moved to Alaska. CorrectADVERB PLACEMENTThe examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still,just, etc.Examples: • You had previously studied English before you moved to New York. •Had you previously studied English before you moved to New York?ACTIVE / PASSIVEExamples: • George had repaired many cars before he received his mechanics license. ACTIVE • Many cars had been repaired by George before he received his mechanics license. PASSIVE PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUSFORM [had been + present participle]Examples: • You had been waiting there for more than two hours when she finally arrived. • Had you been waiting there for more than two hours when she finally arrived? 43 | P a g e MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
• You had not been waiting there for more than two hours when she finally arrived.Complete List of Past Perfect Continuous FormsUSE 1- Duration Before Something in the PastWe use the Past Perfect Continuous to show that something started in the past and continued up untilanother time in the past. "For five minutes" and "for two weeks" are both durations which can be usedwith the Past Perfect Continuous. Notice that this is related to the Present Perfect Continuous; however,the duration does not continue until now, it stops before something else in the past.Examples: • They had been talking for over an hour before Tony arrived. • She had been working at that company for three years when it went out of business. • How long had you been waiting to get on the bus? • Mike wanted to sit down because he had been standing all day at work. • James had been teaching at the university for more than a year before he left for Asia. • A: How long had you been studying Turkish before you moved to Ankara? B: I had not been studying Turkish very long.USE 2 -Cause of Something in the PastUsing the Past Perfect Continuous before another action in the past is a good way to show cause andeffect.Examples: • Jason was tired because he had been jogging. • Sam gained weight because he had been overeating. • Betty failed the final test because she had not been attending class.PAST CONTINUOUS VS. PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUSIf you do not include a duration such as "for five minutes," "for two weeks" or "since Friday," manyEnglish speakers choose to use the Past Continuous rather than the Past Perfect Continuous. Be carefulbecause this can change the meaning of the sentence. Past Continuous emphasizes interrupted actions,whereas Past Perfect Continuous emphasizes a duration of time before something in the past. Study theexamples below to understand the difference.Examples:He was tired because he was exercising so hard.THIS SENTENCE EMPHASIZES THAT HE WAS TIRED BECAUSE HE WAS EXERCISING AT THAT EXACT MOMENT.He was tired because he had been exercising so hard.THIS SENTENCE EMPHASIZES THAT HE WAS TIRED BECAUSE HE HAD BEEN EXERCISING OVER A PERIOD OF TIME. IT IS POSSIBLETHAT HE WAS STILL EXERCISING AT THAT MOMENT OR THAT HE HAD JUST FINISHED.REMEMBER Non-Continuous Verbs / Mixed Verbs
It is important to remember that Non-Continuous Verbs cannot be used in any continuous tenses. Also,certain non-continuous meanings for Mixed Verbs cannot be used in continuous tenses. Instead of usingPast Perfect Continuous with these verbs, you must use Past Perfect.Examples: • The motorcycle had been belonging to George for years before Tina bought it. Not Correct •The motorcycle had belonged to George for years before Tina bought it. CorrectADVERB PLACEMENTThe examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still,just, etc.Examples: • You had only been waiting there for a few minutes when she arrived. • Had you only been waiting there for a few minutes when she arrived?ACTIVE / PASSIVEExamples: • Chef Jones had been preparing the restaurants fantastic dinners for two years before he moved to Paris. ACTIVE • The restaurants fantastic dinners had been being prepared by Chef Jones for two years before he moved to Paris. PASSIVE • NOTE: Passive forms of the Past Perfect Continuous are not common. 45 | P a g e MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
SIMPLE FUTURESimple Future has two different forms in English: "will" and "be going to." Although the two forms cansometimes be used interchangeably, they often express two very different meanings. These differentmeanings might seem too abstract at first, but with time and practice, the differences will become clear.Both "will" and "be going to" refer to a specific time in the future.FORM Will[will + verb]Examples: • You will help him later. • Will you help him later? •You will not help him later.FORM Be Going To[am/is/are + going to + verb]Examples: • You are going to meet Jane tonight. • Are you going to meet Jane tonight? • You are not going to meet Jane tonight.Complete List of Simple Future FormsUSE 1 "Will" to Express a Voluntary Action"Will" often suggests that a speaker will do something voluntarily. A voluntary action is one the speakeroffers to do for someone else. Often, we use "will" to respond to someone elses complaint or request forhelp. We also use "will" when we request that someone help us or volunteer to do something for us.Similarly, we use "will not" or "wont" when we refuse to voluntarily do something.Examples: • I will send you the information when I get it. • I will translate the email, so Mr. Smith can read it. • Will you help me move this heavy table? • Will you make dinner? • I will not do your homework for you. • I wont do all the housework myself! • A: Im really hungry. B: Ill make some sandwiches. • A: Im so tired. Im about to fall asleep. B: Ill get you some coffee.
• A: The phone is ringing. B: Ill get it.USE 2 "Will" to Express a Promise"Will" is usually used in promises.Examples: • I will call you when I arrive. • If I am elected President of the United States, I will make sure everyone has access to inexpensive health insurance. • I promise I will not tell him about the surprise party. • Dont worry, Ill be careful. • I wont tell anyone your secret.USE 3 "Be going to" to Express a Plan"Be going to" expresses that something is a plan. It expresses the idea that a person intends to dosomething in the future. It does not matter whether the plan is realistic or not.Examples: • He is going to spend his vacation in Hawaii. • She is not going to spend her vacation in Hawaii. • A: When are we going to meet each other tonight? B: We are going to meet at 6 PM. • Im going to be an actor when I grow up. • Michelle is going to begin medical school next year. • They are going to drive all the way to Alaska. • Who are you going to invite to the party? • A: Who is going to make Johns birthday cake? B: Sue is going to make Johns birthday cake.USE 4 "Will" or "Be Going to" to Express a PredictionBoth "will" and "be going to" can express the idea of a general prediction about the future. Predictions areguesses about what might happen in the future. In "prediction" sentences, the subject usually has littlecontrol over the future and therefore USES 1-3 do not apply. In the following examples, there is nodifference in meaning.Examples: • The year 2222 will be a very interesting year. • The year 2222 is going to be a very interesting year. • John Smith will be the next President. • John Smith is going to be the next President. • The movie "Zenith" will win several Academy Awards. • The movie "Zenith" is going to win several Academy Awards. 47 | P a g e MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
IMPORTANTIn the Simple Future, it is not always clear which USE the speaker has in mind. Often, there is more thanone way to interpret a sentences meaning.No Future in Time ClausesLike all future forms, the Simple Future cannot be used in clauses beginning with time expressions suchas: when, while, before, after, by the time, as soon as, if, unless, etc. Instead of Simple Future, SimplePresent is used.Examples: • When you will arrive tonight, we will go out for dinner. Not Correct • When you arrive tonight, we will go out for dinner. CorrectADVERB PLACEMENTThe examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still,just, etc.Examples: • You will never help him. • Will you ever help him? • You are never going to meet Jane. •Are you ever going to meet Jane?ACTIVE / PASSIVEExamples: • John will finish the work by 5:00 PM. ACTIVE • The work will be finished by 5:00 PM. PASSIVE • Sally is going to make a beautiful dinner tonight. ACTIVE • A beautiful dinner is going to be made by Sally tonight. PASSIVE FUTURE CONTINUOUSFuture Continuous has two different forms: "will be doing " and "be going to be doing." Unlike SimpleFuture forms, Future Continuous forms are usually interchangeable.FORM Future Continuous with "Will"[will be + present participle]Examples: • You will be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight. • Will you be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight? •You will not be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight.FORM Future Continuous with "Be Going To "[am/is/are + going to be + present participle]Examples: • You are going to be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight.