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Foregrounding By Muhammad Azam

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Most of what is considered characteristics of literary language nevertheless has its Roots in everyday uses of language and can best be studied with some reference to these uses. Just as there are no …

Most of what is considered characteristics of literary language nevertheless has its Roots in everyday uses of language and can best be studied with some reference to these uses. Just as there are no firm lines of division between 'poetic' and ' ordinary ' language so it would be artificial to enforce a clear division between the languages of poetry considered as verse literature and that of other literary kind as prose. The creative writer and more particularly the poet enjoy unique freedom.
Among users of the language, without respect to the social or historical contexts to which they belong. This means: among other things. The poet can draw on the language of past Ages, or can borrow features belonging to other non literary use of language.

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  • 1. 1 FOREGROUNDING BY MUHAMMAD AZAM Table of contents Foregrounding Introduction Definition Qualitative foregrounding; Types of deviation a. b. c. d. e. f. Semantic deviation. Lexical deviation Grammatical deviation. Phonological deviation. Graphological deviation. Dialectal deviation. MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, F.G.SCIENCE DEGREE COLLEGE, WAH CANTT-CELL: 03335418018
  • 2. 2 g. Deviation of register. e. Deviation of historical period. Quantitative foregrounding; Types of Parallelism a) Free verbal repletion. b) Anaphora c) Structural or syntactical parallelism Conclusion References Most of what is considered characteristics of literary language nevertheless has itsRoots in everyday uses of language and can best be studied with some reference to theseuses. Just as there are no firm lines of division between 'poetic' and ' ordinary ' language so it would be artificial to enforce a clear division between the languages of poetryconsidered as verse literature and that of other literary kind as prose. The creative writer and more particularly the poet enjoy unique freedom. Among users of the language, without respect to the social or historical contexts to whichthey belong. This means: among other things. The poet can draw on the language of past Ages, or can borrow features belonging to other non literary use of language. Foregrounding: Foregrounding' the term is a common name given to the devices by adoptingwhich an artist shows certain departures from accepted norms of language. In Cuddon'swords (1991: 349) it .denotes' the use of devices and techniques, which push the act ofexpression into the foregrounding so that language draws attention to itself, as a general principle anyone who wants to examine the significance and desirability of a work of art focuses one's attention on the element of curiosity and surprise rather than on an automatic pattern. Such special attention to element of language which is crucial to a particular effect in the literary content is known as foregrounding. Foregrounding is that technique which reveals the art rather than conceals it. Theterm 'Foregrounding' is especially taken from painting when an object from backgroundis brought in front to highlight it (Leech 1969: 56-57) In literature this foregrounding isdone by using the elements of language usually in relation to norms of syntax, lexis and discourse etc. It can be achieved both by deviating from the set pattern of grammar and also by strictly adopting it. MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, F.G.SCIENCE DEGREE COLLEGE, WAH CANTT-CELL: 03335418018
  • 3. 3 Foregrounding Quantitative foregrounding Deviation Semantic Graphological qualitative foregrounding parallelism LexicalGrammatical historical i. Structural or syntactical ii. Free verbalrepetion iii. Anaphora 1;Qualitative foregrounding: It is achieved by going out of set pattern. This deviation is not in usual sense but it is an unusual sense or deviation which strikes the reader at once the word deviationrefers to the ignorance of rules and connections generally observed by the users of Language. The liberties poets have taken with the language have been of immense Pathological degree of abnormality. Such linguistic deviation foregrounds the figure andthe background is the language. Just as in painting. The eye picks out the figure as significant and expressive in its faculty of sight. So the reader picks out the linguisticdeparture in such a phrase as 'a day‟s echo' or 'a grief ago'. Poetic foregrounding stimulates some interest on the part of the reader the poetdeviates from the code In order to communicate special message to the reader thereader when he gets struck by them and follows what the poet wants to convey in thisway the Linguistic deviation becomes significant. 1.1, Types of deviation: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. Semantic deviation. Lexical deviation Grammatical deviation. Phonological deviation. Graphological deviation. Dialectal deviation. Deviation of register. Deviation of historical period. 1.1. a; Semantic deviation: The tern1 semantics covers s a wide range of issues involving the meaning significanceinterpretation and understanding of language". (Linguistics: The Cambridge Survey: 89)'Well-constructed literary, sentence makes a sense. When an artist wants to createtransference of meanings. He is doing the semantic deviation. Semantic deviations areregarded as ‘nonsense’ or 'absurdity'. So long as we realize that 'sense' is used in thiscontext MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, F.G.SCIENCE DEGREE COLLEGE, WAH CANTT-CELL: 03335418018
  • 4. 4 inn a strictly literal-minded way". (Leech?998: 48).In semantic deviation surface meaning is different from actual meaning, It includes the devices like simile metaphor, synecdoche and paradox etc. For exampleWords worth says: "Child is the father of man" The line may be interpreted in various ways as habits of childhood become part of one'spersonality in later age actual implication of the line shows that words worth was highlyimpressed by Plato's philosophy of pre-existence of soul. A child in this world IS freshlysent and he is sill has memories and contacts of external world as he is not exposed toworldliness and corruption. He has more knowledge of secrets of this world as well as theEternal world. Ho he is called '-the father of man"In T.S. Eliot's poetry "The yellow fog that rubs its back upon the window panes" [Hence poet deviates semantically: he personifies fog and wants to emphasize theDangerous problem of industrial pollution. From Shelley's "Adonis" .'Quench within their burning bed. The fiery tears and - - -- This elegy 'Burning beds' is metaphorically used for eyes. ."Like a pale flower - - - - - - - - - Here again Shelly uses simile of a pale flower but actually he is talking about Keats. Semantic deviation Meaning Literary Non literary Detotative meaning Connotative meaning Orthodox UN orthodox It is reasonable to translate semantics deviation into non-sense or absurdity. On the surface they seem quite non- sense but the sense in the context in a strictly literate minded way ( Tariq Rahman) 1.1.b; Lexical deviation: „Lex‟ is the basic unit in syntax having a meaning. In lexical deviation poet takesLiberty with the form of language. In this process the writer introduces the new words. MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, F.G.SCIENCE DEGREE COLLEGE, WAH CANTT-CELL: 03335418018
  • 5. 5 Lexical deviation Neologism i988:42) affixation compounding functional conversion (Leech 1.1.b.i Neologism: Neologism is the invention of new words which the poet uses to express his views it is further divided into two parts. I) words which becomes the part of dictionary 11) Nonce-formation. In the first case the new words which poet uses becomes the part of dictionary forexample: Assassination [Shakespeare] pandemonium [Milton]; and casuistry [pope] and in The second type nonce-formation, the words are ephemeral. (Leech) In other words, these are short lived and are used only for single occasion. Theexample can be quoted in these words: lota-cracy, Horse-trading etc. 1.1.b,ii; Affixation; The most common process of word formation is affixation. I t is also divided intotwo parts. 1) 11) Prefixation. Suffixation. Prefix is the addition of one word in the beginning of word. For instance prefixation 'fore' to a verb permits to convey the meaning of before hand as in 'foresee'.„Foreknow‟ or 'foretells' and fore warn'. This rule is limited to a small group of items but T.S.Eliot used this word in the 'wasteland 111' as 'fore suffer'. It is the violation ofthis rule and poet has used it for novelty and as a surprisingly extension of the expressivepossibilities. Like wise suffixes are used at the end of the words. 1.1.b,iii; Compounding; Compounding is the joining together of two or more items to make wardcompounds. The violation in this case is that poet joins such words that are not commonin our ordinary life. For example Hopkins uses in "The wreck of the Deutschland' windowmaking on the pattern of music loving, prize loving.& etc. 1.1.b.iv;Functional conversion; Another means of extending the vocabulary is functional conversion that can bebetter described as zero-affixation. Functional conversion consists of adapting an item toa new grammatical function without changing its form for example “The just man justices' (.As Kingfishers Catch Fire) 'The achieve of the mastery of the thing'. (The window) In this example 'achieve' is chosen in preference to the very common abstractnoun 'achievement' and that this choice makes all the difference between poetic vigorand prosaic flatness MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, F.G.SCIENCE DEGREE COLLEGE, WAH CANTT-CELL: 03335418018
  • 6. 6 . 1.1.c;Grammatical Deviation; Grammar is concerned especially with syntax and lexicon. Deviation in grammarcan be easily expressed by dividing them into two parts: Grammar (Syntax - Lexicon) Structure Deep surface structure 1.1.c.i; Structures; The structure of a sentence is built in this sequence: s-v-o-c: In subject comes nouns and pronoun. In verb, verbs and auxiliary. Object isnoun compliments are objective phrase or noun phrase and adjunct are adverbial phraseprepositional and sometime noun phrase. The violation in this rule usually comes like adjective usually comes before noun but in literary piece we find the lines like a) Those girls hose lovely b) The city, big and busy This is called the deviation from structure. 1.1.c.ii; Deep and surface structure Violations of structure are superficial. Into this category fall violation, in whichcould be described as bad or incorrect grammar for example: I doesn't like him (surface'). Most deviations of deep structure can be treated as case of mistaken selection oflexical items. - Many rooms ago (deep). - A grief ago. (Dyan Thomas) These are the example of deviant form in deep structure 1.1.d;Phonological Deviation: Phonology is the study of sound pattern of a particular language. The violation inthis category is this omission in the beginning, middle and at the end of a word. Thesespecific names are given to these omissions. Aphasis: - Aphasis is the omission of words in the beginning for example: It is ------- 'Tis Syncope: - syncope is the omission in the middle of a word for example. Never ------Ne'er Apocope: - Apocope can be described as omission at the end of a word for example: Often -------oft (Leech: 1969) 1.1.e;Graphological deviation: The deviation is graphological when the strangeness of pronunciation is reflectedthrough strangeness in written form. It is also the deviation from norms of orthography.Graphological MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, F.G.SCIENCE DEGREE COLLEGE, WAH CANTT-CELL: 03335418018
  • 7. 7 deviation means violation of capital letters and punctuation, jumbling ofwords, eccentric and use of parentheses etc. For example; Seekers of truth Follow no path All paths lead where Truth is here All the lines start with small letters and there is unusual space between the lines.nevertheless they are interpretable. So we notice uneven gaps recapitalizations nopunctuation etc in these examples Writers violates all the rules of writing to convey different meanings and message. 1.1.f;Dialectal deviation: Every writer has own dialect they are impacted to write in the general English which is understandable for all people but some times writes use their regional dialectsin poetry for example: Chaucer & wrote in mid-land dialect. He writes in Canterbury tales, “A knyght there was and that a worthy man", He tells about the character of the knight who is very honorable and worthy man. “Embrouded was he, as it is very honorable and worthy man” 1.1.g;Deviation of register: Each profession has its particular uses of language. It is known as its register. Such as medical, Agriculture, Engineering, business, literature all have their own particularuse of words. But modem poets have freed themselves from the constraints of poetic language. In order to convey their message they use all sorts of registers. Often the useone or more registers. Progress is a comfortable disease' Or “Electron deify one razor blade', (E.E.Cummings) 1.1. h;Deviation of Historical period: The writer has the right to use archaic words. He is not constrained to thelanguage of his own particular period does rather he have the license to use old words. James Joyce says that a writer must be familiar with the history of his language. We can say that a writer gives life to old words alive by using them. Sometimes dead languages or, archaic words are used to give the impression ofthat age. For example Coleridge in his ancient Mariner uses a lot of archaic words togive impression of ancient times. 'Eftsoons' means soon after, the poet made use of the archaic phraseology tosuggest the atmosphere of the b) gone days. MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, F.G.SCIENCE DEGREE COLLEGE, WAH CANTT-CELL: 03335418018
  • 8. 8 Mostly in romances and fairy tales writers use such words to give the impressionof ancient times when people had a strong t'aith in these tales. For example: These words are like; Thou, Thee, ye, doth, hath, thy etc Linguistic deviation is not the only tool of linguistic foregrounding. Another typeof foregrounding which in a sense the opposite of deviation which consists of extraregularities not irregularities is parallelism. 1.2. Quantitative Foregrounding; This type of foregrounding is achieved by being within the language code orthrough regularities. It is achieved through parallelism. 2.4.1 Parallelism The word parallelism is derived from Greek „Paralelelas' which means „besides one another'. (Dictionary of literary terms199-1: 902) The similarities of construction ormeaning of phrases placed side by side For instance Bacon says in his essay „Of Studies‟ "Crafty men condemn studies, simple men admire them, and wise men use them" Another example of parallelism is "the fair breeze below, the white foam flew",But parallelism is not merely a mechanical repetition. It requires some contrastingelements in any paralytic's pattern there must be an element of contrast. Element of IdentityIt comprises structurally equivalent units for example Syllable in phonology clauses in grammar, meter, alliteration and rhyme in rhythm. Allthese units of structure are elements of identity. We take the following example of the poem „God's Grandeur' by Gerard Manel Hopkins. "The world is charged with the grandeur of God" The syllable structure is as follows: CV CV. V VC C.V.cv. C Cv .C C = concoanat V = vowel The usual pattern of rhythmic pattern shows how element of identity is achievedsuccessfully. Element of identity is also evident in clauses in grammar. For instance. Inthe following line of Bacon we see the element of identity. Clause = Adj +N + V +Obj Crafty+ men -+condemn + studies Clause = Adj + N +V + obj Simple men - admire + them Clause= Adj + N +V + Obj Wise + men + use +them 1.2.a Element of Contrast MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, F.G.SCIENCE DEGREE COLLEGE, WAH CANTT-CELL: 03335418018
  • 9. 9 Besides the element of identity, element of contrast is also included in thediscussion of parallelism. Every parallelism sets up a relationship of equivalence betweentwo or more elements. For instance we take the example of contrast from 'The Justice' written by George Herbert. " “Lord, Thou didst make me, yet thou woundest me" Another line from the same poem also shows the element of contrast "Lord, Thou woundest me, yet thou dost relieve me". 1.2.b Antithesis; It is another aspect of parallelism where two opposite things or objects are given ironic effects; example of antithesis is taken from Ruskin's “Crown of the wild 0live" “Rough People, rough work gentle people, gentle work." After this me come to the syntactic parallelism. 1.3 Syntactic parallelism; Apart from the simple syntactic parallelism: there is another type of syntacticparallelism in which there are more than two phrases to the pattern moving towards aclimax. In this structure, expectations are raised and fulfilled. For example we take thelines from “The Merchant of Venice” by Shakespeare If thou pick us, do we not bleed? If thou tickle us, do we not laugh? If you poison us, do we not die:' And if thou wrong us, shall we not revenge'? The given lines are syntactically equal and have the effect of implying samenessof meaning. The third type of syntactic parallelism is achieved the word order in the firstphase being reversal, in the second one.For instance “Destroying others: by himself destroyed" 1.4 Verbal Repetition: Verbal repetition may refer to the repetition of words givan phonological effect:it is not repetition in the abstract sense of the term but focus is on the direct sense ofactual physical repetition. 1.5 Schemes: Schemes include figures of speech such as alliteration, anaphora and chiasmus.Scheme may be identified as phonological, geographical or semantic deviation. They aredescribed as abnormal arrangements which help in forceful and harmonious presentationof ideas. Linguistically schemes are related to expression. 1.6 Tropes: Tropes are devices which involve alteration of normal meaning of expression.They are identified as formal or semantic deviation. They more powerful in effect more radical scope. They include metaphor, irony and synecdoche-linguistically tropesare related to contest. Both tropes and schemes are interdependent: i) Formal repetition often presupposes phonological repetition. MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, F.G.SCIENCE DEGREE COLLEGE, WAH CANTT-CELL: 03335418018
  • 10. 10 i i ) Formal deviation often presupposes semantic deviation. To understand phonological repetition or abnormality of expression. We can takethis example: The world is charged with the grandeur of God. It will fame out, like shining from shook foil; And all is seared with trade; Bleared smeared with toil: And wears man's smudge and shares man's smell: the so11 (God's Grandeur: Gerard blanley Hopkins 181-1- 1889) This extract contains the repetition of 'fa' sound in “flame, from and foil” The sound of 'er' is also clearly noticeable in “seared‟, smeared, wear”. There is also the repetition of ‘sa' sound in 'seared, wear, smudge, shares, smell and soil”. So we can observe alliteration in these lines 1.7 Formal Repetition: This comes under the category of schemes and includes lexical and grammaticalrepetition which is verbal repetition. 1.8 Formal repetition = Lexical + Grammatical (repetition): These repetitions are not always parallel rather these are sometimes irregular andfree repetition which affects the rhetoric effect. So schemes include both parallel and freerepetition. 1.8.a Grammatical Repetition; “I'll fare the land to ills a hastening pray." “Where health accumulates and men decay” Here we can see VP follows the repetition of NP 1.8.b Lexical Repetition; Slowly, slowly rase she up. And she cam' where he was lying; And when she drew the curtain by. Says. "Young man, I think you're dying." 0 it's I am sick and very, very sick, And it's a' for Barbara Allen. This example is taken from a folk called, 'Barbara .Allen". It contains repetition ofdifferent words, adding beauty and musical effect in the lines. Both. grammatical andlesical repetitions ha.e been discussed with examples. We may say that certain poemscontain both of these repetition and so becomes formal repetition. I ' l l love you, dear. I ' l l love you Till china and Africa meet I ' l l love you till the ocean Is folded and living up to drty? MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, F.G.SCIENCE DEGREE COLLEGE, WAH CANTT-CELL: 03335418018
  • 11. 11 Here we find lexical repetition with repeated phrases " I ' l l 1ove you". We also findhere grammatical repetition placed by repetition of (sub +verb + obj ). It is the completeexample of formal repetition which is including both lexical and grammatical repetition. 1.9 Types of free repetitions: a. Verbal Repetition b. Immediate Repetitions c. Intermittent Repetition or ploce 1.10 Types of Verbal Parallelism: Most of the verbal repetitions occur at the beginning of the relevant unit of text.Some of the types of verbal parallelism are as follows: 1.10.a Anphora In anaphora there is repetition of a nard or a phrase in the beginning of a speech or a sentence. It may be the opening line of a stanza. The repetition of the same sentence in the beginning of every stanza is indicatinganaphora. (-----a)(-----a) 1.10.b Epistropa It is opposite of anaphora. It contains repetition of a Word, phrase or sentence atthe end. So it is a final repetition. From the last to west wind No jewel is the Roslind All the pictures falnrs Lin'd Are but black to Rosalind." (As You Like It by Shakespeare) We find repetition in the form of the word 'Roslind' at the end of ever coupleof lines(a--b)( a--b) 1.10.c Symploce Symploce is the combination of anaphora and epistrophe. There is repetition ofinitial and final words. There are three ravens sat on a tree Downe adowne, hay downe, hay downe There were three ravens sat on a tree with a down (The Three Ravens, Annanv Mous) WE find repetition of the phrase. 'three ravens sat on the tree' in the first and last linesand also repetition of the word 'downe' in second and third lines. 1.10.c Anadipiosis (a-----) (a-----) In anadipiosis the last part of one unit is repeated at the beginning of the next . ForThough wise men at their end know dark is right. Because their words had forked no lightning they Do not go gentle into that good night MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, F.G.SCIENCE DEGREE COLLEGE, WAH CANTT-CELL: 03335418018
  • 12. 12 Good men. The last wave by, crying how bright Their frail deeds might have danced in green bay Raqe. Rage against: the dying of the light. (Do not go Gentle into that Good: DyIan Thones)1.1o.d Eqanalepsin (a-----)(a------) There were three ravens sat on a tree. downe a downe. hat downe. Downe were three rav.ens sat on a tree with a downe. (The three Ravens: Annan Mous) 1.10.e Antistrophe In this we find re petition of items in a reverse order (---a---b---) (---b---a---). Forexample: Beauty is truth, truth beauty - that is aLL You know on earth. and all ye need to knov, 1.10.f Polyptoton A work is repeated with varying gemetrical inflection for example: Long for me the risk will wait And long will wait the fold And long. will stand the empty plate And dinner will be cold. (Sir Patrick Spence: Anon~.rnous) My love has died for me to-day: I'll die for him tomorrow. (Barbara Allen Folk Ballad) 1.10.g Homoioteleuton Here we find repetition of same deviational or inflectional ending on different words: for example O,Lady' we receive but what we give And In one life alone does nature live (Dejecrion an Ode: Coleridge) At the end of the lines. We find a clear repetition of musical effect in words give andlive'. We can say that functlon of Lerbal repetition and parallelism is to enable us tounderstand a message even conveyed through an unknown language It emphasizes themain theme of a poem and highlights the emotion of the writers and shows their intensityof emotions, which also gives musical effect to a work of art.The freedom poet‟s have taken with the 1anguries have been of immense veritiesand have sometimes (especially in modem times) reached higher degrees of abnormality,.These abnormalities in creative writing become individual style of a writer. Posts haveused different linguistic tools in their styles for significance of a piece of literature. Conclusion: MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, F.G.SCIENCE DEGREE COLLEGE, WAH CANTT-CELL: 03335418018
  • 13. 13 Poetic foregrounding presupposes some motivation on the part of the writer andsome explanation on the part of the reader. (Leech1 969: 5 8)Linguistics and literary criticism deal with poetic language. Both assemble in the study offoregrounding. Stylistic is a linguistic approach to the study of literary texts it thus, ernbodies one essential part of the general course philosophy that of cornbining language and liyerary study (Ronald Carter: 1986) The style and structural frame work of Keats' poetry it gives anadditional advantage of being ever popular with its readers. More than two centuries have gone but going through the poetry of Keats fillsthe gap of generations. We read his poetry and never feel that it was written in sodistant and remote past. Much of his poetry has to offer bears a semblance of ourtimes. What happens in the world of Keats' poetry .can also be seen happening aroundus in the world of today. It is result of this sense of oneness with Keats word a senseimposed upon us by his poetry that Keats continues to have a tremendous appeal to thereaders of twenty-first century .at this point it becomes to make a study of Keats'poetry in the light of what I stated. References; www.google.com (What is foregrounding?) WWW.GRADESAVER.COM (Foregrounding in stylistics) WWW.ASK.COM (Foregrounding a literary term) WWW.OELPRUDE.COM MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, F.G.SCIENCE DEGREE COLLEGE, WAH CANTT-CELL: 03335418018
  • 14. 14 (Foregrounding) WWW.WIKIPEDIA.COM (Foregrounding as a stylistics term) www.encarta.com www.studenguide.com MUHAMMAD AZAM, LECTURER, F.G.SCIENCE DEGREE COLLEGE, WAH CANTT-CELL: 03335418018

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