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Grammar For Matric and Intermediate

Grammar For Matric and Intermediate

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Grammar for Matric & Intermediate by Muhammad Azam, Shaheen Academy, G-6/1-3, Islamabad Document Transcript

  • 1. BASIC GRAMMATICAL TERMSAdjective: A word which qualifies or modifies the meaning of a noun; as in a red hat or aquick fox. They can be used to complement the verbs to be or to seem (Sue seems happytoday). Adjectives are sometimes formed from nouns or verbs by the addition of a suffix such as-able (lovable), -ful (heedful), -ic (heroic), -ish (foolish), -ive (combative), -ous (famous),or -y (needy).Adverb: A word which qualifies or adds to the action of a verb: as in he ran quickly, or he ranfast. Adverbs can also qualify adjectives, as in the grass is intensely green. They are usuallyformed by adding -ly to an adjective: playfully, combatively, foolishly. They can alsosometimes be formed by the addition of -wise to a noun (the hands went round clockwise).Clause: The word is often used but very hard to define. It is a sentence or sentence-likeconstruction included within another sentence. A main clause might be a simple noun plus verb(I did it). A co-ordinate clause is of equal status with the main clause: I did it and she did it atthe same time. A subordinate clause might be nested within a sentence using the conjunctionthat: he said that the world was flat. Here he said is the main clause and the subordinate clauseis the world was flat. Relative clauses are usually introduced by a relative pronoun: I read thebook which was falling to pieces; She spoke to the man who was standing at the bar.Conjunction: A word used to connect words or constructions. Co-ordinating conjunctionssuch as and, and but link together elements of equal importance in a sentence (Fish and chipsare of equal importance). Subordinating conjunctions such as because, if, although, connecta subordinate clause to its superordinate clause (We will do it if you insist; We did it becausehe insisted).Noun: A word used as the name or designation of a person or thing, such as duck or river.Abstract nouns denote abstract properties, such as invisibility, gentleness. Proper nouns arenouns that designate one thing, as, for example, personal names.Object: Usually the thing to which the action of a verb is done. More technically a substantiveword, phrase, or clause, immediately dependent on, or ‘governed by’, a verb, as expressing, inthe case of a verb of action, the person or thing to which the action is directed, or on which it isexerted; that which receives the action of the verb. So the man patted the dog, the woman wasreading the book. An indirect object of a verb denotes that which is indirectly affected by anaction, but wihch is not the immediate product of it, as ‘Give him the book’, ‘Make me a coat’.Participle: a word derived from a noun which functions like an adjective, as in let sleepingdogs lie. More technically A word that partakes of the nature of a verb and an adjective; aderivative of a verb which has the function and construction of an adjective (qualifying a noun),while retaining some of those of the verb. Present participles usually end in -ing and usuallydescribe an action which is going on at the same time as the verb: so in the sentence "Go andplay on your own street," she said, kicking the ball, the saying and the kicking are simultaneous.Past participles usually end in -ed or -en (the door was kicked in; the door was broken).They are used in two main ways: combined with the verb have they form a past or perfect tense(so called because it describes an action which has been completed or perfected), as in I have 1|Page MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
  • 2. smashed the plate. Past participles can also be used in passive constructions (which describewhat was done to something rather than what something did), as in the plate was smashed.Preposition: A part of speech which indicates a connection, between two other parts ofspeech, such as to, with, by or from. She came from China, He gave the chocolates to me.Pronoun: A part of speech which stands for a noun: he, she, him, her, them. Possessivepronouns express ownership (his, hers). Reflexive pronouns are herself, himself, myselfand are used either for emphasis (he did it all himself), or when an action reflects back on theagent who performs it (he shot himself in the foot). Relative pronouns include who, which,that and are usually used in the form he rebuked the reader who had sung in the library.Interrogative pronouns ask questions (Who stole the pie?; Which pie?). Indefinitepronouns do not specify a particular person or thing: Anyone who studies grammar must bemad. Somebody has to know about this stuff.Sentence: This is a term which professional linguists still find impossible to define adequately.It is usually supposed to be A sequence of words which makes complete sense, containingsubject, object and main verb, and concluded by a full-stop.Subject: Usually the person or thing who is performing the action of a verb. More technicallythe grammatical subject is the part of a sentence of which an action is predicated: the man pattedthe dog. It can be a single noun, or it can been a complex clause: the bald man who had justpicked up the ball gave it to the dog.Verb: Usually a word which describes an action (such as he reads poems, she excels atcricket). More technically That part of speech by which an assertion is made, or which serves toconnect a subject with a predicate. This technical definition includes the most frequent verb inthe language: the verb to be which can be used to connect a subject, such as he, with apredicate, such as good at hockey. There are verbs which take an object (he takes tea), whichare called transitive verbs. Other verbs do not, and are termed intransitive verbs (I sit, helives). Some verbs can be used either transitively or intransitively: I sing is an intransitiveusage; Paul McCartney sings "God save the Queen" is a transitive usage. The main verb is theverb on which the structure of the sentence depends, and without which the sentence would notmake any sense.In the following sentence the verb fell is the main verb: The boy, who had runtoo quickly, fell.INTERJECTION Interjections are words or phrases used to exclaim or protest or command. They sometimesstand by themselves, but they are often contained within larger structures. • Wow! I won the lottery! • Oh, I dont know about that. • I dont know what the heck youre talking about. • No, you shouldnt have done that. THE NOUN
  • 3. The name given to a person, place and thing is called a noun. The subject of a sentence is thenoun. Take this sentence, for example: Michael is a very good name. The subject of the sentence – who or what the sentence is about – is shown in bold letters. It is a noun. TYPES OF NOUNS NOU There are many types of nouns. 1. PROPER NOUNS PROPE The first letter of a proper noun is written using a capital letter. Proper nouns represent a particular thing, rather than just a general thing. For instance, people’s names start with a capital letter, because they represent the name of a particular person. Other common proper nouns are the days of the week, names of cities, countries, and organisations. 2. COMMON NOUNS NOUN The opposite of a proper noun is a common noun. These are nouns that don’t represent specific people or things, but just people or things in general. For instance, if we were talking about a fire-fighter named Bob, we could say something like: Common Noun Bob is a good firefighter Proper Noun Because ‘Bob’ refers to a specific person, it is a proper noun and starts with a capital ‘B’. The noun ‘fire-fighter’, however is a common noun, because it represents people who fight fires – but not a specific person. 3. CONCRETE NOUNS Nouns that represent something you can perceive through one of your five physical senses are known as concrete nouns. These nouns represent something concrete that you can physically touch or hear, for instance. The five senses are sight, touch, hearing, smell, and taste. ‘Tree’, ‘door’, ‘cat’, ‘basketball’, and ‘road’ are all examples of concrete nouns. 4. ABSTRACT NOUNS These are nouns representing things that you can’t perceive through any of your five senses. Any sentence about emotions usually involves abstract nouns. Here are a couple of sentences with abstract nouns (in bold font): There is a lot of love in that relationship. Johnson had never felt so much hate before. 5. COLLECTIVE NOUNS COL LEC These are nouns that represent a group of more than one thing. The collective noun in this sentence is highlighted in bold font: 3|Page MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
  • 4.  My uncle owns a flock of sheep.One of the most common uses of collective nouns is to describe groups of various types ofanimals. Some of the names used to describe groups of animals are very weird. Here aresome of them: Group name Animals used with Herd Buffalo, cattle, deer, donkeys, elephants, horses, kangaroos, pigs Destruction Feral cats Pod Whales, dolphins, seals Nest Vipers, snakes Ambush Tigers Muster Storks, peacocks Host Sparrows Murder Crows Crash Rhinoceros Litter Pups, pigs, cubs, dogs, kittens Shoal Most types of fish Flock Most types of birds, sheep Pride Lions Brood Hens, chickens Colony Ants, beavers, penguins, frogs, rabbits Swarm Bees, flies, rats Convocation Eagles Kine Cows Sloth Bears Culture Bacteria Shrewdness Apes6. COMPOUND NOUNSCompound nouns are nouns made up of two or more words. Some compound nouns arehyphenated. E.g. Air force, classroom Mother-in-law, Paper-clip etc.
  • 5. 7. POSSESSIVE NOUNS POSSESSIVE NOUPossessive nouns and pronouns demonstrate ownership or some similar relationship over something else.Plural nouns indicate more than one person, place or thing. Possessive nouns typically include anapostrophe. For example: • Jennifer’s imagination ran wild as she pictured the accident. • The kitten’s toy is a stuffed catnip mouse. 5|Page MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
  • 6. PRONOUN & TYPES OF PRONOUNSA pronoun is a word such as we, them, or anyone that replaces a noun or another pronoun. Pronounsmust match the number and gender of the noun they stand for and be in a case (form) that matches itsfunction. Pronouns have the same functions as nouns: They may act as subjects and subjectcomplements, direct objects, indirect objects, and objects of prepositions. The noun that a pronounrefers to is called the antecedent of the pronoun. In the sentence “George wrote the essay in class andtyped it later” the noun essay is the antecedent of the pronoun it. If you cannot point to the antecedent of apronoun in your writing, you need to change the wording so that your meaning will be clear to the reader.For more on antecedents as well as number and case agreement, gender bias, and other specific pronounissues, see other resources. Here is an explanation of the nine types of pronouns:A. PERSONAL PRONOUNS: Personal pronouns refer to specific persons, places, or things.1. Subjective Case: A personal pronoun should be in the subjective case (form) if the pronoun functionsas a subject or subject complement. A subject pronoun usually comes before the verb; a subjectcomplement pronoun follows a linking verb. Singular Plural Examples: First person: I we We are successful. (Subject) Second person: you you They like pizza. (Subject) Third person: he/she/it they The winners were Kim and I. (Subject complement)2. Objective case: If a pronoun stands for any other noun than a subject or subject complement, use the objective case. Object pronouns can be direct objects (DO), indirect objects(IO), or objects of prepositions (OP). Notice that you and it are in both lists. Singular Plural Examples: First person: me us The secretary notified us today. (DO) Second person: you you My aunt wrote me a letter. (IO) Third person: him/her/it them For her, I would do anything. (OP)B. POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS: Possessive pronouns act as adjectives that show ownership. 1. These possessive pronouns act as adjectives showing ownership: Singular Plural Examples: First person: my our My friend found his dog. Second person: your your Their cat sharpened its claws. Third person: his/her/its their Note: Do not confuse the pronoun its with the contraction it’s, which means it is. 2. These possessive pronouns stand for an adjective possessive pronoun plus a noun: Example: That backpack is mine. (“mine” = “my backpack”) Singular Plural Example: First person: mine ours The decision is yours to make. Second person: yours yours (yours = “your decision”) Third person: his/hers theirs
  • 7. C. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS: Indefinite pronouns are noun substitutes that are not specific (definite) in meaning. 1. Indefinite pronouns fall into two categories: List 1. Pronouns that refer to a non-specific noun: anybody, anyone, anything, everybody, everyone, everything, nobody, none, no one, nothing, somebody, someone, something Example: Nothing gets accomplished without some effort. List 2. Pronouns that refer to a specific noun whose meaning is clear only because of a previous mention or because of words that follow the indefinite pronoun: all, another, any, both, each, either, few, many, neither, one, some, several. Examples: Several are planning to fly to New York. (The identity of the group that is flying to New York would have already been mentioned.) Do you want some of these books? (Books makes clear the meaning of some.) Note: The indefinite pronouns in List 2 function simply as adjectives when they are are directly followed by nouns. Examples: Several students received awards. My mother baked some pies for the picnic.2. Indefinite pronouns may be singular or plural. The verbs (underlined) must match in number. another neither anybody nobody Examples: anyone no one There are four groups of students, anything nothing and each has its own assignment. Singular each one Something unexpected is happening. either somebody everybody something everyone someone everything both Examples: few Both of the documents were signed. Plural many Many in the audience agree with the speaker. several Note: When these indefinite pronouns are followed by a prepositional phrase, the Pronoun should agree in number with the noun that is the object of the preposition. Singular all more Examples: Some of the planning is finished. or Plural any most Some of the apples are ripe. either (depending on none Remember that the verb must agree in number with the noun it some the bolded antecedent. “Planning” takes a stands for) singular verb and “apples” takes a plural verb. 7|Page MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
  • 8. D. RELATIVE PRONOUNS: A relative pronoun connects (relates) an adjective clause or a noun clause to the rest of the sentence. 1. Relative pronouns that introduce adjective clauses: When a relative pronoun introduces an adjective clause, the pronoun refers to a noun already mentioned in the main clause of thesentence. who whose whom which that Examples (Adjective clauses are underlined): The mystery novel that she recently completed will be published next year. (That refers back to novel and acts as a direct object in the adjective clause.) Healing is more rapid for patients who have a positive attitude. (Who refers back to patients and acts as the subject of the adjective clause.) 2. Relative pronouns that introduce noun clauses: who whom what which whose whoever whomever whatever whichever thatWithin a sentence, a noun clause may function as a subject, complement, appositive, or object of a verb orpreposition. The relative pronoun acts as a subject or object within the noun clause, though the normalword order may be changed. Note: Who and whoever are used as subject pronouns, and whom andwhomever are used as object pronouns. (Noun clauses are underlined.)Examples: Whoever uses the kitchen should wash the dishes. (The noun clause is the subject of the sentence. Whoever is the subject of the noun clause.) The criminal got what he deserved. (The noun clause is the direct object of the verb got. Within the noun clause, what is the direct object of the verb deserved, even though it comes before the verb.)E. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS: An interrogative pronoun introduces a question. who whom what which whose whoever whomever whatever whichever Notice the similarity of this list to the relative pronoun list. Like relative pronouns, interrogative pronouns can have different grammatical functions. As in all questions,the word order may not be normal. Examples: Whose books are those? (adjective modifying books) Whom will Mr. Broder select as head of the committee? (direct object of the verb will select) In which of his two poems does the author express himself most effectively? (object of the preposition in)F. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS: The four demonstrative pronouns point out nouns. They often act as 1.) adjectives, indicating which person(s), places(s), or thing(s) are being referred to or as 2.) noun substitutes when the noun is understood.
  • 9. this that these those Examples: These problems are easy to solve. (adjective modifying problems) Do you like this wallpaper? (adjective modifying wallpaper) You like these apples, but I prefer those. (These acts as an adjective modifying apples; those acts as a pronoun that stands for the noun apples.)G. INTENSIVE PRONOUNS: Intensive pronouns emphasize nouns or other pronouns. They immediately follow the noun they emphasize. If an intensive pronoun is omitted, the sentence will still make sense grammatically. Singular: myself yourself himself herself itself Plural: ourselves yourselves themselves Examples: The bank president himself called to apologize for the error. (Himself emphasizes president.) She herself was not as concerned as others were about the problem. (Herself emphasizes she.)H. REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS: Reflexive pronouns rename subjects of action verbs. They function as various types of objects. If the reflexive pronoun is omitted, the sentence will not make sense. Note that the following list is the same as the list of intensive pronouns above. Singular: myself yourself himself herself itself Plural: ourselves yourselves themselves Examples: The logger cut himself with his ax. (direct object of the verb cut) Kim poured herself a cup of coffee. (indirect object of the verb cut) The old man was talking loudly to himself. (object of the preposition to)I. RECIPROCAL PRONOUNS: Reciprocal pronouns refer to individual parts of a preceding plural noun. each other one another Examples: The children waved goodbye to each other as they parted. The students helped one another study before the test. ********************************* 9|Page MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
  • 10. TYPES OF VERBSYou will meet different types of verbs as you learn English grammar. Some people get confused. Dontbe. This page tells you (a) the names of different kinds of verbs and (b) their relationship to each other.The Verbs Role in a SentenceVerbs can be divided according to the job they do in a sentence. The grammar-experts way of sayingthis is that we can divide verbs syntactically. These are the divisions and sub-divisions according tosyntax:  Finite Verbs  transitive verbs  intransitive verbs  linking Verbs  Non-Finite Verbs  infinitives  gerunds  participles  present participle  past participle  perfect participle  Helping Verbs (Auxiliaries) o primary auxiliaries o modal auxiliariesFormation of the Verb-WordWe know that verbs are words, just like any other part of speech. The words that represent the verbsfollow different patterns of spelling or sound. Verbs can, therefore, be divided into various kindsdepending upon how they are formed. Grammarians would call this a morphological division.  regular verbs  irregular verbs  compound verbs  phrasal verbsVerbs According to MeaningI have earlier answered the question: what is a verb? There I used this division of verbs according tomeaning to explain what a verb is. Those who know grammar well call this division of verbs a semantic
  • 11. classification.  action words (action verbs)  being  having FINITE VERBSFinite verbs and non-finite verbs are two broad categories of verbs.Look at these two groups of sentences. Group A Group B I am fond of eating mangoes.I like to sing songs. We are fond of eating mangoes.We like to sing songs. You are fond of eating mangoes.You like to sing songs.He likes to sing songs. He is fond of eating mangoes.She likes to sing songs. She is fond of eating mangoes.Anita likes to sing songs. Antony is fond of eating mangoes.They like to sing songs. They are fond of eating mangoes.In sentences in Group A, we have the verbs like and sing. The verb like takes on different forms (like,likes) in the six sentences in the group. The verb sing has the same unchangeable form to sing in all thesentences.So, in group 1, we have one verb which changes and the other which does not change.In the sentences in Group B, we have a similar thing. We have the verb be in different forms (am, is, are)and the unchangeable verb form eating of the verb eat.So in group 2, we have again one changing verb and the other an unchanging verb.What are Finite Verbs?The verb like in group A and the verb be in group B are verbs which change. The reason these verbschange their forms must surely be because of the words I, we, you, he, she, Anita, they...since it is clearthat all other words within the same group of sentences are the same.These verbs which change according to words I, we, you, he, she, Anita, and they, are called FiniteVerbs. The word finite means limited. Since the words I, we, you, he, etc., can make these verbschange, the power of these verbs must be limited indeed! This idea will help us to remember what theseverbs are.What are Non-finite Verbs?They are verbs which do not change. In group A above, the verb to sing and in group B, the verb eatingare non-finite verbs of two different types. No word in a sentence can impose a change on these verbs. Isuppose, that is why we call them non-finite, which means not limited by other words in a sentence. 11 | P a g e MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
  • 12. Verbs of this type are...  the infinitive,  the gerund, and  the participle.Are Finite Verbs Necessary?Yes. Every sentence in English needs such a verb. It is an essential part of a sentence. You may findsentences in which a noun or a pronoun is missing (because its hidden), but you dont usually find asentence in which a finite verb is missing.What are their types?They may be transitive, intransitive or linking. In a sentence you can have any one of these types.What is there to learn about them?About these verbs we need to understand important things like: • agreement with the subject; • tense; • aspect; • voice; and • mood.We can think of these as properties of the verb or as "rules" which finite verbs obey. They are obedientand reliable verbs!Non-finite verbs are the wayward ones. Though they are born in the verb family, the non-finites often actlike nouns, and sometimes like adjectives or adverbs. TRANSITIVE VERBA transitive verb is a type of finite verb. A finite verb is considered transitive or intransitive dependingupon its relationship with some other words in the sentence. Another way of saying this is that thedivision into transitive and intransitive is based on syntax.What is a transitive verb?Look at these sentences. 1. He met her yesterday. 2. She wrote a story last year. 3. Rust destroys iron.In these sentences, the verbs are the words met, wrote and destroys. In each sentence, you ask the
  • 13. question , met whom/what? You will get the answers as follows: • sentence 1 — question: met whom? — answer: her • sentence 2 — question: wrote what? — answer: story • sentence 3 — question: destroys what? — answer: iron(note that we use whom in the questions for human beings and what for things and also for animals.)The words her, story and iron in the sentences above are called objects in grammar.A transitive verb is, therefore, a verb which has an object.What is an object?An object, we may say, is the aim or purpose or destination or target of a verbs action. In our threeexample-sentences above, the verbs met, wrote and destroys have the words her, story and iron as theirtargets. These targets are called objects. With a transitive verb, we can expect these objects.Why do we use the word transitive?We call these verbs transitive because these verbs have the property of transitivity.What is transitivity?To transit means to pass through. Each of the verbs met, wrote and destroys in our examples has itsaction conveyed (carried) to the object. We might also say that the action begins with the subject (he, she,rust in our sentences) and passes through the verb to the object. This property of the verb is transitivity.Hence we call these verbs transitive.Understanding these verbs in this way helps us to remember what they are.Heres a list of transitive verbs.eat, drink, read, write, play, see, hear, answer, buy, find, love, like, understand, catch, bring, sing, meet,give, take, get, forget, buy, sell, pay, help.Here are some of these verbs used in sentences.Sentence verb object(a) The teacher answered the question. answered question(b) My friend bought a house. bought house(c) The children found the money. found money(d) Most Indians love cricket. love cricket(e) Keralites like football. like footballWhat is an intransitive verb? 13 | P a g e MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
  • 14. Simple, I suppose. It is a verb which is not transitive—a verb which does not take an object. Here aresome examples along with some sentences.walk, jump, sleep, sit, lie, stand, weep, kneel, fall, fly, flow,remain, die, belong, wait, come, go.(a) We walk to the railway station.(b) The children jump with joy.(c) Babies sleep for many hours.(d) My brother stood there.(e) Jesus wept.Some ExceptionsYou will often find transitive verbs used intransitively, i.e. without an object. • They are eating. • We play in the evening. • I understand.At rare times intransitive verbs are used transitively.  How did you cover all that distance? We walked it. (walked has the object it in this sentence)  I cannot stand such nonsense. (stand has the object nonsense in this sentence)Besides transitive and intransitive verbs, we have linking verbs in the finite verbs family.What are Non-finite Verbs?They are verbs which do not change. In group A above, the verb to sing and in group B, the verb eatingare non-finite verbs of two different types. No word in a sentence can impose a change on these verbs. Isuppose, that is why we call them non-finite, which means not limited by other words in a sentence.Verbs of this type are...  the infinitive,  the gerund, and  the participle.Are Finite Verbs Necessary?Yes. Every sentence in English needs such a verb. It is an essential part of a sentence. You may findsentences in which a noun or a pronoun is missing (because its hidden), but you dont usually find asentence in which a finite verb is missing.What are their types?They may be transitive, intransitive or linking. In a sentence you can have any one of these types.What is there to learn about them?About these verbs we need to understand important things like:
  • 15.  agreement with the subject;  tense;  aspect;  voice; and  mood.We can think of these as properties of the verb or as "rules" which finite verbs obey. They are obedientand reliable verbs!Non-finite verbs are the wayward ones. Though they are born in the verb family, the non-finites oftenactlike nouns, and sometimes like adjectives or adverbs. 15 | P a g e MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
  • 16. GERUNDSA gerund is a verbal that ends in -ing and functions as a noun. The term verbal indicates that a gerund,like the other two kinds of verbals, is based on a verb and therefore expresses action or a state of being.However, since a gerund functions as a noun, it occupies some positions in a sentence that a nounordinarily would, for example: subject, direct object, subject complement, and object of preposition.Gerund as subject:  Traveling might satisfy your desire for new experiences. (Traveling is the gerund.)  The study abroad program might satisfy your desire for new experiences. (The gerund has been removed.)Gerund as direct object:  They do not appreciate my singing. (The gerund is singing.)  They do not appreciate my assistance. (The gerund has been removed)Gerund as subject complement:  My cats favorite activity is sleeping. (The gerund is sleeping.)  My cats favorite food is salmon. (The gerund has been removed.)Gerund as object of preposition:  The police arrested him for speeding. (The gerund is speeding.)  The police arrested him for criminal activity. (The gerund has been removed.)A Gerund Phrase is a group of words consisting of a gerund and the modifier(s) and/or (pro)noun(s) ornoun phrase(s) that function as the direct object(s), indirect object(s), or complement(s) of the action orstate expressed in the gerund, such as: • THE GERUND PHRASE FUNCTIONS AS THE SUBJECT OF THE SENTENCE. Finding a needle in a haystack would be easier than what were trying to do. Finding (gerund) a needle (direct object of action expressed in gerund) in a haystack (prepositional phrase as adverb) • THE GERUND PHRASE FUNCTIONS AS THE DIRECT OBJECT OF THE VERB APPRECIATE. I hope that you appreciate my offering you this opportunity. my (possessive pronoun adjective form, modifying the gerund) offering (gerund) you (indirect object of action expressed in gerund) this opportunity (direct object of action expressed in gerund) • The gerund phrase functions as the subject complement. Newts favorite tactic has been lying to his constituents. lying to (gerund) his constituents (direct object of action expressed in gerund) • The gerund phrase functions as the object of the preposition for.
  • 17. You might get in trouble for faking an illness to avoid work. faking (gerund) an illness (direct object of action expressed in gerund) to avoid work (infinitive phrase as adverb) • The gerund phrase functions as the subject of the sentence. Being the boss made Jeff feel uneasy. Being (gerund) the boss (subject complement for Jeff, via state of being expressed in gerund) • Points to remember: 1. A gerund is a verbal ending in -ing that is used as a noun. 2. A gerund phrase consists of a gerund plus modifier(s), object(s), and/or complement(s). 3. Gerunds and gerund phrases virtually never require punctuation.GERUNDS AND INFINITIVESUse of the gerundas the subject of a sentence Buying Rover was a big mistake for BMW.as the object after certain verbs* Most people enjoy driving.after certain verbs + prepositions I look forward to hearing from you soon.after certain adjectives + prepositions Hes not very good at managing people.after certain nouns + prepositions Well have no difficulty in selling the product.after verbs of perception (action going on) I saw him staggering down the road towards the pub.*Verb + gerund: avoid, cant help, deny, dread, enjoy, (cant) face, fancy, feel like. finish, give up,imagine, keep (on), mind, miss, postpone, practise, put off, resent, risk, spend time, (cant) stand, suggestUse of the infinitivea) without to after modal auxiliaries We cant raise the prices by more than 5%. make and let My boss wouldnt let me leave early. She made me do overtime. verbs of perception I saw him open the safe and help himself to the money. (completed action)b) with to after adjectives Im sorry, but Im not ready to go yet. certain verbs* She wants to find a job in marketing after shes graduated. question words Can you tell me where to park my car? the first/last/only Henry Ford was the first to use flow production in a car factory. adjectives + for Until then cars had been too expensive for most people to buy.*Verb + infinitive with to: afford, agree, aim, dare, decide, expect, fail, happen, hope, manage, mean,offer, prepare, pretend, promise, refuse, seem, threaten, want, wish 17 | P a g e MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
  • 18. Gerund or infinitive - little difference in meaningI began to play the piano when I was six. I began playing the piano when I was six.We must continue to look for new staff. We must continue looking for new staff.After some verbs (begin, start, continue, like, love, hate, intend and prefer) you can usually use either agerund or an infinitive. There is practically no difference in meaning.Exception: After would/should + like/love, only the infinitive can be used.GERUND OR INFINITIVE - IMPORTANT DIFFERENCE IN MEANING  Ive stopped smoking. The activity (smoking) stops.  We stopped to smoke a cigarette. The activity is the reason for stopping.  I remember playing with Lego. The activity or event has already  Ill never forget driving into that brick happened. wall.  I regret not learning Latin.  Remember to take back those library The activity has not yet happened. It books. can or is/was supposed to be done.  She forgot to lock the door.  We regret to say that we are unable to help you.  I didnt mean to interrupt. to intend to  A 7.45 lesson means getting up early. to have as a result/an effect  They tried giving him penicillin, but it to test something to see if it works had no effect.  I tried to lift the crate, but it was too to attempt something difficult heavy. **************************
  • 19. PARTICIPLESA participle is a verbal that is used as an adjective and most often ends in -ing or -ed. The term verbalindicates that a participle, like the other two kinds of verbals, is based on a verb and therefore expressesaction or a state of being. However, since they function as adjectives, participles modify nouns orpronouns. There are two types of participles: present participles and past participles. Present participlesend in -ing. Past participles end in -ed, -en, -d, -t, or -n, as in the words asked, eaten, saved, dealt, andseen.  The crying baby had a wet diaper.  Shaken, he walked away from the wrecked car.  The burning log fell off the fire.  Smiling, she hugged the panting dog.A participial phrase is a group of words consisting of a participle and the modifier(s) and/or (pro)noun(s)or noun phrase(s) that function as the direct object(s), indirect object(s), or complement(s) of the action orstate expressed in the participle, such as:Removing his coat, Jack rushed to the river. • The participial phrase functions as an adjective modifying Jack. Removing (participle) his coat (direct object of action expressed in participle)Delores noticed her cousin walking along the shoreline. • The participial phrase functions as an adjective modifying cousin. walking (participle) along the shoreline (prepositional phrase as adverb)Children introduced to music early develop strong intellectual skills. • The participial phrase functions as an adjective modifying children. introduced (to) (participle) music (direct object of action expressed in participle) early (adverb) Having been a gymnast, Lynn knew the importance of exercise. • The participial phrase functions as an adjective modifying Lynn. Having been (participle) a gymnast (subject complement for Lynn, via state of being expressed in participle)Placement: In order to prevent confusion, a participial phrase must be placed as close to the noun itmodifies as possible, and the noun must be clearly stated.  Carrying a heavy pile of books, his foot caught on a step. *  Carrying a heavy pile of books, he caught his foot on a step.In the first sentence there is no clear indication of who or what is performing the action expressed in theparticiple carrying. Certainly foot cant be logically understood to function in this way. This situation is anexample of a dangling modifier error since the modifier (the participial phrase) is not modifying anyspecific noun in the sentence and is thus left "dangling." Since a person must be doing the carrying for thesentence to make sense, a noun or pronoun that refers to a person must be in the place immediately after 19 | P a g e MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
  • 20. the participial phrase, as in the second sentence.Punctuation: When a participial phrase begins a sentence, a comma should be placed after the phrase.  Arriving at the store, I found that it was closed.  Washing and polishing the car, Frank developed sore muscles.If the participle or participial phrase comes in the middle of a sentence, it should be set off with commasonly if the information is not essential to the meaning of the sentence.  Sid, watching an old movie, drifted in and out of sleep.  The church, destroyed by a fire, was never rebuilt.Note that if the participial phrase is essential to the meaning of the sentence, no commas should be used:  The student earning the highest grade point average will receive a special award.  The guy wearing the chicken costume is my cousin.If a participial phrase comes at the end of a sentence, a comma usually precedes the phrase if it modifiesan earlier word in the sentence but not if the phrase directly follows the word it modifies. The local residents often saw Ken wandering through the streets.(The phrase modifies Ken, not residents.) Tom nervously watched the woman, alarmed by her silence.(The phrase modifies Tom, not woman.)Points to remember 1. A participle is a verbal ending in -ing (present) or -ed, -en, -d, -t, or -n (past) that functions as an adjective, modifying a noun or pronoun. 2. A participial phrase consists of a participle plus modifier(s), object(s), and/or complement(s). 3. Participles and participial phrases must be placed as close to the nouns or pronouns they modify as possible, and those nouns or pronouns must be clearly stated. 4. A participial phrase is set off with commas when it: a) comes at the beginning of a sentence b) interrupts a sentence as a nonessential element c) comes at the end of a sentence and is separated from the word it modifies.
  • 21. COMPARATIVES & SUPERLATIVESWe use Comparatives and Superlatives to compare two or more nouns.The formation of the comparative and superlative depends on the number of syllables in the adjective:One-syllable AdjectivesTo form the comparative, we add -er to the end of the adjective.To form the superlative, we add -est to the end of the adjective. Adjective Comparative Superlative small smaller the smallest cold colder the coldest light lighter the lightest short shorter the shortestRemember that comparatives are often followed by than.  London is bigger than Santiago.  Mike is taller than John but James is the tallest.Two-syllable Adjectives ending in -YTo form the comparative, we remove the -y and add -ier to the end of the adjective.To form the superlative, we remove the -y and add -iest to the end of the adjective. Adjective Comparative Superlative crazy crazier the craziest happy happier the happiest early earlier the earliest  It was the happiest day of my life.  My joke was funnier than your one.Adjectives with Two or more SyllablesFor Adjectives with 2 syllables (that dont end in -y) and higher (3, 4 syllables etc), we use more forcomparatives and the most for superlatives. 21 | P a g e MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
  • 22. Adjective Comparative Superlative handsome more handsome the most handsome nervous more nervous the most nervous enthusiastic more enthusiastic the most enthusiastic  My girlfriend is more beautiful than yours.  Alex is more intelligent than you but I am the most intelligent.Irregular Forms Adjective Comparative Superlative good better the best bad worse the worst far further / farther the furthest / farthest  I am a better tennis player than you but Marcelo is the best.  Steve is a worse liar than me but Adrian is the worst.Note: Further / farther, furthest / farthest are all used for distance.Only Further / furthest are used to mean additional or more advanced.  Puerto Montt is further / farther than Valdivia is from here (in Santiago).  If you require further information, please contact reception.Remember that the opposites of more and most are less and least, respectively.
  • 23. MUCH - MANY - LOT - FEWWe use these words as quantifiers that come at the start of noun phrases and they tell us something aboutquantity.A lot of vs. Lots ofA lot of and lots of are used to express that there is a large quantity of something.We use a lot of in positive sentences, negative sentences and questions. This expression can be used withcountable or uncountable nouns.  There are a lot of dogs in the street. (Countable noun)  I have a lot of time to answer your questions. (Uncountable noun)  I saw a lot of people waiting in the queue. (Countable)  We did have a lot of fun, didnt we? (Uncountable)We use lots of in positive and negative sentences, however it is more informal. It can be used withcountable or uncountable nouns, and occasionally in questions.  We have lots of time to catch the plane, lets relax. (Uncountable noun)  There are lots of people in the queue today. (Countable)  Oh my, you have spent lots of money on clothes! (Uncountable)  I have lots of questions. (Countable)She has a lot of money = She has lots of moneyMuch vs. Many • Much and Many are used to express that there is a large quantity of something. • Much and Many are used in negative sentences and questions. Many is used with countable nouns Much is used with uncountable nouns. I dont have many CDs in my collection. (Countable noun) They dont have much money to buy a present. (Uncountable noun) How many brothers do you have? (Countable noun) Is there much milk in the fridge? (Uncountable noun)Note: we dont use Much and Many in positive sentences, we use a lot of or lots of.I have much money. (Incorrect because the sentence is positive / affirmative)I have a lot of money. (Correct)Few vs. LittleWe use Few and Little to suggest a small quantity.Few is used with countable nounsLittle is used with uncountable nouns.  There are only a few days left until Christmas. (Countable noun)  There is little hope of finding your wallet. (Uncountable noun)While Few and Little usually have positive meanings, very few and very little have negative meanings.  He is sad because he has very few friends. (Countable noun) 23 | P a g e MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
  • 24.  They have very little knowledge about politics. (Uncountable noun)
  • 25. TENSES & USAGE SIMPLE PRESENTFORM: [VERB] + s/es in third personExamples: • You speak English. • Do you speak English? • You do not speak English.Complete List of Simple Present FormsUSE 1 Repeated ActionsUse the Simple Present to express the idea that an action is repeated or usual. The action can be a habit, ahobby, a daily event, a scheduled event or something that often happens. It can also be something aperson often forgets or usually does not do.Examples: • She does not play tennis. • The train leaves every morning at 8 AM. • The train does not leave at 9 AM. • When does the train usually leave? • She always forgets her purse. • He never forgets his wallet. • Every twelve months, the Earth circles the Sun. • Does the Sun circle the Earth?USE 2: Facts or GeneralizationsThe Simple Present can also indicate the speaker believes that a fact was true before, is true now, and willbe true in the future. It is not important if the speaker is correct about the fact. It is also used to makegeneralizations about people or things.Examples: • Cats like milk. • Birds do not like milk. • California is in America. • California is not in the United Kingdom. • Windows are made of glass. • Windows are not made of wood. 25 | P a g e MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
  • 26. • New York is a small city. IT IS NOT IMPORTANT THAT THIS FACT IS UNTRUE.USE 3: Scheduled Events in the Near FutureSpeakers occasionally use Simple Present to talk about scheduled events in the near future. This is mostcommonly done when talking about public transportation, but it can be used with other scheduled eventsas well.Examples: • The train leaves tonight at 6 PM. • The bus does not arrive at 11 AM, it arrives at 11 PM. • When do we board the plane? • The party starts at 8 oclock. • When does class begin tomorrow?USE 4 : Now (Non-Continuous Verbs)Speakers sometimes use the Simple Present to express the idea that an action is happening or is nothappening now. This can only be done with Non-Continuous Verbs and certain Mixed Verbs.Examples: • I am here now. • She is not here now. • He needs help right now. • He does not need help now. • He has his passport in his hand. • Do you have your passport with you?ADVERB PLACEMENTThe examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still,just, etc.Examples: • You only speak English. •Do you only speak English?ACTIVE / PASSIVEExamples: • Once a week, Tom cleans the car. ACTIVE • Once a week, the car is cleaned by Tom. PASSIVE Present Continuous
  • 27. FORM[am/is/are + present participle]Examples: • You are watching TV. • Are you watching TV? • You are not watching TV.Complete List of Present Continuous FormsUSE 1 NowUse the Present Continuous with Normal Verbs to express the idea that something is happening now, atthis very moment. It can also be used to show that something is not happening now.Examples: • You are learning English now. • You are not swimming now. • Are you sleeping? • I am sitting. • I am not standing. • Is he sitting or standing? • They are reading their books. • They are not watching television. • What are you doing? • Why arent you doing your homework?USE 2 Longer Actions in Progress NowIn English, "now" can mean: this second, today, this month, this year, this century, and so on. Sometimes,we use the Present Continuous to say that we are in the process of doing a longer action which is inprogress; however, we might not be doing it at this exact second.Examples: (All of these sentences can be said while eating dinner in a restaurant.) • I am studying to become a doctor. • I am not studying to become a dentist. • I am reading the book Tom Sawyer. • I am not reading any books right now. • Are you working on any special projects at work? 27 | P a g e MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
  • 28. • Arent you teaching at the university now?USE 3 Near FutureSometimes, speakers use the Present Continuous to indicate that something will or will not happen in thenear future.Examples: • I am meeting some friends after work. • I am not going to the party tonight. • Is he visiting his parents next weekend? • Isnt he coming with us tonight?USE 4 Repetition and Irritation with "Always"The Present Continuous with words such as "always" or "constantly" expresses the idea that somethingirritating or shocking often happens. Notice that the meaning is like Simple Present, but with negativeemotion. Remember to put the words "always" or "constantly" between "be" and "verb+ing."Examples: • She is always coming to class late. • He is constantly talking. I wish he would shut up. •I dont like them because they are always complaining.REMEMBER Non-Continuous Verbs/ Mixed VerbsIt is important to remember that Non-Continuous Verbs cannot be used in any continuous tenses. Also,certain non-continuous meanings for Mixed Verbs cannot be used in continuous tenses. Instead of usingPresent Continuous with these verbs, you must use Simple Present.Examples: • She is loving this chocolate ice cream. Not Correct •She loves this chocolate ice cream. CorrectADVERB PLACEMENTThe examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still,just, etc.Examples: • You are still watching TV. • Are you still watching TV?ACTIVE / PASSIVEExamples: • Right now, Tom is writing the letter. ACTIVE
  • 29. • Right now, the letter is being written by Tom. PASSIVE Present Perfect TenseThe Present Perfect Tense is formed using the following structure:Affirmative: Subject + Have/Has + Past ParticipleNegative: Subject + Havent/Hasnt + Past ParticipleQuestion: Have/Has + Subject + Past ParticipleAffirmative Sentences Past Subject Have Rest of the Sentence Participle I have studied for the exam. You have bought a new computer. He has eaten my chocolate.Negative SentencesThe contraction of the perfect tense in negative form is:Have not = HaventHas not = Hasnt Subjec Past Have Rest of the Sentence t Participle I havent studied for the exam. You havent bought a new computer. He hasnt eaten my chocolate.Questions Subjec Past Have Rest of the Sentence t Participle Have I been chosen for the team? 29 | P a g e MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
  • 30. Have you bought a new car? Has he eaten my sandwich?When do we use the Present Perfect Tense?1. Unspecified point in the pastI have been to Spain three times.(At some unspecified time in the past, I went to Spain).Compare with the simple past:I went to Spain three times in 2005.(specified time in the past - the year 2005)2. An action that occurred in the past, but has a result in the present (now)We cant find our luggage. Have you seen it?(The luggage was lost in the past, do you know where it is now?)3. Talking about general experiences (ever, never)It usually refers to an event happening at some moment in your life. • Has she ever tried Chilean wine before? (in her life) • Ive never eaten monkey brains before. (in my life)4. Events that recently occurred (just)Do you want to go to a restaurant with me?No, thanks. Ive just eaten lunch. (I recently ate lunch.)5. Events that have occurred up to now (yet) • Are Carlos and Rodrigo here? No, they havent arrived yet. (theyre still not here now)6. Events that occurred before you expected (already) • Ive already graduated from University. (I expected to graduate at a later date.)7. Events that began in the past and haven’t changed (for, since)Mike has worked at Woodward for 3 years.(Mike started working at Woodward 3 years ago and he still works there now.)Julie has worked at Woodward since September of last year.(Julie began working at Woodward in September of last year, and that hasnt changed - she still workshere now.) PRESENT PERFECTFORM[has/have + past participle]Examples: • You have seen that movie many times. • Have you seen that movie many times?
  • 31. • You have not seen that movie many times.Complete List of Present Perfect FormsUSE 1 Unspecified Time Before NowWe use the Present Perfect to say that an action happened at an unspecified time before now. The exacttime is not important. You CANNOT use the Present Perfect with specific time expressions such as:yesterday, one year ago, last week, when I was a child, when I lived in Japan, at that moment, that day,one day, etc. We CAN use the Present Perfect with unspecific expressions such as: ever, never, once,many times, several times, before, so far, already, yet, etc.Examples: • I have seen that movie twenty times. • I think I have met him once before. • There have been many earthquakes in California. • People have traveled to the Moon. • People have not traveled to Mars. • Have you read the book yet? • Nobody has ever climbed that mountain.A: Has there ever been a war in the United States?B: Yes, there has been a war in the United States.How Do You Actually Use the Present Perfect?The concept of "unspecified time" can be very confusing to English learners. It is best to associate PresentPerfect with the following topics:TOPIC 1 ExperienceYou can use the Present Perfect to describe your experience. It is like saying, "I have the experience of..."You can also use this tense to say that you have never had a certain experience. The Present Perfect isNOT used to describe a specific event.Examples:I have been to France.THIS SENTENCE MEANS THAT YOU HAVE HAD THE EXPERIENCE OF BEING IN FRANCE. MAYBE YOU HAVE BEEN THERE ONCE, ORSEVERAL TIMES.I have been to France three times.YOU CAN ADD THE NUMBER OF TIMES AT THE END OF THE SENTENCE.I have never been to France.THIS SENTENCE MEANS THAT YOU HAVE NOT HAD THE EXPERIENCE OF GOING TO FRANCE.I think I have seen that movie before.He has never traveled by train.Joan has studied two foreign languages.A: Have you ever met him? 31 | P a g e MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
  • 32. B: No, I have not met him.TOPIC 2 Change Over TimeWe often use the Present Perfect to talk about change that has happened over a period of time.Examples: • You have grown since the last time I saw you. • The government has become more interested in arts education. • Japanese has become one of the most popular courses at the university since the Asian studies program was established. • My English has really improved since I moved to Australia.TOPIC 3 AccomplishmentsWe often use the Present Perfect to list the accomplishments of individuals and humanity. You cannotmention a specific time.Examples: • Man has walked on the Moon. • Our son has learned how to read. • Doctors have cured many deadly diseases. • Scientists have split the atom.TOPIC 4 An Uncompleted Action You Are ExpectingWe often use the Present Perfect to say that an action which we expected has not happened. Using thePresent Perfect suggests that we are still waiting for the action to happen.Examples: • James has not finished his homework yet. • Susan hasnt mastered Japanese, but she can communicate. • Bill has still not arrived. • The rain hasnt stopped.TOPIC 5 Multiple Actions at Different TimesWe also use the Present Perfect to talk about several different actions which have occurred in the past atdifferent times. Present Perfect suggests the process is not complete and more actions are possible.Examples: • The army has attacked that city five times. • I have had four quizzes and five tests so far this semester. • We have had many major problems while working on this project. • She has talked to several specialists about her problem, but nobody knows why she is sick.Time Expressions with Present PerfectWhen we use the Present Perfect it means that something has happened at some point in our lives beforenow. Remember, the exact time the action happened is not important.
  • 33. Sometimes, we want to limit the time we are looking in for an experience. We can do this withexpressions such as: in the last week, in the last year, this week, this month, so far, up to now, etc.Examples: • Have you been to Mexico in the last year? • I have seen that movie six times in the last month. • They have had three tests in the last week. • She graduated from university less than three years ago. She has worked for three different companies so far. •My car has broken down three times this week.NOTICE"Last year" and "in the last year" are very different in meaning. "Last year" means the year before now,and it is considered a specific time which requires Simple Past. "In the last year" means from 365 daysago until now. It is not considered a specific time, so it requires Present Perfect.Examples:  I went to Mexico last year. I WENT TO MEXICO IN THE CALENDAR YEAR BEFORE THIS ONE.  I have been to Mexico in the last year. I HAVE BEEN TO MEXICO AT LEAST ONCE AT SOME POINT BETWEEN 365 DAYS AGO AND NOW.USE 2 Duration From the Past Until Now (Non-Continuous Verbs)With Non-Continuous Verbs and non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, we use the Present Perfect toshow that something started in the past and has continued up until now. "For five minutes," "for twoweeks," and "since Tuesday" are all durations which can be used with the Present Perfect.Examples: • I have had a cold for two weeks. • She has been in England for six months. • Mary has loved chocolate since she was a little girl.Although the above use of Present Perfect is normally limited to Non-Continuous Verbs and non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, the words "live," "work," "teach," and "study" are sometimes used inthis way even though they are NOT Non-Continuous Verbs.ADVERB PLACEMENTThe examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still,just, etc.Examples: 33 | P a g e MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
  • 34. • You have only seen that movie one time. • Have you only seen that movie one time?ACTIVE / PASSIVEExamples:  Many tourists have visited that castle. ACTIVE  That castle has been visited by many tourists. PASSIVE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUSFORM [has/have + been + present participle]Examples: • You have been waiting here for two hours. • Have you been waiting here for two hours? • You have not been waiting here for two hours.Complete List of Present Perfect Continuous FormsUSE 1 Duration from the Past Until NowWe use the Present Perfect Continuous to show that something started in the past and has continued upuntil now. "For five minutes," "for two weeks," and "since Tuesday" are all durations which can be usedwith the Present Perfect Continuous.Examples: • They have been talking for the last hour. • She has been working at that company for three years. • What have you been doing for the last 30 minutes? • James has been teaching at the university since June. • We have been waiting here for over two hours! • Why has Nancy not been taking her medicine for the last three days?USE 2 Recently, LatelyYou can also use the Present Perfect Continuous WITHOUT a duration such as "for two weeks." Withoutthe duration, the tense has a more general meaning of "lately." We often use the words "lately" or"recently" to emphasize this meaning.Examples: • Recently, I have been feeling really tired. • She has been watching too much television lately. • Have you been exercising lately? • Mary has been feeling a little depressed.
  • 35. • Lisa has not been practicing her English. • What have you been doing?IMPORTANTRemember that the Present Perfect Continuous has the meaning of "lately" or "recently." If you use thePresent Perfect Continuous in a question such as "Have you been feeling alright?", it can suggest that theperson looks sick or unhealthy. A question such as "Have you been smoking?" can suggest that you smellthe smoke on the person. Using this tense in a question suggests you can see, smell, hear or feel theresults of the action. It is possible to insult someone by using this tense incorrectly.REMEMBER Non-Continuous Verbs/ Mixed VerbsIt is important to remember that Non-Continuous Verbs cannot be used in any continuous tenses. Also,certain non-continuous meanings for Mixed Verbs cannot be used in continuous tenses. Instead of usingPresent Perfect Continuous with these verbs, you must use Present Perfect.Examples: • Sam has been having his car for two years. Not Correct •Sam has had his car for two years. CorrectADVERB PLACEMENTThe examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still,just, etc.Examples: • You have only been waiting here for one hour. • Have you only been waiting here for one hour?ACTIVE / PASSIVEExamples: • Recently, John has been doing the work. ACTIVE • Recently, the work has been being done by John. PASSIVE 35 | P a g e MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
  • 36. Simple PastFORM[VERB+ed] or irregular verbsExamples: • You called Debbie. • Did you call Debbie? • You did not call Debbie.Complete List of Simple Past FormsUSE 1 Completed Action in the PastUse the Simple Past to express the idea that an action started and finished at a specific time in the past.Sometimes, the speaker may not actually mention the specific time, but they do have one specific time inmind.Examples: • I saw a movie yesterday. • I didnt see a play yesterday. • Last year, I traveled to Japan. • Last year, I didnt travel to Korea. • Did you have dinner last night? • She washed her car. • He didnt wash his car.USE 2 A Series of Completed ActionsWe use the Simple Past to list a series of completed actions in the past. These actions happen 1st, 2nd,3rd, 4th, and so on.Examples: • I finished work, walked to the beach, and found a nice place to swim. • He arrived from the airport at 8:00, checked into the hotel at 9:00, and met the others at 10:00. • Did you add flour, pour in the milk, and then add the eggs?USE 3 Duration in PastThe Simple Past can be used with a duration which starts and stops in the past. A duration is a longeraction often indicated by expressions such as: for two years, for five minutes, all day, all year, etc.Examples:
  • 37. • I lived in Brazil for two years. • Shauna studied Japanese for five years. • They sat at the beach all day. • They did not stay at the party the entire time. • We talked on the phone for thirty minutes.A: How long did you wait for them?B: We waited for one hour.USE 4 Habits in the PastThe Simple Past can also be used to describe a habit which stopped in the past. It can have the samemeaning as "used to." To make it clear that we are talking about a habit, we often add expressions suchas: always, often, usually, never, when I was a child, when I was younger, etc.Examples: • I studied French when I was a child. • He played the violin. • He didnt play the piano. • Did you play a musical instrument when you were a kid? • She worked at the movie theater after school. • They never went to school, they always skipped class.USE 5 Past Facts or GeneralizationsThe Simple Past can also be used to describe past facts or generalizations which are no longer true. As inUSE 4 above, this use of the Simple Past is quite similar to the expression "used to."Examples: • She was shy as a child, but now she is very outgoing. • He didnt like tomatoes before. • Did you live in Texas when you were a kid? •People paid much more to make cell phone calls in the past.IMPORTANT When-Clauses Happen FirstClauses are groups of words which have meaning but are often not complete sentences. Some clausesbegin with the word "when" such as "when I dropped my pen..." or "when class began..." These clausesare called when-clauses, and they are very important. The examples below contain when-clauses.Examples: • When I paid her one dollar, she answered my question. • She answered my question when I paid her one dollar.When-clauses are important because they always happen first when both clauses are in the Simple Past. 37 | P a g e MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
  • 38. Both of the examples above mean the same thing: first, I paid her one dollar, and then, she answered myquestion. It is not important whether "when I paid her one dollar" is at the beginning of the sentence or atthe end of the sentence. However, the example below has a different meaning. First, she answered myquestion, and then, I paid her one dollar.Example: • I paid her one dollar when she answered my question.ADVERB PLACEMENTThe examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still,just, etc.Examples: • You just called Debbie. •Did you just call Debbie?ACTIVE / PASSIVEExamples: • Tom repaired the car. ACTIVE • The car was repaired by Tom. PASSIVE
  • 39. Past Continuous Tense FORM [was/were + present participle]Examples: • You were studying when she called. • Were you studying when she called? • You were not studying when she called.USE 1- Interrupted Action in the PastUse the Past Continuous to indicate that a longer action in the past was interrupted. The interruption isusually a shorter action in the Simple Past. Remember this can be a real interruption or just aninterruption in time.Examples: • I was watching TV when she called. • When the phone rang, she was writing a letter. • While we were having the picnic, it started to rain. • What were you doing when the earthquake started? • I was listening to my iPod, so I didnt hear the fire alarm. • You were not listening to me when I told you to turn the oven off. • While John was sleeping last night, someone stole his car. • Sammy was waiting for us when we got off the plane. • While I was writing the email, the computer suddenly went off.A: What were you doing when you broke your leg?B: I was snowboarding.USE 2 Specific Time as an InterruptionIn USE 1, described above, the Past Continuous is interrupted by a shorter action in the Simple Past.However, you can also use a specific time as an interruption.Examples: • Last night at 6 PM, I was eating dinner. • At midnight, we were still driving through the desert. •Yesterday at this time, I was sitting at my desk at work.IMPORTANTIn the Simple Past, a specific time is used to show when an action began or finished. In the PastContinuous, a specific time only interrupts the action.Examples:Last night at 6 PM, I ate dinner. 39 | P a g e MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
  • 40. I STARTED EATING AT 6 PM.Last night at 6 PM, I was eating dinner.I STARTED EARLIER; AND AT 6 PM, I WAS IN THE PROCESS OF EATING DINNER.USE 3 Parallel ActionsWhen you use the Past Continuous with two actions in the same sentence, it expresses the idea that bothactions were happening at the same time. The actions are parallel.Examples: • I was studying while he was making dinner. • While Ellen was reading, Tim was watching television. • Were you listening while he was talking? • I wasnt paying attention while I was writing the letter, so I made several mistakes. • What were you doing while you were waiting? • Thomas wasnt working, and I wasnt working either. • They were eating dinner, discussing their plans, and having a good time.USE 4 AtmosphereIn English, we often use a series of parallel actions to describe the atmosphere at a particular time in thepast.Example: • When I walked into the office, several people were busily typing, some were talking on the phones, the boss was yelling directions, and customers were waiting to be helped. One customer was yelling at a secretary and waving his hands. Others were complaining to each other about the bad service.USE 5 Repetition and Irritation with "Always"The Past Continuous with words such as "always" or "constantly" expresses the idea that somethingirritating or shocking often happened in the past. The concept is very similar to the expression "used to"but with negative emotion. Remember to put the words "always" or "constantly" between "be" and"verb+ing."Examples: • She was always coming to class late. • He was constantly talking. He annoyed everyone. • I didnt like them because they were always complaining.While vs. WhenClauses are groups of words which have meaning, but are often not complete sentences. Some clausesbegin with the word "when" such as "when she called" or "when it bit me." Other clauses begin with"while" such as "while she was sleeping" and "while he was surfing." When you talk about things in thepast, "when" is most often followed by the verb tense Simple Past, whereas "while" is usually followed
  • 41. by Past Continuous. "While" expresses the idea of "during that time." Study the examples below. Theyhave similar meanings, but they emphasize different parts of the sentence.Examples: • I was studying when she called. •While I was studying, she called.REMEMBER Non-Continuous Verbs / Mixed VerbsIt is important to remember that Non-Continuous Verbs cannot be used in any continuous tenses. Also,certain non-continuous meanings for Mixed Verbs cannot be used in continuous tenses. Instead of usingPast Continuous with these verbs, you must use Simple Past.Examples: • Jane was being at my house when you arrived. Not Correct •Jane was at my house when you arrived. CorrectADVERB PLACEMENTThe examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still,just, etc.Examples: • You were just studying when she called. • Were you just studying when she called?ACTIVE / PASSIVEExamples: • The salesman was helping the customer when the thief came into the store. ACTIVE • The customer was being helped by the salesman when the thief came into the store. PASSIVE 41 | P a g e MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
  • 42. PAST PERFECTFORM[had + past participle]Examples: • You had studied English before you moved to New York. • Had you studied English before you moved to New York? • You had not studied English before you moved to New York.Complete List of Past Perfect FormsUSE 1 Completed Action Before Something in the PastThe Past Perfect expresses the idea that something occurred before another action in the past. It can alsoshow that something happened before a specific time in the past.Examples: • I had never seen such a beautiful beach before I went to Kauai. • I did not have any money because I had lost my wallet. • Tony knew Istanbul so well because he had visited the city several times. • Had Susan ever studied Thai before she moved to Thailand? • She only understood the movie because she had read the book. • Kristine had never been to an opera before last night. • We were not able to get a hotel room because we had not booked in advance.A: Had you ever visited the U.S. before your trip in 2006?B: Yes, I had been to the U.S. once before.USE 2 Duration Before Something in the Past (Non-Continuous Verbs)With Non-Continuous Verbs and some non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, we use the Past Perfect toshow that something started in the past and continued up until another action in the past.Examples: • We had had that car for ten years before it broke down. • By the time Alex finished his studies, he had been in London for over eight years. • They felt bad about selling the house because they had owned it for more than forty years.Although the above use of Past Perfect is normally limited to Non-Continuous Verbs and non-continuoususes of Mixed Verbs, the words "live," "work," "teach," and "study" are sometimes used in this way eventhough they are NOT Non-Continuous Verbs.IMPORTANT Specific Times with the Past Perfect
  • 43. Unlike with the Present Perfect, it is possible to use specific time words or phrases with the Past Perfect.Although this is possible, it is usually not necessary.Example: • She had visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996.MOREOVERIf the Past Perfect action did occur at a specific time, the Simple Past can be used instead of the PastPerfect when "before" or "after" is used in the sentence. The words "before" and "after" actually tell youwhat happens first, so the Past Perfect is optional. For this reason, both sentences below are correct.Examples: • She had visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996. • She visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996.HOWEVERIf the Past Perfect is not referring to an action at a specific time, Past Perfect is not optional. Compare theexamples below. Here Past Perfect is referring to a lack of experience rather than an action at a specifictime. For this reason, Simple Past cannot be used.Examples: • She never saw a bear before she moved to Alaska. Not Correct • She had never seen a bear before she moved to Alaska. CorrectADVERB PLACEMENTThe examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still,just, etc.Examples: • You had previously studied English before you moved to New York. •Had you previously studied English before you moved to New York?ACTIVE / PASSIVEExamples: • George had repaired many cars before he received his mechanics license. ACTIVE • Many cars had been repaired by George before he received his mechanics license. PASSIVE PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUSFORM [had been + present participle]Examples: • You had been waiting there for more than two hours when she finally arrived. • Had you been waiting there for more than two hours when she finally arrived? 43 | P a g e MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
  • 44. • You had not been waiting there for more than two hours when she finally arrived.Complete List of Past Perfect Continuous FormsUSE 1- Duration Before Something in the PastWe use the Past Perfect Continuous to show that something started in the past and continued up untilanother time in the past. "For five minutes" and "for two weeks" are both durations which can be usedwith the Past Perfect Continuous. Notice that this is related to the Present Perfect Continuous; however,the duration does not continue until now, it stops before something else in the past.Examples: • They had been talking for over an hour before Tony arrived. • She had been working at that company for three years when it went out of business. • How long had you been waiting to get on the bus? • Mike wanted to sit down because he had been standing all day at work. • James had been teaching at the university for more than a year before he left for Asia. • A: How long had you been studying Turkish before you moved to Ankara? B: I had not been studying Turkish very long.USE 2 -Cause of Something in the PastUsing the Past Perfect Continuous before another action in the past is a good way to show cause andeffect.Examples: • Jason was tired because he had been jogging. • Sam gained weight because he had been overeating. • Betty failed the final test because she had not been attending class.PAST CONTINUOUS VS. PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUSIf you do not include a duration such as "for five minutes," "for two weeks" or "since Friday," manyEnglish speakers choose to use the Past Continuous rather than the Past Perfect Continuous. Be carefulbecause this can change the meaning of the sentence. Past Continuous emphasizes interrupted actions,whereas Past Perfect Continuous emphasizes a duration of time before something in the past. Study theexamples below to understand the difference.Examples:He was tired because he was exercising so hard.THIS SENTENCE EMPHASIZES THAT HE WAS TIRED BECAUSE HE WAS EXERCISING AT THAT EXACT MOMENT.He was tired because he had been exercising so hard.THIS SENTENCE EMPHASIZES THAT HE WAS TIRED BECAUSE HE HAD BEEN EXERCISING OVER A PERIOD OF TIME. IT IS POSSIBLETHAT HE WAS STILL EXERCISING AT THAT MOMENT OR THAT HE HAD JUST FINISHED.REMEMBER Non-Continuous Verbs / Mixed Verbs
  • 45. It is important to remember that Non-Continuous Verbs cannot be used in any continuous tenses. Also,certain non-continuous meanings for Mixed Verbs cannot be used in continuous tenses. Instead of usingPast Perfect Continuous with these verbs, you must use Past Perfect.Examples: • The motorcycle had been belonging to George for years before Tina bought it. Not Correct •The motorcycle had belonged to George for years before Tina bought it. CorrectADVERB PLACEMENTThe examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still,just, etc.Examples: • You had only been waiting there for a few minutes when she arrived. • Had you only been waiting there for a few minutes when she arrived?ACTIVE / PASSIVEExamples: • Chef Jones had been preparing the restaurants fantastic dinners for two years before he moved to Paris. ACTIVE • The restaurants fantastic dinners had been being prepared by Chef Jones for two years before he moved to Paris. PASSIVE • NOTE: Passive forms of the Past Perfect Continuous are not common. 45 | P a g e MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
  • 46. SIMPLE FUTURESimple Future has two different forms in English: "will" and "be going to." Although the two forms cansometimes be used interchangeably, they often express two very different meanings. These differentmeanings might seem too abstract at first, but with time and practice, the differences will become clear.Both "will" and "be going to" refer to a specific time in the future.FORM Will[will + verb]Examples: • You will help him later. • Will you help him later? •You will not help him later.FORM Be Going To[am/is/are + going to + verb]Examples: • You are going to meet Jane tonight. • Are you going to meet Jane tonight? • You are not going to meet Jane tonight.Complete List of Simple Future FormsUSE 1 "Will" to Express a Voluntary Action"Will" often suggests that a speaker will do something voluntarily. A voluntary action is one the speakeroffers to do for someone else. Often, we use "will" to respond to someone elses complaint or request forhelp. We also use "will" when we request that someone help us or volunteer to do something for us.Similarly, we use "will not" or "wont" when we refuse to voluntarily do something.Examples: • I will send you the information when I get it. • I will translate the email, so Mr. Smith can read it. • Will you help me move this heavy table? • Will you make dinner? • I will not do your homework for you. • I wont do all the housework myself! • A: Im really hungry. B: Ill make some sandwiches. • A: Im so tired. Im about to fall asleep. B: Ill get you some coffee.
  • 47. • A: The phone is ringing. B: Ill get it.USE 2 "Will" to Express a Promise"Will" is usually used in promises.Examples: • I will call you when I arrive. • If I am elected President of the United States, I will make sure everyone has access to inexpensive health insurance. • I promise I will not tell him about the surprise party. • Dont worry, Ill be careful. • I wont tell anyone your secret.USE 3 "Be going to" to Express a Plan"Be going to" expresses that something is a plan. It expresses the idea that a person intends to dosomething in the future. It does not matter whether the plan is realistic or not.Examples: • He is going to spend his vacation in Hawaii. • She is not going to spend her vacation in Hawaii. • A: When are we going to meet each other tonight? B: We are going to meet at 6 PM. • Im going to be an actor when I grow up. • Michelle is going to begin medical school next year. • They are going to drive all the way to Alaska. • Who are you going to invite to the party? • A: Who is going to make Johns birthday cake? B: Sue is going to make Johns birthday cake.USE 4 "Will" or "Be Going to" to Express a PredictionBoth "will" and "be going to" can express the idea of a general prediction about the future. Predictions areguesses about what might happen in the future. In "prediction" sentences, the subject usually has littlecontrol over the future and therefore USES 1-3 do not apply. In the following examples, there is nodifference in meaning.Examples: • The year 2222 will be a very interesting year. • The year 2222 is going to be a very interesting year. • John Smith will be the next President. • John Smith is going to be the next President. • The movie "Zenith" will win several Academy Awards. • The movie "Zenith" is going to win several Academy Awards. 47 | P a g e MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
  • 48. IMPORTANTIn the Simple Future, it is not always clear which USE the speaker has in mind. Often, there is more thanone way to interpret a sentences meaning.No Future in Time ClausesLike all future forms, the Simple Future cannot be used in clauses beginning with time expressions suchas: when, while, before, after, by the time, as soon as, if, unless, etc. Instead of Simple Future, SimplePresent is used.Examples: • When you will arrive tonight, we will go out for dinner. Not Correct • When you arrive tonight, we will go out for dinner. CorrectADVERB PLACEMENTThe examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still,just, etc.Examples: • You will never help him. • Will you ever help him? • You are never going to meet Jane. •Are you ever going to meet Jane?ACTIVE / PASSIVEExamples: • John will finish the work by 5:00 PM. ACTIVE • The work will be finished by 5:00 PM. PASSIVE • Sally is going to make a beautiful dinner tonight. ACTIVE • A beautiful dinner is going to be made by Sally tonight. PASSIVE FUTURE CONTINUOUSFuture Continuous has two different forms: "will be doing " and "be going to be doing." Unlike SimpleFuture forms, Future Continuous forms are usually interchangeable.FORM Future Continuous with "Will"[will be + present participle]Examples: • You will be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight. • Will you be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight? •You will not be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight.FORM Future Continuous with "Be Going To "[am/is/are + going to be + present participle]Examples: • You are going to be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight.
  • 49. • Are you going to be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight? • You are not going to be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight.REMEMBER: It is possible to use either "will" or "be going to" to create the Future Continuous withlittle difference in meaning.Complete List of Future Continuous FormsUSE 1 Interrupted Action in the FutureUse the Future Continuous to indicate that a longer action in the future will be interrupted by a shorteraction in the future. Remember this can be a real interruption or just an interruption in time.Examples: • I will be watching TV when she arrives tonight. • I will be waiting for you when your bus arrives. • I am going to be staying at the Madison Hotel, if anything happens and you need to contact me. • He will be studying at the library tonight, so he will not see Jennifer when she arrives.Notice in the examples above that the interruptions (marked in italics) are in Simple Present rather thanSimple Future. This is because the interruptions are in time clauses, and you cannot use future tenses intime clauses.USE 2 Specific Time as an Interruption in the FutureIn USE 1, described above, the Future Continuous is interrupted by a short action in the future. Inaddition to using short actions as interruptions, you can also use a specific time as an interruption.Examples: • Tonight at 6 PM, I am going to be eating dinner. I WILL BE IN THE PROCESS OF EATING DINNER. • At midnight tonight, we will still be driving through the desert. WE WILL BE IN THE PROCESS OF DRIVING THROUGH THE DESERT.REMEMBERIn the Simple Future, a specific time is used to show the time an action will begin or end. In the FutureContinuous, a specific time interrupts the action.Examples: • Tonight at 6 PM, I am going to eat dinner. I AM GOING TO START EATING AT 6 PM. • Tonight at 6 PM, I am going to be eating dinner. I AM GOING TO START EARLIER AND I WILL BE IN THE PROCESS OF EATING DINNER AT 6 PM.USE 3 Parallel Actions in the Future 49 | P a g e MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
  • 50. When you use the Future Continuous with two actions in the same sentence, it expresses the idea thatboth actions will be happening at the same time. The actions are parallel.Examples: • I am going to be studying and he is going to be making dinner. • Tonight, they will be eating dinner, discussing their plans, and having a good time. • While Ellen is reading, Tim will be watching television. NOTICE "IS READING" BECAUSE OF THE TIME CLAUSE CONTAINING "WHILE." (SEE EXPLANATION BELOW)USE 4 Atmosphere in the FutureIn English, we often use a series of Parallel Actions to describe atmosphere at a specific point in thefuture.Example: • When I arrive at the party, everybody is going to be celebrating. Some will be dancing. Others are going to be talking. A few people will be eating pizza, and several people are going to be drinking beer. They always do the same thing.REMEMBER No Future in Time ClausesLike all future tenses, the Future Continuous cannot be used in clauses beginning with time expressionssuch as: when, while, before, after, by the time, as soon as, if, unless, etc. Instead of Future Continuous,Present Continuous is used.Examples: • While I am going to be finishing my homework, she is going to make dinner. Not Correct •While I am finishing my homework, she is going to make dinner. CorrectAND REMEMBER Non-Continuous Verbs / Mixed VerbsIt is important to remember that Non-Continuous Verbs cannot be used in any continuous tenses. Also,certain non-continuous meanings for Mixed Verbs cannot be used in continuous tenses. Instead of usingFuture Continuous with these verbs, you must use Simple Future.Examples: • Jane will be being at my house when you arrive. Not Correct • Jane will be at my house when you arrive. CorrectADVERB PLACEMENTThe examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still,just, etc.Examples: • You will still be waiting for her when her plane arrives. • Will you still be waiting for her when her plane arrives? • You are still going to be waiting for her when her plane arrives. •Are you still going to be waiting for her when her plane arrives?ACTIVE / PASSIVE
  • 51. Examples: • At 8:00 PM tonight, John will be washing the dishes. ACTIVE • At 8:00 PM tonight, the dishes will be being washed by John. PASSIVE • At 8:00 PM tonight, John is going to be washing the dishes. ACTIVE • At 8:00 PM tonight, the dishes are going to be being washed by John. PASSIVENOTE: Passive forms of the Future Continuous are not common. FUTURE PERFECTFuture Perfect has two different forms: "will have done" and "be going to have done." Unlike SimpleFuture forms, Future Perfect forms are usually interchangeable.FORM Future Perfect with "Will"[will have + past participle]Examples: • You will have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S. • Will you have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S.? •You will not have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S.FORM Future Perfect with "Be Going To"[am/is/are + going to have + past participle]Examples: • You are going to have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S. • Are you going to have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S.? • You are not going to have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S.NOTE: It is possible to use either "will" or "be going to" to create the Future Perfect with little or nodifference in meaning.Complete List of Future Perfect FormsUSE 1 Completed Action Before Something in the FutureThe Future Perfect expresses the idea that something will occur before another action in the future. It canalso show that something will happen before a specific time in the future.Examples: • By next November, I will have received my promotion. • By the time he gets home, she is going to have cleaned the entire house. • I am not going to have finished this test by 3 oclock. • Will she have learned enough Chinese to communicate before she moves to Beijing? • Sam is probably going to have completed the proposal by the time he leaves this afternoon. 51 | P a g e MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
  • 52. • By the time I finish this course, I will have taken ten tests. • How many countries are you going to have visited by the time you turn 50?Notice in the examples above that the reference points (marked in italics) are in Simple Present ratherthan Simple Future. This is because the interruptions are in time clauses, and you cannot use future tensesin time clauses.USE 2 Duration Before Something in the Future (Non-Continuous Verbs)With Non-Continuous Verbs and some non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, we use the Future Perfect toshow that something will continue up until another action in the future.Examples: • I will have been in London for six months by the time I leave. • By Monday, Susan is going to have had my book for a week.Although the above use of Future Perfect is normally limited to Non-Continuous Verbs and non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, the words "live," "work," "teach," and "study" are sometimes used inthis way even though they are NOT Non-Continuous Verbs.REMEMBER No Future in Time ClausesLike all future forms, the Future Perfect cannot be used in clauses beginning with time expressions suchas: when, while, before, after, by the time, as soon as, if, unless, etc. Instead of Future Perfect, PresentPerfect is used.Examples: • I am going to see a movie when I will have finished my homework. Not Correct • I am going to see a movie when I have finished my homework. CorrectADVERB PLACEMENTThe examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still,just, etc.Examples: • You will only have learned a few words. • Will you only have learned a few words? • You are only going to have learned a few words. •Are you only going to have learned a few words?ACTIVE / PASSIVEExamples: • They will have completed the project before the deadline. ACTIVE • The project will have been completed before the deadline. PASSIVE • They are going to have completed the project before the deadline. ACTIVE • The project is going to have been completed before the deadline. PASSIVE FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS
  • 53. Future Perfect Continuous has two different forms: "will have been doing " and "be going to have beendoing." Unlike Simple Future forms, Future Perfect Continuous forms are usually interchangeable.FORM Future Perfect Continuous with "Will"[will have been + present participle]Examples: • You will have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives. • Will you have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives? •You will not have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives.FORM Future Perfect Continuous with "Be Going To"[am/is/are + going to have been + present participle]Examples: • You are going to have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives. • Are you going to have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives? • You are not going to have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives.NOTE: It is possible to use either "will" or "be going to" to create the Future Perfect Continuous withlittle or no difference in meaning.Complete List of Future Perfect Continuous FormsUSE 1 Duration Before Something in the FutureWe use the Future Perfect Continuous to show that something will continue up until a particular event ortime in the future. "For five minutes," "for two weeks," and "since Friday" are all durations which can beused with the Future Perfect Continuous. Notice that this is related to the Present Perfect Continuous andthe Past Perfect Continuous; however, with Future Perfect Continuous, the duration stops at or before areference point in the future.Examples: • They will have been talking for over an hour by the time Thomas arrives. • She is going to have been working at that company for three years when it finally closes. • James will have been teaching at the university for more than a year by the time he leaves for Asia. • How long will you have been studying when you graduate? • We are going to have been driving for over three days straight when we get to Anchorage. • A: When you finish your English course, will you have been living in New Zealand for over a year? B: No, I will not have been living here that long.Notice in the examples above that the reference points (marked in italics) are in Simple Present ratherthan Simple Future. This is because these future events are in time clauses, and you cannot use futuretenses in time clauses. 53 | P a g e MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
  • 54. USE 2 Cause of Something in the FutureUsing the Future Perfect Continuous before another action in the future is a good way to show cause andeffect.Examples: • Jason will be tired when he gets home because he will have been jogging for over an hour. • Claudias English will be perfect when she returns to Germany because she is going to have been studying English in the United States for over two years.Future Continuous vs. Future Perfect ContinuousIf you do not include a duration such as "for five minutes," "for two weeks" or "since Friday," manyEnglish speakers choose to use the Future Continuous rather than the Future Perfect Continuous. Becareful because this can change the meaning of the sentence. Future Continuous emphasizes interruptedactions, whereas Future Perfect Continuous emphasizes a duration of time before something in the future.Study the examples below to understand the difference.Examples: • He will be tired because he will be exercising so hard. THIS SENTENCE EMPHASIZES THAT HE WILL BE TIRED BECAUSE HE WILL BE EXERCISING AT THAT EXACT MOMENT IN THE FUTURE. • He will be tired because he will have been exercising so hard. THIS SENTENCE EMPHASIZES THAT HE WILL BE TIRED BECAUSE HE WILL HAVE BEEN EXERCISING FOR A PERIOD OF TIME. IT IS POSSIBLE THAT HE WILL STILL BE EXERCISING AT THAT MOMENT OR THAT HE WILL JUST HAVE FINISHED.REMEMBER No Future in Time ClausesLike all future forms, the Future Perfect Continuous cannot be used in clauses beginning with timeexpressions such as: when, while, before, after, by the time, as soon as, if, unless, etc. Instead of FuturePerfect Continuous, Present Perfect Continuous is used.Examples: • You wont get a promotion until you will have been working here as long as Tim. Not Correct •You wont get a promotion until you have been working here as long as Tim. CorrectAND REMEMBER Non-Continuous Verbs / Mixed VerbsIt is important to remember that Non-Continuous Verbs cannot be used in any continuous tenses. Also,certain non-continuous meanings for Mixed Verbs cannot be used in continuous tenses. Instead of usingFuture Perfect Continuous with these verbs, you must use Future Perfect .Examples: • Ned will have been having his drivers license for over two years. Not Correct • Ned will have had his drivers license for over two years. CorrectADVERB PLACEMENTThe examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still,just, etc.Examples: • You will only have been waiting for a few minutes when her plane arrives.
  • 55. • Will you only have been waiting for a few minutes when her plane arrives? • You are only going to have been waiting for a few minutes when her plane arrives. • Are you only going to have been waiting for a few minutes when her plane arrives?ACTIVE / PASSIVEExamples: • The famous artist will have been painting the mural for over six months by the time it is finished. ACTIVE • The mural will have been being painted by the famous artist for over six months by the time it is finished. PASSIVE • The famous artist is going to have been painting the mural for over six months by the time it is finished. ACTIVE • The mural is going to have been being painted by the famous artist for over six months by the time it is finished. PASSIVE 55 | P a g e MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
  • 56. WORDS OF QUANTITY: a few - few / a little - little NAME: DATE: COUNT NOUNS – use A FEW or FEW NON-COUNT NOUNS – use A LITTLE or LITTLE A FEW = some (two or three) A LITTLE = some (a small amount)Example: I saw a few friends at the mall. Example: I have a little homework.Meaning: I saw some friends at the mall. Meaning: I have some homework.Meaning: I saw two or three friends at the mall. Meaning: I have a small amount of homework. FEW = almost none LITTLE = almost noneExample: He has few friends because hes unfriendly. Example: There is little pollution in that country.Meaning: He has almost no friends because hes unfriendly. Meaning: There is almost no pollution in that country.PART A. CHOOSE THE CORRECT ANSWER TO COMPLETE THE SENTENCES1. Max: Do you have [ a few / few ] pieces of paper I can borrow?2. Lee: Sure. Heres [ a little / little ] paper for you.3. Pat: I only have [ a little / little ] money for lunch. Lets go somewhere inexpensive.4. Jim: I can lend you [ a few / few ] dollars if you want.5. Irene is really unfriendly. She has very [ a few / few ] friends.6. She also has very [ a little / little ] patience with other people.7. Pablo has many acquaintances, but he only has [ a few / few ] very close friends.8. He thinks that its better to have [ a few / few ] close friends, than dozens of acquaintances.9. Sara likes [ a little / little ] honey in her tea.10. Renata likes [ a few / few ] spoonfuls of sugar in hers.11. Fran enjoys listening to [ a few / few / a little / little ] music when she gets home from school.12. She is thinking about buying [ a few / few / a little / little ] new CDs next week.13. We got to the airport early because there was very [ a few / few / a little / little ] traffic at 3 am.14. Since we got there early, we had [ a few / few / a little / little ] time to catch a nap in the terminal.PART B. WRITE THE CORRECT ANSWER TO COMPLETE THE SENTENCES15. Bens pants are getting too short for him. Hes getting taller by the minute!16. I suppose well have to buy him new pairs of pants this weekend.17. Employee: I’m sorry, but Im not finished yet. I need more minutes.18. May I please have more time to finish my project?19. Dana: If youre hungry, Id be happy to cook you eggs.20. Tim: No thanks. I ate fruit about 20 minutes ago.21. Student: I stayed up too late last night; I got very sleep.22. I wish I could sleep longer, but I have to get to class.23. Very people are millionaires.24. I dont necessarily want to be a millionaire, but Id like to have more money in the bank.25. A common saying: Into every life, rain must fall.26. An Irish blessing: May your joys be many and your troubles be .27. Mari: Can I please borrow your dictionary to look up words?28. I always use a dictionary, so I make very mistakes in spelling.29. Tamara speaks very Russian. When she visited Russia, she didn’t speak to anyone in Russian.30. Tamara can say words in Russian, but only small words like “please” and “thank you”.
  • 57. -ANSWER KEY-PART A. CHOOSE THE CORRECT ANSWER TO COMPLETE THE SENTENCES1. Max: Do you have [ a few ] pieces of paper I can borrow?2. Lee: Sure. Heres [ a little ] paper for you.3. Pat: I only have [ a little ] money for lunch. Lets go somewhere inexpensive.4. Jim: I can lend you [ a few ] dollars if you want.5. Irene is really unfriendly. She has very [ few ] friends.6. She also has very [ little ] patience with other people.7. Pablo has many acquaintances, but he only has [ a few ] very close friends.8. He thinks that its better to have [ a few ] close friends, than dozens of acquaintances.9. Sara likes [ a little ] honey in her tea.10. Renata likes [ a few ] spoonfuls of sugar in hers.11. Fran enjoys listening to [ a little ] music when she gets home from school.12. She is thinking about buying [ a few ] new CDs next week.13. We got to the airport early because there was very [ little ] traffic at 3 am.14. Since we got there early, we had [ a little ] time to catch a nap in the terminal.PART B. WRITE THE CORRECT ANSWER TO COMPLETE THE SENTENCES15. Bens pants are getting a little too short for him. Hes getting taller by the minute!16. I suppose well have to buy him a few new pairs of pants this weekend.17. Employee: I’m sorry, but Im not finished yet. I need a few more minutes.18. May I please have a little more time to finish my project?19. Dana: If youre hungry, Id be happy to cook you a few eggs.20. Tim: No thanks. I ate a little fruit about 20 minutes ago.21. Student: I stayed up too late last night; I got very little sleep.22. I wish I could sleep a little longer, but I have to get to class.23. Very few people are millionaires.24. I dont necessarily want to be a millionaire, but Id like to have a little more money in the bank.25. A common saying: Into every life, a little rain must fall.26. An Irish blessing: May your joys be many and your troubles be few .27. Mari: Can I please borrow your dictionary to look up a few words?28. I always use a dictionary, so I make very few mistakes in spelling.29. Tamara speaks very little Russian. When she visited Russia, she didn’t speak to anyone in Russian.30. Tamara can say a few words in Russian, but only small words like “please” and “thank you”. 57 | P a g e MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
  • 58. ADVERBSAdverbs describe verbs (actions). They give more detail about the action. My cat eats slowly.Slowly is an adverb since it describes the way my cat eats.How does my cat eat? Slowly.Adverbs will generally answer the question How.Some adverbs are used to modify an adjective.Adverbs that do this are: very, extremely, really, totally, absolutely, quite, fairly, well. These are normallyplaced before the adjective.  It was very hot yesterday.  He is totally crazy.Types of AdverbsThere are many types of adverbs, such as: • Adverbs of Frequency - always, sometimes, never, etc. • Adverbs of Manner - carefully, slowly • Adverbs of Time and Place - here, yesterday, then • Adverbs of Relative Time - recently, already, soon • Adverbs of Degree - very, extremely, rather • Adverbs of Quantity - a few, a lot, much • Adverbs of Attitude - fortunately, apparently, clearlyAdverbs Word OrderAdverbs are usually placed after the verb: He speaks clearly.When there is an object, the adverb is usually placed after the verb + object: I put the vase carefully on the table.However, adverbs are never positioned between the verb and the object.I read the book quickly. - (Correct)I read quickly the book. - (Incorrect)Sometimes adverbs are placed at the beginning of a clause. Quickly, I changed my opinion.
  • 59. PREPOSITIONDefinition: Prepositions are a class of words that indicate relationships between nouns, pronouns andother words in a sentence. Most often they come before a noun. They never change their form, regardlessof the case, gender etc. of the word they are referring to.Prepositions typically come before a noun:For example: • after class • at home • before Tuesday • in London • on fire • with pleasureA preposition usually indicates the temporal, spatial or logical relationship of its object to the rest of thesentence.For example:  The book is on the table.  The book is beside the table.  She read the book during class. In each of the preceding sentences, a preposition locates the noun "book" in space or in time.Prepositions are classified as simple or compound.Simple prepositionsSimple prepositions are single word prepositions. These are all showed above.For example:  The book is on the table.Compound prepositionsCompound prepositions are more than one word. in between and because of are prepositions made up oftwo words - in front of, on behalf of are prepositions made up of three words.For example:  The book is in between War and Peace and The Lord of the Rings.  The book is in front of the clock.Examples: 59 | P a g e MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
  • 60. • The children climbed the mountain without fear. • There was rejoicing throughout the land when the government was defeated. • The spider crawled slowly along the banister.The following table contains rules for some of the most frequently used prepositions in English:Prepositions of Time:  On  days of the week  on Monday  In  months / seasons  in August / in winter  time of day  in the morning  year  in 2006  after a certain period of time  in an hour (when?)  At  for night  at night  for weekend  at the weekend  a certain point of time (when?)  at half past nine  Since  from a certain point of time (past  since 1980 till now)  For  over a certain period of time (past  for 2 years till now)  Ago  a certain time in the past  2 years ago  Before  earlier than a certain point of time  before 2004  To  telling the time  ten to six (5:50)  Past  telling the time  ten past six (6:10)  To / till /  marking the beginning and end of a  from Monday to/till Friday until period of time  Till /  in the sense of how long something  He is on holiday until until is going to last Friday.  By  in the sense of at the latest  I will be back by 6 o’clock.  up to a certain time  By 11 oclock, I had read five pages.
  • 61. Prepositions of Place:  in  room, building, street, town, country  in the kitchen, in London  book, paper etc.  in the book  car, taxi  in the car, in a taxi  picture, world  in the picture, in the world  at  meaning next to, by an object  at the door, at the station  for table  at the table  for events  at a concert, at the party  place where you are to do  at the cinema, at school, something typical (watch a film, at work study, work)  on  attached  the picture on the wall  for a place with a river  London lies on the Thames.  being on a surface  on the table  for a certain side (left, right)  on the left  for a floor in a house  on the first floor  for public transport  on the bus, on a plane  for television, radio  on TV, on the radio  by, next  left or right of somebody or  Jane is standing by / next to, beside something to / beside the car.  under  on the ground, lower than (or  the bag is under the table covered by) something else  below  lower than something else but above  the fish are below the ground surface  over  covered by something else  put a jacket over your shirt  meaning more than  over 16 years of age  getting to the other side (also across)  walk over the bridge  overcoming an obstacle  climb over the wall  above  higher than something else, but not  a path above the lake directly over it  across  getting to the other side (also over)  walk across the bridge 61 | P a g e MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
  • 62.  getting to the other side  swim across the lake  through  something with limits on top,  drive through the tunnel bottom and the sides  to  movement to person or building  go to the cinema  movement to a place or country  go to London / Ireland  for bed  go to bed  into  enter a room / a building  go into the kitchen / the house  towards  movement in the direction of  go 5 steps towards the something (but not directly to it) house  onto  movement to the top of something  jump onto the table  from  in the sense of where from  a flower from the garden *********************** CONJUNCTIONS1. Except is not used as a conjunction equivalent to unless. I shall not comes unless (not except) you need me.2. The use of without as conjunction equivalent to unless is considered to be informal English. Unless (not without) you apologize I shall punish you.3. The adverb like is often mistaken with the use of as. Both like and as are used for comparison,but their use is different. After like only noun phrase is used, while after as we always use a clause(Noun + verb). e.g. He speaks like his father. He speaks as his father does.4. Scarcely should be followed by when, and not by than. Scarcely had he gone, when (not than) a police knocked at the door.5. No sooner is followed by than not by but. No sooner had he returned than (not but) he was off again.6. Correlative conjunctions. a. Either is followed by or Either the cat or the dog has killed the rabbit. b. Neither is followed by nor. Neither Asad nor Ali was present yesterday. c. Not only is followed by but also. He lost not only his tickets but also his luggage.7. Than as a conjunction, follows adjectives and adverbs in the comparative degree. Wisdom is better than rubies. I see you oftener than him.
  • 63. 8. Lest is used as a subordinating Conjunction expressing a negative purpose, and is equivalent to“in order that……Not”, “for fear that” Do not be idle, lest you come to want. He fled, lest he should be killed. He disguised himself lest he be recognized.9. While is used: a. During the time that, as long as; While there is life there is hope. b. At the same time that; as, The girls sang while the boys played.10. After “as” we do not use “so”. As I am ill, so I hope you will grant me leave.(Incorrect) As I am ill, I hope you will grant me leave.11. Though is a conjunction which does not a second conjunction like ‘but, still, however yet is usedsome times after it for the sake of clarity. Similarly “because is not followed by “therefore” or “so”. Because he is clever, therefore or so he gets good marks. (Incorrect) Because he is clever, he gets good marks.12. “Although” is always followed by “yet” not by but. Although he is poor, but he is generous. (Incorrect) Although he is poor, yet he is generous.13. Some and any Some is used in the positive sentences for plural or uncountable nouns. e.g. There are some students in the class. There is some milk in the cup. While on the other hand any is used in the negative and interrogative sentences for singular or uncountable noun. e.g. There is not any student in the class. Is there any red flower in the garden?14.Unless is used as conjunction with the meaning ‘if ...not’, ‘on the condition that’ You will fail the exams unless you work hard. Come at 8.p.m unless I phone. Unless can not be used in conditional sentences which describes imaginary situations. e.g. we would have had a lovely holiday if (not unless) it hadn’t rain.15. Until (till more formal) usually preferred in initial position. a. As far as the time when. Let’s wait until the rain stops. Continue in this direction until you see a sign. b. Before the time when something happens and not after it. Until she spoke I hadn’t realized that she is a foreigner. I won’t stop shouting until you let me go. c. Until is also used as preposition as far as the specified time is concerned Wait until tomorrow. Until now I have always lived alone. 63 | P a g e MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
  • 64. *********************
  • 65. SUBJECT AND PREDICATEEvery complete sentence contains two parts: a subject and a predicate. The subject is what (or whom)the sentence is about, while the predicate tells something about the subject. In the following sentences, thepredicate is enclosed in braces ({}), while the subject is highlighted. Judy {runs}. Judy and her dog {run on the beach every morning}.To determine the subject of a sentence, first isolate the verb and then make a question by placing "who?"or "what?" before it -- the answer is the subject. The audience littered the theatre floor with torn wrappings and spilled popcorn.The verb in the above sentence is "littered." Who or what littered? The audience did. "The audience" isthe subject of the sentence. The predicate (which always includes the verb) goes on to relate somethingabout the subject: what about the audience? It "littered the theatre floor with torn wrappings and spilledpopcorn." Unusual SentencesImperative sentences (sentences that give a command or an order) differ from conventional sentences inthat their subject, which is always "you," is understood rather than expressed. Stand on your head. ("You" is understood before "stand.")Be careful with sentences that begin with "there" plus a form of the verb "to be." In such sentences,"there" is not the subject; it merely signals that the true subject will soon follow. There were three stray kittens cowering under our porch steps this morning.If you ask who? or what? before the verb ("were cowering"), the answer is "three stray kittens," thecorrect subject. Simple Subject and Simple PredicateEvery subject is built around one noun or pronoun (or more) that, when stripped of all the words thatmodify it, is known as the simple subject. Consider the following example: A piece of pepperoni pizza would satisfy his hunger.The subject is built around the noun "piece," with the other words of the subject -- "a" and "of pepperonipizza" -- modifying the noun. "Piece" is the simple subject.Likewise, a predicate has at its centre a simple predicate, which is always the verb or verbs that link upwith the subject. In the example we just considered, the simple predicate is "would satisfy" -- in otherwords, the verb of the sentence. COMPOUND SUBJECTA sentence may have a compound subject -- a simple subject consisting of more than one noun orpronoun -- as in these examples: Team pennants, rock posters and family photographs covered the boys bedroom walls. Her uncle and she walked slowly through the Inuit art gallery and admired the powerful sculptures exhibited there. 65 | P a g e MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
  • 66. The second sentence above features a compound predicate, a predicate that includes more than one verbpertaining to the same subject (in this case, "walked" and "admired"). Objects and ComplementsObjectsA verb may be followed by an object that completes the verbs meaning. Two kinds of objects followverbs: direct objects and indirect objects. To determine if a verb has a direct object, isolate the verb andmake it into a question by placing "whom?" or "what?" after it. The answer, if there is one, is the directobject:Direct Object The advertising executive drove a flashy red Porsche.Direct Object Her secret admirer gave her a bouquet of flowers.The second sentence above also contains an indirect object. An indirect object (which, like a directobject, is always a noun or pronoun) is, in a sense, the recipient of the direct object. To determine if averb has an indirect object, isolate the verb and ask to whom?, to what?, for whom?, or for what? after it.The answer is the indirect object.Not all verbs are followed by objects. Consider the verbs in the following sentences: The guest speaker rose from her chair to protest. After work, Randy usually jogs around the canal. Transitive and Intransitive VerbsVerbs that take objects are known as transitive verbs. Verbs not followed by objects are calledintransitive verbs.Some verbs can be either transitive verbs or intransitive verbs, depending on the context:Direct Object I hope the Senators win the next game.No Direct Object Did we win? Subject ComplementsIn addition to the transitive verb and the intransitive verb, there is a third kind of verb called a linkingverb. The word (or phrase) which follows a linking verb is called not an object, but a subjectcomplement.The most common linking verb is "be." Other linking verbs are "become," "seem," "appear," "feel,""grow," "look," "smell," "taste," and "sound," among others. Note that some of these are sometimeslinking verbs, sometimes transitive verbs, or sometimes intransitive verbs, depending on how you usethem:Linking verb with subject complement He was a radiologist before he became a full-time yoga instructor.Linking verb with subject complement Your homemade chili smells delicious.Transitive verb with direct object I cant smell anything with this terrible cold.Intransitive verb with no object The interior of the beautiful new Buick smells strongly of fish.Note that a subject complement can be either a noun ("radiologist", "instructor") or an adjective
  • 67. ("delicious"). Object ComplementsAn object complement is similar to a subject complement, except that (obviously) it modifies an objectrather than a subject. Consider this example of a subject complement: The driver seems tired.In this case, as explained above, the adjective "tired" modifies the noun "driver," which is the subject ofthe sentence.Sometimes, however, the noun will be the object, as in the following example: I consider the driver tired.In this case, the noun "driver" is the direct object of the verb "consider," but the adjective "tired" is stillacting as its complement.In general, verbs which have to do with perceiving, judging, or changing something can cause their directobjects to take an object complement: Paint it black. The judge ruled her out of order. I saw the Prime Minister sleeping.In every case, you could reconstruct the last part of the sentence into a sentence of its own using a subjectcomplement: "it is black," "she is out of order," "the Prime Minister is sleeping." 67 | P a g e MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
  • 68. CONDITIONAL SENTENCES FIRST CONDITIONALDefinition: First Conditional (1st Conditional)FORMATION: If + Present Simple, + Will + 1st Form of Verb.USE:The first conditional is for future actions dependent on the result of another future action or event, wherethere is a reasonable possibility of the conditions for the action being satisfied.eg: If he gets here soon, Ill speak to him about it. (The speaker believes that there is a reasonable or goodchance of seeing him.) Second ConditionalDefinition: Second Conditional (2nd Conditional)FORMATION: If + Past Simple, + Would + Base Form of Verb.USE:1/ For future actions dependent on the result of another future action or event, where there is only a smallpossibility of the conditions for the action being satisfied.eg: If I won the lottery, I would stop working.2/ For imaginary present actions, where the conditions for the action are NOT satisfied.eg: If you phoned home more often, they wouldnt worry about you. (The conditions are not satisfiedbecause the person does not phone home, so they do worry.)TO BE: In Standard English this verb can take the were form for all persons in the If clause.eg: If I were you, Id tell her.CONTRACTIONS: Would and had are contracted to d; the way to distinguish them is simple becausewould is always followed by a Base Form and had, as an Auxiliary Verb, is followed by a PastParticiple. eg: Id tell her. Tell is the Base Form so it means I would tell herId done it. Done is the Past Participle so it means I had done iteg: If he gets here soon, Ill speak to him about it. Third ConditionalFORMATION: If + Past Perfect, + Would have + Past Participle(3rd Form of Verb).USE:1/ For imaginary past actions, where the conditions for the action WERE NOT satisfied.eg: If youd been there, you wouldve seen it. (The conditions were not met because the person was notthere and as a result did not see it.)
  • 69. TYPES OF SENTENCESA simple sentence consists of one independent clause. An independent clause contains a subject and apredicate and expresses a complete thought.Example: The dog barked at the postal worker.A compound sentence consists of two or more independent clauses that are connected by a comma and acoordinating conjunction (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so).Example: Writing tutors in The Writing Center are friendly, and they know how to help students.A complex sentence consists of an independent clause and one or more dependent clauses. Using asubordinating conjunction (because, although, if, etc.) creates a dependent clause. Using a relativepronoun (who, whom, that, or which) creates a dependent clause.Example: Because writing tutors are excited about grammar and organization, students enjoy workingwith tutors in The Writing Center.Example: The man who has the red umbrella is my uncle.A compound-complex sentence consists of at least two independent clauses, and at least one dependentclause.Example: If you want to know more about clauses, you can watch a videotape, or you can complete amini-grammar tutorial.Sentence FunctionsSentences can be classified according to function.A declarative sentence makes a statement: The car is green.An interrogative sentence asks a question: Is the car yours?An imperative sentence issues a command or request: Drive carefully.An exclamatory sentence expresses strong feeling: Not him! 69 | P a g e MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
  • 70. PHRASEA phrase is a group or combination of words without a subject and predicate. Phrases combine words intoa larger unit that can function as a sentence element. For example, a participial phrase can includeadjectives, nouns, prepositions and adverbs; as a single unit, however, it functions as one big adjectivemodifying a noun (or noun phrase). TYPES OF PHRASENoun Phrase - “The crazy old lady in the park feeds the pigeons every day.” A noun phrase consists of anoun and all of its modifiers, which can include other phrases (like the prepositional phrase in the park).Appositive Phrase - “Bob, my best friend, works here” or “My best friend Bob works here.” Anappositive (single word, phrase, or clause) renames another noun, not technically modifying it.Gerund Phrase - “I love baking cakes.” A gerund phrase is just a noun phrase with a gerund as its head.Infinitive Phrase - “I love to bake cakes.” An infinitive phrase is a noun phrase with an infinitive as itshead. Unlike the other noun phrases, however, an infinitive phrase can also function as an adjective or anadverb.Verb Phrase - The verb phrase can refer to the whole predicate of a sentence (I was watching myfavorite show yesterday) or just the verb or verb group (was watching).Adverbial Phrase - The adverbial phrase also has two definitions; some say it’s a group of adverbs (veryquickly), while others say it’s any phrase (usually a prepositional phrase) that acts as an adverb.Adjectival Phrase - As with adverbial phrases, adjectival phrases can either refer to a group of adjectives(full of toys) or any phrase (like a participial or prepositional phrase) that acts as an adjective.Participial Phrase - “Crushed to pieces by a sledgehammer, the computer no longer worked” or “I thinkthe guy sitting over there likes you.” A participial phrase has a past or present participle as its head.Participial phrases always function as adjectives.
  • 71. Prepositional Phrase - “The food on the table looked delicious.” A prepositional phrase, which has apreposition as its head, can function as an adjective, adverb, or even as a noun.Absolute Phrase - “My cake finally baking in the oven, I was free to rest for thirty minutes.” Unlikeparticipial phrases, absolute phrases have subjects and modify the entire sentence, not one noun. Almost aclause, the absolute phrase can include every sentence element except a finite verb. For example, “Mycake finally baking in the oven” would be its own sentence if you just added one finite verb: “My cakewas finally baking in the oven.” Phrases function as nouns, adjectives, or adverbs Type Definition Example Prepositional phrases Acts mostly as adverbs, I walked to the store. (most common type of sometimes as adjectives or (adverb) phrase) nouns ?begins with a With a smile I told the joke. preposition and ends with a (adjective) noun or pronoun. After sunset is a good time to go fishing. (noun) Absolute phrases Has no grammatical An uncertain future (noun or pronoun and a connection to any part of looming, I forged ahead. participle with modifiers) speech, instead modifies the entire rest of the sentence Appositive phrases An appositive is a re-naming My English teacher, an or amplification of a word excellent author, just that immediately precedes it. published his second book. Verb phrases: (As Predicate) The verb (I was watching my favorite phrase can refer to the show yesterday) or just the whole predicate of a verb or verb group (was sentence. watching). Infinitive phrases Acts as nouns I wanted to leave. Participle phrases Acts as adjectives Flying high in the air, the rocket exploded. Gerund phrases Acts as nouns Getting the promotion is my only hope. CLAUSEA clause is a group of words that contain both a subject and a verb/predicate, thus it may be able to standalone as a sentence: White dogs are pretty (independent clause); or it may not: Although white dogs arepretty (dependant clause). Clauses are either dependent or independent. An independent clause can existby itself as a complete sentence (as in “I love grammar.“), while a dependent clause cannot. 71 | P a g e MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
  • 72. DEPENDENT OR SUBORDINATE CLAUSESA dependent or subordinate clause depends on an independent clause to express its full meaning (as in“Because I love grammar.”). These clauses begin with a dependent word, like a subordinatingconjunction or a relative pronoun.Dependent clauses can function as nouns, adjectives, and adverbs:Noun Clause - “The boy wondered if his parents bought him what he wanted for Christmas.” A nounclause can replace any noun in a sentence, functioning as a subject, object, or complement .Adjective Clause (or relative clause) - “I listened to the song that you told me about.” An adjectiveclause describes a noun just like an adjective. Which song? The new song, the good song, the song thatyou told me about. Often called relative clauses, they’re either restrictive or nonrestrictive (also calleddefining and non-defining, essential and nonessential, or integrated and supplementary):Restrictive Clause - “The building that they built in San Francisco sold for a lot of money.” A restrictiveclause begins with a relative pronoun like that or who (or sometimes which). It specifies or restricts thenoun; in this case, it specifies which building the speaker is referring to. Note: the relative pronoun isoften omitted (”The building (that) they built”), leaving what is called an elliptical clause or contactclause.Nonrestrictive Clause - “The building, which they built in San Francisco, sold for a lot of money.” Anonrestrictive clause begins with a relative pronoun like which or who. It adds extra information about analready-specific noun; in this case, there’s only one building to talk about, whereas the example for therestrictive clause implies that there could be several buildings.Adverb Clause - “I’ll do the laundry when I’m out of clothes.” Like all adverbials, adverb clauses expresswhen, where, why, and how something occurs. A dependent clause is an adverb clause if you can replaceit with an adverb, as in “I’ll do the laundry later.” Clauses (dependant) function as nouns, adjectives, or adverbs Type Definition Example Relative or Adjective Acts as an adjective and Bob didnt get the job in clauses begins with a relative administration, which really pronoun: what, which, who, surprised his friends. that, whatever, whoever. The dress that she bought on Tuesday was torn. Noun clauses Acts as a noun Whoever stole my pen must give it back. Adverb clauses Acts as an adverb by telling Mary felt happy when she something about the verb found her dog. Elliptical clauses Grammatically incomplete, I recommend (that) you go but clear in meaning to the doctor.?May omit “that.? I knew he could fix the car better than I (could fix the car). May omit “could fix
  • 73. the car.? 73 | P a g eMUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
  • 74. Sentences and ClausesSentences and Clauses - IntroductionThere are four types of sentence: Simple Compound Complex MinorA clause is a group of words which acts as a single unit and is built round a verb, for example: He lives in AmericaCompound and complex sentences contain two or more clauses:Simple: John is living in America.Compound: He lives in America, but his family is still in Wales.Complex: While his family is still in Wales, John’s staying with friends.Minor: A minor sentence is one without a verb, e.g.First, a word about sentences.America, of all places!To produce varied, interesting writing with effective changes in rhythm, pupils need to be able touse a variety of sentence types. They need to learn to exploit the opportunities that differentclause types and clause combinations can offer. Sentence and clause elements and their functionsSimple sentences and main clauses almost always have a subject and a verb, and sometimeshave an object: a subject a verb an object noun (or a verb chain) noun pronoun pronoun noun phrase noun phrase The tall girl was kicking her desk. The baby yawned.More complex clauses may also have:
  • 75. Adverbials Complement Indirect object  Adverbs  Noun  Noun  Adverb phrases  Pronoun  Pronoun  Preposition phrases  Noun phrase  Noun phrase  Noun phrases  Adjective  Adverbial clauses  Adjective phrase which stands between the verb  Prepositional phrase and the main object  Clause which completes the verbIt rains in the winter. He felt quite ill Mum gave him a tablet.Joe left this morning. He was in a bad mood, or at He would never lend his son his least he seemed it. car. VERBS AS HEADS OF CLAUSES The verb is the most important word in the sentence because it is essential, whereas the subject may sometimes be missed out (for example, in imperatives): Hurry! Come in! In some languages, the subject can always be omitted; in Latin, for example, the verb dormio means "I sleep", and dormit means "He sleeps" or "She sleeps". These words can be used as complete sentences. The same is true of most of the languages derived from Latin (e.g. Spanish and Italian), and many other languages. In English, as in other languages, the rest of the sentence may be seen as an expansion of the verb. If the verb is won, we know that the sentence is about an incident in which someone won something. Each of the other elements in the sentence answers some question about the verb: Who won? She won. What did she win? She won the first race. When did she win? She won yesterday. How did she win? She won by cheating. This is just like the relation between a phrase and its head; for example: her victory in the first race Here the head word is victory and the words her and in the first race modify its meaning by answering the questions "whose victory?" and "victory in which event?". The verb is therefore the head of its clause, so it stands at the top of structure diagrams: 75 | P a g e MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
  • 76. SUBJECTSome of the simplest sentences and clauses consist of a verb and a noun, a pronoun or a nounphrase acting as the verbs subject. The subject normally stands just before the verb.SUBJECT VERBShe won.The girl with brown hair slipped.Moving my arm hurts. VERBS AND VERB CHAINSThe verb may be expanded into a chain of one or more auxiliary verbs followed by a mainverb. SUBJECT VERB She forgot. has forgotten. She may have forgotten. She has been running. The little rabbit with floppy ears may hurt. Raising your armEach verb in the chain is tightly connected to the verbs on either side, just like links in a chain.See how forgot changes to forgotten when it follows has, and has changes to have after may.This is because each verb in the chain decides the form of the next verb:Auxiliary verb Form of next verb
  • 77. have (has, had) past participle (e.g. been, forgotten)be (is, are, was, etc.) present participle (e.g. running)may (might) infinitive (e.g. have, hurt)We can show these verb-verb bonds like links in a chain:OBJECTThe verb - or the last verb in a chain - may be accompanied by a second noun, pronoun or nounphrase or clause. This is the verbs object, which normally follows the verb.INDIRECT OBJECTSometimes a third noun, pronoun or noun phrase stands immediately between the verb andthe object. This is called the indirect object (because the action affects it less directly than itaffects the ordinary, or direct, object). Its convenient to abbreviate these labels, so s = subject, o= (direct) object, i = indirect object. 77 | P a g e MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
  • 78. COMPLEMENTSome verbs, for example be, seem appear, get, become, sometimes need their basic meaning tobe completed. This complement (c) which completes the verb normally follows both the verband the object (if there is one).ADVERBIALSMany elements can modify the verbs meaning by adding information about time, place, manneretc. Such elements are called adverbials (a)because this is the main role of adverbs. Adverbialsare not fixed to one position but move fairly freely: they can be at the start (a1), in the middle(a2) or at the end (a3).
  • 79. Notice how adverbs can split the verb chain, so will be becomes will probably not be.Variations on the basic pattern of clause elementsWe can, and often do, vary the basic pattern and you should be aware of these alternatives: • Variations according to purpose (interrogative, imperative, negative) • PassivesVariations according to purposeThe elements affected by these variations are the subject and the verb. • The simplest clause form is called the declarative. Here the subject is before the verb as in all the earlier examples:You are my friend. • Yes/no interrogative (expecting the answer yes or no). Here the subject follows the first verb, which must be an auxiliary verb:Have you seen it?Did you see that?Are you my friend? • Wh interrogative (introduced by an interrogative word spelt wh...). Here too the subject follows the first auxiliary verb, unless it is itself the interrogative word. Who are you meeting? Who is your friend? When shall we meet? 79 | P a g e MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
  • 80. Why did you do it? • EXCLAMATIVE. Here too there is a wh-word at the beginning, but the subject is in its normal position before the verb. What a friend you are! What a shame! How tall you are now. • IMPERATIVE. Here the subject is usually hidden, but would otherwise be you; and the first verb is in its basic form without any ending: Be my friend! Please be my friend. Take 3 eggs. Whisk them in a large bowl. • And whatever the purpose, a clause can also be negative, with either not or nt right after the first auxiliary verb: You are not my friend. Arent you my friend? Why arent you my friend? Dont touch it!PASSIVESMany verbs can be either active or passive, a contrast which is traditionally called voice.Active: Sam built this house.Passive: This house was built by Sam.The information is the same but the focus is different.The first sentence is about what Sam did, so Sam is the subject of the active verb. The secondsentence is about the house, and the house is the subject of the passive verb. • Passive verbs have a different form (was built) from active verbs. The active verbs object (the house) is the passive verbs subject. • The active verbs subject (Sam) may be omitted in the passive, or may be included with
  • 81. by."Who done it?"In an active clause the "doer" or agent is always clear: Moriati shot the stranger.But in a passive clause it is possible not to reveal "who done it": The stranger has been shot.Or a doer can be identified using by : The stranger has been shot by Dr Watson.The passive form is the same as the past participle, and is often combined with the auxiliarybe:We saw it It was seenI have mended it It has been mendedWe must finish it It must be finishedDavid is painting it It is being painted by DavidSometimes we use get instead of be:He got arrested.When should the passive form be used?( ... or perhaps, "when should you use the passive form?") The thief was spotted by the policeman. It is considered to be a good thing. The official photographs will be taken by Josh.The passive voice can sometimes sound pompous and impersonal.USING THE PASSIVEWord processing software that includes grammar checking usually "corrects" any use of thepassive and suggests the active alternative. Most people agree that the passive should be avoidedunless there is a particular reason to use it.WHEN TO USE THE PASSIVE • In order to leave the actor unspecified, perhaps because we don’t know who done it, or 81 | P a g e MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
  • 82. don’t want to say, or because the actor remains to be decided. A report should be written … Application forms must be returned. I have been told about these rumours.• To focus attention on the actor, by adding the by phrase, normally at the end of the clause. The best essay was written by the youngest pupil. It was broken by vandals.• To change the position of the natural subject and object, in order to link back to what has gone before. Q. Who ordered pizza and who wanted pasta? A. The pizza was definitely ordered by John. I’m not sure about the pasta. To write science reports in the passive voice. The substance was put into a test tube, which was held with forceps over a Bunsen burner until a red glow was observed.
  • 83. Clause types • MAIN • SUBORDINATEMain clausesA main clause is complete on its own. It may be a complete sentence written with a capitalletter and full stop (or ?!): Alice saw a rabbit. Anna is eating her favourite supper. Finally, we arrived.Simple sentences consist of just one main clause: Hannah is eating her favourite supper. Finally, we arrived.Compound sentences consist of two or more main clauses – clauses of equal weight, joinedtogether by and, or, but, or so. (This relationship is called co-ordination, and is explained in aseparate unit.)I’ve lost my school bag but the keys are here so I’m not locked out.It’s late, so she’s not going.I like reading and I love Hemingway.Compound sentences contain one or more subordinate clauses. SUBORDINATE CLAUSESA subordinate clause is part of a larger clause. He burns easily if he doesn’t use sun cream. Where is the cup of tea that you promised to make? The class I taught last year all did quite well.  83 | P a g e MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
  • 84. oBecause the subordinate clause is part of the larger clause, the remainder of this clause is notitself a complete clause; so in the first example above the main clause is the entire sentence, notHe burns easily. Using subordinate clauses allows writers to vary pace and rhythm and toindicate the relative importance of different ideas. • Subordination signals • Finite and non-finite clauses • Noun clauses • Relative clauses • Adverbial clauses • Nested subordinate clausesSUBORDINATION SIGNALSYou can usually recognize subordinate clauses easily because they are signalled: • by a non-finite verb which is the clauses first or only verb: We ate early, being excessively hungry. To be ready in time, he did without supper. Having eaten early, we watched the news. We helped unpack the tent. • or by a subordinating word: They sat there until it started to rain. He’s the one who started it. After he arrived things started to happen.
  • 85. They will walk out unless we give in to them.However, some subordinate clauses have no signal at all, because the subordinating word -which is always that - is omitted. They are harder to recognize, but can nearly always beidentified by replacing the missing that:  I know you are hiding something. (... know that you are ...)  Who says I am a coward? (... says that I am ...)  That man she likes is very tall. (... man that she likes ...)  The book I’m reading won a prize. (... book that Im reading ...) FINITE AND NON-FINITE CLAUSES • Finite clauses have a finite verb as their head. I know everyone sent their friends birthday cards this year. • Non-finite clauses have a non-finite verb (i.e. an infinitive or a participle) as their head. Everyone promised to send their friends birthday cards this year.This important difference is always signalled by the first verb in the verb-chain:I know everyone has sent their friends birthday cards this year.Everyone hopes to have finished their projects by the end of the week.Having already finished their projects, they can have a rest.This difference also affects the ways in which these clauses can be used: Finite clauses may generally be used as complete sentences (once any subordinating words have been removed): Everyone sent their friends birthday cards this year. Non-finite clauses are always part of a larger clause: They have made plans to send their friends birthday cards this year.This is because the use of a non-finite verb such as to send is one of the main signals that aclause is a subordinate clause.This difference may also affect the meaning of sentences, often in a subtle way. For example,compare: • I remembered that I was responsible. (finite) • I remembered to do it. (non-finite) • I saw that you did it. (finite) • I saw you do it. (non-finite) 85 | P a g e MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
  • 86. These highlighted clauses are non-finite: We really enjoy sailing our dinghy. Spurred on by the crowd, they won the match. He struggled to read the small type.Changing the tense of the sentence doesn’t change the non-finite clause:  We enjoyed sailing our dinghy.  We will enjoy sailing our dinghy.  He struggles to read the small type.  He will struggle to read the small type.  Spurred on by the crowd, they won the match.  Spurred on by the crowd, they are winning the match.Noun clausesNoun clauses, like nouns, pronouns and noun phrases, can act as: • the object of a verb: I know that Mary bought the dog. • the subject of a verb: Why she bought it is a great mystery to us all. • the object of a Dont judge her by what she buys. preposition: • a complement She seems to be pleased with it.If a clause fulfils the role of a noun in a sentence, it is a noun clause.The use of expressions, where a noun phrase is followed by a noun clause: We discussed the idea that she had bought a cat. We discussed the fact that she had bought a cat. We discussed the possibility that she had bought a cat.This structure is a useful tool to help thinking skills because it involves important distinctionsabout the logical status of information - e.g. as facts, beliefs, suggestions, theories, and ideas.Relative clausesRelative clauses are adjectival because, like adjectives, they modify a nouns; but unlikeadjectives, they come after the modified noun:
  • 87. Sam is the one who usually sits here. The shop where I work is closing. This computer, which I usually use, is faster.Relative clauses usually start with a relative pronoun: that, who, which, whom, whose or a relative adverb: when, whereRelative pronouns and relative adverbs act as subordinating words – they signal a subordinateclause.Joe bought a dog and the dog barks all Co-ordinated main clausesnight and it keeps us awake.The dog that Joe bought barks all night and Relative subordinate clausekeeps us awake. ADVERBIAL CLAUSESAn adverbial subordinate clause modifies the meaning of the main clause in much the same wayas an adverb: • Although I regret it, I must decline your invitation. (adverbial clause) • Regrettably, I must decline your invitation. (adverb) • They arrived before it started raining. (adverbial clause) • They arrived promptly. (adverb)Here are the main relationships expressed by adverbial subordinate clauses :Time after, as, as soon as, before, once, since, until, when and whenever, whilePlace where, whereverReason as, because, sinceComparison as, as if, as though, thanCondition as long as, if, in case, provided, provided that 87 | P a g e MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
  • 88. Negative condition if … not, unlessConcession although, as long as, even if, even though, though, whereas, whilePurpose to, in order to, so thatResult so that, so … that, such … that Clauses within ClausesA subordinate clause can be at the beginning, in the middle, or at the end of a sentence: While he was paying for his petrol, his car was stolen. The teacher who has this group is away today.His car was stolen while he was paying for his petrol.Sentences can contain more than one subordinate clause:While we were away, the girl who was looking after our cat heard that her grandmother had died.Some of these clauses can be nested one inside another, like Russian dolls or Chinese boxes.For example,He said that his father went to America because Kate is there.contains the clause:(that) his father went to America because Kate is there.which in turn contains the clause:because Kate is there.
  • 89. How to show nested subordinate clauses in a sentence: • by underlining: • or using "Chinese boxes":Non-finite verbsHere is a refresher on non-finite verbs.Non-finite verbs:  Present Participle: sailing I was sailing (was is finite, sailing is non-finite)  Past Participle: sailed They have sailed (have is finite, sailed is non-finite)  Infinitive: to sail, sail I learned to sail (learned is finite, sail is non-finite) Watch him sail (watch is finite, sail is non-finite)Subordinating wordsSubordinating Conjunctions: after, although, as, as if, as long as, as soon as, as though, because, before, if , in case, in order to, in that, once, provided (that), since, so that, than, that, though, until, unless, when, whenever, where, wherever, whereas, while ... and others.Relative Or Interrogative Pronouns Or Adverbshow, that, what, when, where, which, who, whom, whose, why; however, whatever ... and others. When can a relative pronoun (that) be omitted?The computer I use at home is faster. The computer crashed is outside. X 89 | P a g e MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
  • 90. The lesson I like most is English. The lesson follows this is English. XThe Alice I know has red hair. The Alice usually sits next to me is his sister. XThe bullet he saw was silver. The bullet killed him was silver. XWhen the noun that the clause refers to is the object of the relative clause and the relativepronoun would have been that, this pronoun can be omitted; but in Standard English it cannotbe omitted if it is the relative clauses subject.What’s left when you remove the subordinate clause?Look at this sentence: He burns easily if he doesn’t use sun cream.This is a main clause, which contains a subordinate clause:if he doesn’t use sun creamThe meaning intended by the writer or speaker is conveyed by the whole main clause. One partof this main clause is the subordinate clause if he doesn’t use sun cream.But the remainder "He burns easily" is not a clause on its own; it is part of the whole mainclause: He burns easily if he doesn’t use sun cream.Of course the words he burns easily could stand alone as a main clause in a different sentence,or context, if they conveyed the writer’s full meaning; but in some cases the main clause isgrammatically incomplete if we remove the subordinate clause. For example:He said that it was too late. (Remainder: He said.)Why he did it is unclear. (Remainder: Is unclear.) **************************
  • 91. Usage: Basic Punctuation RulesCorrect punctuation is essential for clear and effective writing. The following list containssome of the most critical punctuation rules. COMMAS ( , )Commas are used to separate parts of a sentence. They tell readers to pause between words orgroups of words, and they help clarify the meanings of sentences.  Commas are used to separate three or more words, phrases, or clauses in a series. EXAMPLE: Practice will be held before school, in the afternoon, and at night.  Commas are used after an introductory dependent clause (a group of words before the subject of a sentence that do not form a complete sentence). EXAMPLE: If your friends enjoy Chinese food, they will love this restaurant.  Commas are used to set off introductory words, introductory adverbial, participial, or infinitive phrases, and longer introductory prepositional phrases. EXAMPLE: Incidentally, I was not late this morning. (word) Hoping for a bigger fish, Rob spent three more hours fishing. (phrase)  Commas are used between independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction (for, and, nor, but,or, yet, so). EXAMPLE: My dog had fleas, so we gave him a bath.  Commas set off nonessential phrases or clauses. EXAMPLE: The man, I think, had a funny laugh.  Commas set off an appositive (a word or phrase that renames a noun). EXAMPLE: Tanya, Debbies sister, gave a brilliant speech last night. END OF SENTENCE PUNCTUATIONEnd of sentence punctuation is used to let the reader know when a thought is finished.  A statement (or declarative sentence) is followed by a period. EXAMPLE: Orem is the home of Utah Valley State College.  A direct question (or interrogative sentence) is followed by a question mark. EXAMPLE: When did Joe buy a red shirt? SEMICOLONS ( ; )Semicolons are used to separate clauses or phrases that are related and that receive equal emphasis.  Semicolons join independent clauses in a compound sentence if no coordinating conjunction is used. EXAMPLE: Michael seemed preoccupied; he answered our questions abruptly.  Semicolons are used before a conjunctive adverb (transition word) that joins the clauses of a compound sentence. EXAMPLE: The emergency room was crowded; however, Warren was helped immediately.  Semicolons help avoid confusion in lists where there are already commas. 91 | P a g e MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
  • 92. EXAMPLE: We traveled to London, England; Paris, France; and Sofia, Bulgaria. COLONS {: }Colons follow independent clauses and are used to call attention to the information that comes after.  Colons come after the independent clause and before the word, phrase, sentence, quotation, or list it is introducing. EXAMPLE: Joe has only one thing on his mind: girls. (word) Joe has only one thing on his mind: the girl next door. (phrase) Joe has only one thing on his mind: he wants to go out with Linda. (clause) Joe has several things on his mind: his finals, his job, and Linda. (list)  Never use a colon after a verb that directly introduces a list. INCORRECT: The things on Joe’s mind are: finals, work, and Linda. CORRECT: The things on Joe’s mind are finals, work, and Linda. HYPHENS {-}Hyphens are used to form compound words or join word units. They are used to join prefixes,suffixes, and letters to words.  Use hyphens with compound numbers from twenty-one to ninety-nine and with fractions used as modifiers. EXAMPLE: forty-two applicants two-thirds majority (two-thirds is an adjective modifying majority) three-fourths empty (three-fourths is an adverb modifying empty) two thirds of the voters (two thirds is not being used as an adjective here because thirds is a noun being modified by two)  Use hyphens in a compound adjective only when it comes before the word it modifies. However, some compound adjectives are always hyphenated, such as well-balanced. Look up compound adjectives in the dictionary if you are unsure whether or not to hyphenate them. EXAMPLE: a well-liked author an author who is well liked a world-renowned composer a composer who is world renowned  Use a hyphen with the prefixes ex-, self-, and all-; with the suffix -elect; and with all prefixes before a proper noun or proper adjective. EXAMPLE: all-star ex-mayor pro-Canadian senator-elect anti-Semitic non-European self-controlself-image DASHES{ —}Dashes connect groups of words to other groups of words in order to emphasize a point or showthat the information is unessential. Usually the dash separates words in the middle of a sentencefrom the rest of the sentence, or it leads to material at the end of the sentence.  In the middle of a sentence, a dash can put special emphasis on a group of words or make them stand out from the rest of the sentence. EXAMPLE: Linda Simpsons prescription for the economy, lower interest rates, higher employment, and less government spending, was rejected by
  • 93. the presidents administration. BECOMES: Linda Simpsons prescription for the economy—lower interest rates, higher employment, and less government spending—was rejected by the presidents administration.  The dash can also be used to attach material to the end of a sentence when there is a clear break in the continuity of the sentence or when an explanation is being introduced. EXAMPLE: The president will be unable to win enough votes for another term of office —unless, of course, he can reduce unemployment and the deficit soon. EXAMPLE: It was a close call—the sudden gust of wind pushed the helicopter to within inches of the power line. APOSTROPHES {‘ }Apostrophes are used to show possession or to indicate where a letter has been omitted toform a contraction.  To show possession, add an apostrophe and an -s to singular nouns or indefinite pronouns that end inone or body. EXAMPLE: Susans wrench, anyones problem  Add only an apostrophe for plural possessive nouns ending in -s. EXAMPLE: my parents car, the musicians instruments  Add an apostrophe and an -s for plural possessive nouns that do not end in -s. EXAMPLE: the mens department, my childrens toys  Add an apostrophe and an -s for singular possessive nouns that end in -s. EXAMPLE: Chriss cookbook, the businesss system  Do not use an apostrophe with possessive personal pronouns including yours, his, hers, its, ours, their, and whose.  Apostrophes are also used in contractions, two words which have been combined into one, to mark where the missing letter or letters would be. EXAMPLE: I am= Im I have = Ive who is = whos let us = lets cannot = cant he is, she is, it is = hes, shes, its you are = youre they are = theyre  Avoid confusing its with its. Its is a contraction for it is; its is a possessive pronoun.Utah QUOTATION MARKS { “ ”}Quotation marks are used to show the beginning and end of a quotation or a title of a short work.  Quotation marks enclose the exact words of a person (direct quotation). EXAMPLE: Megan said, "Kurt has a red hat."  Do not use quotation marks around a paraphrase (using your own words to express the author’s ideas) or a summary of the authors words. EXAMPLE: Megan said that Kurt’s hat was red.  Quotation marks set off the titles of magazine articles, poems, reports, and chapters 93 | P a g e MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
  • 94. within a book. (Titles of books, magazines, plays, and other whole publications should be underlined or italicized.) EXAMPLE: "The Talk of the Town" is a regular feature in Time magazine.Utah Exclamation MARKSAn exclamation mark usually shows strong feeling, such as surprise, anger or joy. Using an exclamationmark when writing is rather like shouting or raising your voice when speaking. Exclamation marks aremost commonly used in writing quoted speech. You should avoid using exclamation marks in formalwriting, unless absolutely necessary.1. Use an exclamation mark to indicate strong feelings or a raised voice in speech: • She shouted at him, "Go away! I hate you!" • He exclaimed: "What a fantastic house you have!" • "Good heavens!" he said, "Is that true?" • "Help!" • "Shut up!" • "Stop!"2. Many interjections need an exclamation mark: • "Hi! Whats new?" • "Oh! When are you going?" • "Ouch! That hurt."3. A non-question sentence beginning with "what" or "how" is often an exclamation and requires anexclamation mark: • What idiots we are! (We are such idiots.) • How pretty she looked in that dress! (She looked very pretty in that dress.)4. In very informal writing (personal letter or email), people sometimes use two or more exclamationmarks together: • I met John yesterday. He is so handsome!!! • Remember, dont be late!! • Ill never understand this language!!!! ><><><><
  • 95. PRECIS WRITINGA precis is a short summary. It is not a paraphrase, which merely says in different and simpler wordsexactly what the passage being paraphrased has to say. A paraphrase may be a long as the passage itself.A precis rarely is more than one-third the length of the original selection and may be only one-fourth aslong.A precis gives only the "heart" of a passage. It omits repetition and such details as examples,illustrations, and adjectives unless they are of unusual importance.A precis is written entirely in the words of the person writing it, not in the words of the originalselection. Avoid the temptation to lift long phrases and whole sentences from the original.A precis is written from the point of view of the author whose work is being summarized. Do notbegin with such expressions as "This author says" or "The paragraph means." Begin as though you weresummarizing your own writing.In writing a precis proceed as follows: 1Read carefully, sentence by sentence, the passage to be summarized. Try to grasp the writers main point. Spotting the topic sentence will help. Look up in the dictionary any words whose meaning is not absolutely clear. As you read, take brief notes to be used in your writing. 2When you have finally decided what the authors main point is, write it out in your own words. Do not use the wording of the original except for certain key words which you may find indispensable. If you cannot translate the idea into language of your own, you do not understand them very well. Be especially careful not to rely too much on the topic sentence. Do not add any opinions or ideas of your own. 3Revise your writing until you are sure that you have given an accurate summary. 4Usually you will find your precis is too long, if it is more than one-third the length of the original. Continue your revision until you have reduced the precis to the proper length. In this careful revision lies the principal value of the precis as a composition exercise. APPROACH TO PRECIS WRITING • A precis should reduce the length of the original passage by at least two - thirds. • Every important idea must be retained, preferably in the order in which it appears in the original. • Unimportant points, including details, illustrations and anecdotes, should be discarded. • A first draft of the precis should be written, then checked to see that it contains the main ideas of the passage. • Although you should be as brief as possible. Guard against being so condensed that you obscure the point of passage. • Try to capture the tone or feeling of the original, particularly if it is deliberately humorous, ironic or biased. • Check the draft for expression errors, repetition or vague phrasing; then write a smoother final version. 95 | P a g e MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
  • 96. ESSAY WRITING TECHNIQUESWriting is the form of communication. Good writing is simply focused, clear and logical, well structured,provides evidence and the most importantly it grabs the reader’s interest from the first few lines. Writer mustknow how to present their thoughts, ideas and knowledge in writing. It’s prolific to be convincing, persistentand patient while writing. There are variety of techniques used by the writers to express their ideas andthoughts to the readers. Some techniques require the readers to think and use their own mind to get theresults, while some instinctively drive people to the conclusion. But the purpose is to inform, persuade or givethe opinions on something. Some common tools and techniques are defined below:. In what follows, there are seven hints for writing an essay:1. Separate the different parts of the process associated with the writing: research,inspiration, organizing ideas, writing, and editing.2. Make a list (10-20 items). Simply jot down phrases, keywords, definitions, questions,images and whatever which relates to the topic (the main essay subject). And then gatherin big themes the ideas that can be connected.3. Build an essay structure (template): title, opening sentence, background, statement ofscope, thesis statement (or the position statement), development of ideas (with at leastthree main points and secondary points), and conclusion (summary paragraph). All thesupporting paragraphs of the main body must have a strong organization, namely: topicsentence, evidence, commentary, and concluding sentence. Essays have many purposes, butthe basic structure is the same.4. Work on the individual sections: write the main body first, then the introduction, thetitle and the conclusion. And expand these sections: use always concrete and clearexamples to argue on your thesis.5. Edit and wrap up the paragraphs. Observe the logical linkage between the paragraphsand use appropriate transitional phrases. Introductory words such as "In fact", "Equallyimport", "All things considered"... are an "additional plus" as they show a knowledge of theliterary language. In a word, the essay must flow smoothly.6. Check the cohesion or the sense of the development, verifying if the thesis statement isfunctioning as a unifying spark.7. Revise for grammatical and writing flaws.
  • 97. IDIOMS IDIOMS MEANING SENTENCES1. A black sheep Notorious The country could not win the freedom earlier as some black sheep were always opposed to the national aspiration.2. A blind alley A narrow street He turned back when he reached the blind alley.3. Blue blood A noble blood He is respected by everyone because he belongs to blue blood.4. Black market Illegal business Black marketing is a crime against the society and creates problems for common people.5. A dizzy height A very great height He injured critically after falling from a dizzy height.6. A dog-eared Turned leaves of a book The leaves of the books of brilliant and bookish students are book always dog-eared.7. A double- Confused or conflicted He is a double-minded person; it will be useless to take any minded man counsel from him.8. A fair weather A selfish friend The abundance of the fair-weather friends led Ali to repudiate friend (reject or abandon) friendship altogether.9. A fatal accident That cause death Ten passengers were killed in a fatal accident on the motorway.10. A foregone Already known That the prisoner would be acquitted was a foregone conclusion conclusion conclusion.11. A golden A good opportunity One should relay on one’s own abilities and should avail every opportunity golden opportunity.12. The golden rule A commonly accepted The golden rule in playing tennis is to watch the ball carefully. good rule.13. To be dead To be strictly opposed India is dead against Pakistan on the Kashmir issue. against14. To be oneself To be back to normal I am glad that he is himself again after long period of illness. again15. To be shaky To be nervous You seem to be shaky with that argument.16. To be sick of To be fed up I am sick of watching the romantic movies.17. To be ill at ease To be uncomfortable He always feels ill at ease with his step brother.18. To be worth To be worth trying It would be worth while to consult him before proceeding while further.19. At a stone’s To be near We live at stone’s throw from here/ within a stone’s throw. throw20. At a snail’s pace Very slow speed Kashmir issue is progressing at snail’s pace. 97 | P a g e MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
  • 98. 21. At the mercy of To be under complete Kashmiri orphans are now at the mercy of AJK and Pakistan power of someone Government.22. At sixes or Completely confused or The corpses of the enemy could be seen at sixes and seven in sevens in disorder the battlefield.23. At any rate Under all conditions He said that he will come tomorrow. At any rate I think that’s what he said.24. At all costs No matter what is the They are determined to murder him at all costs. result25. At a loss Can not understand He is at a loss and can’t decide what to do at this critical moment.26. Cut a sorry To do something badly He was boasting that he would stand first in the class but in the figure final term he had to cut a sorry figure.27. Tell to one’s face Tell something frankly I told to his face that he had failed to qualify the final contest.28. Thick headed A foolish person Don’t seek any advice from him as he is a thick-headed person.29. Take an Object to something done He took great exception to what I said. exception to30. Talk in good Talk honestly A pious and gentle citizen always talks in good faith about faith everyone and never passes criticism.31. Bless one’s stars Be happy for good luck When a man is happy he always blesses his stars, but when he in trouble he curses his own fortune.32. Beak blue and Beat very hard The burglar was beaten blue and black by the police. black33. Hold one’s head To be proud of something People belonging to elite class, always hold their heads high high on all the occasions.34. With flying With distinction In the Olympic games our hockey team will come with flying colours colours.35. With open arms A warm welcome After victory in the Olympics our team was welcomed to Pakistan with open arms.36. Where the shoes Where something hurts or We are sure that when the good politician comes fully to pinches where someone suffers realize how and where the shoe pinches, he too will make it a point to redress grievances of the common people.37. Window Some thing done as a The company’s support of scientific research is just window dressing show piece to impress shopping.38. Window Just looking at things and He doesn’t have enough money, he just go to bazaar for shopping not buying window shopping.
  • 99. 39. Rolling stone One who does not settle A rolling stone gathers no moss. Or He is just like a rolling to work in one place stone and I think, he will not be progressing in life40. Rotten egg A bad or useless person Everyone was considering him to be a pious and gentle citizen but he proved to be a rotten egg.41. By dint of By means of hard work He won the gold medal by dint of his hard work.42. By sweat of By sheer hard work One can make every task possible by sweat of one’s brow one’s brow43. Bear witness to To affirm what one has He bore witness to my testimony. seen44. Busy like a bee To be extremely busy He always pretends to be busy like a bee, but in reality he does nothing.45. Beat(flog) a To waste one’s effort To condemn the theory of evolution on religious grounds is dead horse like beating/flogging a dead horse.46. A bottleneck An obstruction In recent years smuggling proved to be a bottleneck for our economy.47. Brand new Fresh, purely new Mr. Asad is very proud of his brand new corolla48. To stick to one’s Refuse to change one’s In spite of criticism, he struck to his guns. guns opinion49. To see eye to Face to face We must see them eye to eye in order to defend our logic. eye50. Square peg in a Unsuited person to the With his pronounced scholaristic learning, he was carved out round peg position, he fills for the career of university profession. But by adopting the profession of law he has become a square peg in the round peg.51. To smell rat Suspect that something The spies smelt the rat and left the city. wrong is being done.52. To show a cold To show indifference When he fell on evil days, his old companions showed the shoulder cold shoulder to him.53. To steal a match Gain advantage Steal a march upon him and open the shop before he does. upon54. Storm in the cup Great trouble Their protest is only a storm in the cup of tea. of tea for nothing55. To stand in the To be of great Her language will stand her in very good stead when he starts looking for a good stead advantage job. In future.56. A laughing stock An object of Their old car is a laughing stock for the whole street. ridicule57. Lip service All words that Now a days politicians are paying lip service to the environmental issues. are not followed by 99 | P a g e MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
  • 100. action58. Let sleeping Not to change Stop talking about them and let sleeping dogs lie. dogs lie the situation that troubles59. Make the best of To get full To make the best of a bad bargain, he accepted the low job when he needed benefit of an money. opportunity60. Make headway Make progress Pakistan is making headway progress in the field of IT.61. Make amends To compensate America can not make amends for what they have done in Iraq. for the past mistake62. Make allowance Consider You should make allowance for our pathetic condition before leaving us something alone. while making a decision63. Make both ends To earn enough Now a days due to inflation, it has become very difficult for the poor class meet money to live to make both ends meet.64. Make neither Make no sense Come to the point as your arguments make neither head nor tail. head nor tail65. Play with fire To take Attacking the enemy without formal preparation and training will not be dangerous risk less than playing with fire.66. Part and parcel To be an Religion is part and parcel of our life. essential part of something67. To pocket an To bear an A debtor, unable to pay, has often to pocket insult from his creditor. insult insult quietly68. Pay through the To pay far too You have to pay through nose for this carpet. nose much money69. Pros and cons Merits and If pros and cons are to be taken into consideration, the case against Javed is demerits of very strong. something70. Pillar to post To move from After spending money lavishly he had to move from pillar to post for debt. person to person to get help.71. Pay back in the To give tit for If a person is rude to you then it doesn’t mean that you should pay back in same coin tat the same coin.72. Run in the blood An ancestral or Hypocrisy and conspiracy are running in the blood of the Americans. inherited quality73. Red tape Useless office It takes weeks to go through all the red tape involved in getting planning formalities accepted by the higher authorities.74. Read between Try to guess the In order to understand this highly symbolic poem you have to read between the lines meaning of the lines first. something75. Rank and file The ordinary While the rank and file of his parliamentary opponents sought to shoot him soldiers who down, he received the most flattering testimonies of approval from are not officers discriminating judges.
  • 101. 76. Rhyme and Any There seems to be no rhyme and reason to English spellings. reason justification77. Stand on To behave We are old friends we need not to stand on ceremony. ceremony formally78. Shoot in the An action in It is hard to know what – we’ll just take a shoot in the dark. dark hope that it works79. Now or never To be in If you want to ask her to marry you, it’s now or never. desperate situation80. Nip the evil in Stop or check The mob wanted to create disharmony but the police nipped the evil in the the but the evil at the bud very beginning81. Narrow escape A narrow He had a narrow escape from death at the time of bomb blast. escape from death82. No leg to stand Baseless Your arguments are wrong altogether and have no legs to stand on. on arguments or decisions83. A necessary evil Things possibly The loss of job is regarded by some one as a necessary evil in the fight harmful but against inflation. have to be accepted84. On the anvil About to take War between Iran and America is on the anvil. place85. On the cards Likely or An early wedding between them is on the cards. possible86. On one’s guard To be watchful With journalist you have to be on your guards against saying the wrong thing.87. On speaking To be friendly She is not on speaking terms with her parents for years. terms 101 | P a g e MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
  • 102. PHRASAL VERBS Phrases Meaning Sentence1 To break in To enter with force The rogue broke in his house and beat his brother. Or Interrupt to speak At meetings, Asad always breaks in with some trivial matters and holds up the proceedings.2 To break out Appear or spread The 1st world broke out in 1914. rapidly Plague broke out in India. Or Escape Three prisoners have broken out again this week from the central jail.3 To break off Stop Speaking Mr. Saleem broke off in the middle of his speech because of shouts of protest from the audience.4 Break loose Escape Prisoner broke loose from the prison.5 To break up Come to an end The partnership is expected to break up.6 Take after Resemble Asad takes after his father in being strong –willed.7 Take back a With draw wrong Don’t get furious, I take back what I said. statement information or words8 Take down Write down The policeman took down the particulars of the accident. something9 Take somebody Attribute wrong I took him for his brother. They are extremely alike. for identity10 Take someone To get favor of every If you want to be successful in the general elections, you into confidence one have to take all the villagers into confidence.11. Get off Get down She asked the conductor where to get off the bus.12 Get on To advance Ali is getting on well in Arabic & Persian.13 Get in with Deal agreeably with a Jawed always tries to get in with the influential people, person that’s why, he has joined the riding club.14. Get over overcome(Surmount) She got over her financial problems quite quickly.15 Get through Pass through It was a difficult examination, so some of the candidates could not get through.16 To Make away To kill or destroy He made with himself. ( committed Suicide) with17 To Make of To understand I can make nothing of this scribble.18. To Make out To find out(discover) We could not make out the inscription on the gravestone.19 To Make up To determine He made up his mind to apply for commission in armed forces20 To Make it up To settle one’s They quarrel every morning and make it up with each with differences with
  • 103. other every evening.21 Let down Disappoint Hameed will never let you down.22 Let alone With out considering There is not enough room for us, let alone a dog and two cats.23 Let in Allow to enter If you mention my name, the door keeper let you in.24 Let off To release He was let off with fine instead of being sent to prison.25 Let out Leave or hire Let out the water from the bath tub.26 To run after To try to catch The hounds are running after the wild rabbit.27 To run at To attack He ran at me with a dagger.28 To run away To flee (Escape) The burglar ran away before the police had arrived.29 To run into Debt, into danger As he is fond of adventurous life; he runs into dangers& difficulties.( He runs into debt frequently)30 To run through To pierce or waste He soon ran through all the money that he had won in gambling venture.31. Look after Take care We ought to look after our elders in every possible way.32 Look down on Despise or hate Poor have the equal right to live; we should not look some body down upon them.33 Look forward to Wait for a meeting I am looking forward to meeting the Assistant Manager. meeting someone34 Look into Investigate something Police will look into the matter before taking any action.35 Look through the Search for something You should look through the files until I return. files36 Look up to Respect & admire You ought to look up to your elders. somebody37. Go about Move from place to Teenage bots tend to go about in groups. place38 Go after Try to win or obtain He is going after the Swedish pretty girl (trying to win her attention).39 Go against To resist or be It goes against my principles to support the enemies of contrary to my friends.40. Go ahead To advance You should go ahead with your work and finish it by 7O’clock.41 Go along with To accompany He is going along his family to perform Hajj.42 Set about To begin I must set about my packing to leave for Lahore. 103 | P a g e MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018
  • 104. 43 Set aside To disregard I cannot set aside my personal feeling completely.44 Set forth To exhibit, to Set forth your political views in a clear manner. proclaim45 Set in To begin It’s been very cold the last few days: I think the winter season has set in already.46 Set out To depart They set out as the sun was rising.47 Set up To erect & elevate Pakistan should set up her agricultural and industrial production in order to meet the growing needs of the people.48 Take some one Trust someone You must take him into your confidence in order to into confidence solve the mystery.49 Take off Clothes, flying off of We always take off our shoes, when we enter the a plane mosque.50 Take on a Accept a challenge I shall on the job of the lecturer in my old college. challenge51 Take out Extract, remove Try to take out the ball from the well52 Take over Assume control Who will take over as the new President of the country?53 Take up A hobby He will like to take up cricket in college.54 Come out Publish His new book will come out by the next month.55 Come round Regain consciousness Pour a jug of water on his face. He will soon come round.56 Come to Regain consciousness The patient did not come to for a long time after, getting unconscious. Or When he came to, he found himself in the hospital.57 Come upon Find by it chance He came upon a golden watch while passing through the something jungle.58 Crop up Occur Many administrative problems cropped up as soon as we sep up our business.59 Cross out Delete or put a line The two words are crossed out, so write again. across60 Die away A sound becoming The music died away in the distance and I felt very sad. fainter61 To back up To support This political party has the best workers and programme , so we shall back it up in elections62 To bear out To prove Who can bear out the truth of your statement?63 To blow up To explode The experts will blow up the mountain standing in the
  • 105. way.64 To break down Fail to work Our car broke down on the motorway near Kalar Khar.65 To break in To interrupt At meetings, Asad always breaks in with some trivial matters and holds up the proceedings.66 To break off Stop a friendship He is broken off with me on a trivial matter. 105 | P a g e MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, FGSD COLLEGE, WAH CANTT. Ph-03335418018