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1st Year English Book Notes (HSSC-I)

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HSSC-I English Book Notes for Federal and Other Boards. Chapters and Poems

HSSC-I English Book Notes for Federal and Other Boards. Chapters and Poems

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  • @Mohammad Ibtisam i have made this in PDF and in ms word format, here is the link download: https://www.dropbox.com/s/4bj2svg7c8iq2y3/English%2011%20notes.pdf?dl=0
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  • i have made this in PDF and in ms word format, here is the link download: https://www.dropbox.com/s/4bj2svg7c8iq2y3/English%2011%20notes.pdf?dl=0
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  • how to download
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  • thanks :)
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  • 1. BUTTON BUTTON Richard Matheson Q1.Why did Norma consider the tone and attitude of Mr. Steward offensive? Ans. Norma considered Mr. Steward’s tone and attitude offensive because he had not paid any attention to her indifferent attitude especially when he said, “It would prove very valuable, Monetarily”. Q2. Why did Arthur disagrees with his wife? Ans. Arthur opposed his wife’s idea/ scheme and he considered it assassination to get someone killed, which would be a crime against humanity. Q3. Why did Norma persuade her husband to agree with her? Ans. Norma persuaded her husband to accept the offer of fifty thousand dollars solely because she saw the possibility of taking trip to Europe, a chance to buy a cottage on the Island and an opportunity to have a nicer apartment, nicer furniture, nicer clothes, a car etc. Q4. What were the reasons Norma gave to her husband to accept the offer? Ans. She gave the following reasons for accepting the offer:- a. Some eccentric millionaire might be playing the games with people. a. An international organization probably doing it for a research project and they wanted to know what average people would do under such a circumstance. a. That the concerned group was just saying someone would die so that its member would study reactions i.e. if there would be guilt or anxiety. Q5. Why did Mr. Steward continue persuading Norma? Ans. When Mr. Steward observed that Arthur was not yielding to his offer, he began persuading Norma because she had a weak character and had shown keen interest in the offer. Q6. What was the message Norma received on pushing the button? Ans. After she pushed the button, she received the tragic news of her husband’s death in a subway accident as he was pushed by the shoving crowed from the platform in front of the train. 1|Page MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 1|Page MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 1|Page MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 1|Page MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 1|Page MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018
  • 2. Q7. What is the significance of Arthur’s life insurance policy? Ans. Ironically, Arthur’s life insurance policy for $25,000 dollar, with double indemnity (compensation) in case of sudden/ accidental death was equal to the money ($50,000) that she desired to get from the offer given by Mr. Steward. In other words, she had to pay a very high cost for the execution of her desire. Q8. Did Norma remain normal on hearing the news of the accident of her husband? Ans. On hearing the news of her husband’s accident/death, her whole existence shook with this unbearable loss and she started reacting hysterically, she was extremely distressed and her life lost its significance. Q1. Draw character sketch of Arthur? Ans.. In this poem, Arthur has been portrayed as a simple, humane and celebrated citizen. He is strong-minded person, who was greatly shocked by his wife’s wistful wish for radical prosperity at the cost of humanity. Arthur insists strongly that he hates the idea of having someone killed for money. He considers the idea of killing a great waste and heinous crime against humanity. Norma, despite, husband’s objection and rejection of the idea, she was ambitious to execute it and was not ready to give up at any cost. It appears that Arthur got himself killed to Give Norma an opportunity to fulfill her alluring prospect. i.e. an amount of ($50,000) in the form of insurance money. Q2. Why didn’t Norma remain true to her husband? Ans. Norma has been presented as a woman of frail soul and character. She belongs to a working class with a passionate desire to uplift the standard of living, in no time. She desires to visit the fascinating sites /places all over Europe and to have a cottage on an island. The button device acts as a possible scheme of getting rich, which results in an unbearable loss and everlasting misery i.e. i.e. the death of her husband. Mr. Steward rightly says that she did not know her own husband and failed to understand him. She conflicted herself between materialism and morality i.e. money and her husband. Though she got her desire fulfilled, but she had to wear a golden sorrow. Q3. Do you agree with Norma’s assertion that the death of someone you have never seen is not important? Ans. Murder or killing anyone, belonging to any land or religion, is a great crime against humanity. Murder of a single person is the murder of whole humanity. It is a cruel concept that the death of an unknown person is not important to us. Norma advocates the idea of radical prosperity. She has blinded herself in the greed of $ 50,000. Mr. 2|Page MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 2|Page MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 2|Page MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 2|Page MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 2|Page MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018
  • 3. Steward incites her to use the button device as a short cut to wealth and prosperity. Ironically, she gets the insurance money as reward but at the cost of unbearable loss. Q4. What is the moral /theme of the story “Button Button”? Ans. This tragic story highlights the theme of weakness of human character in the face of worldly desires and temptation Norma’s flaw is that she considers the button device as a source of taking trip to Europe, a chance to buy a cottage on the Island and an opportunity to have a nicer apartment, nicer furniture, nicer clothes, a car etc. The moral behind this story is also that man must be grateful to God for what ever He has bestowed him in both prosperity and adversity. It is matter of fact that when man is satisfied he becomes unbeliever and prays to God only when he is in trouble. Moreover man must not run after the temporary worldly desires and ambitions which are nothing as compared to the blessing of the world hereafter. In this story, Norma does not mind causing death of unknown person, in order to become prosper. Though she gets her desire fulfilled, but she had to wear a golden sorrow. Before this tragic event and the offer made by Steward she has known no modesty. It is better to be lowly born and be humble rather than perked by a glistening grief as it is remarked by Shakespeare:It is better to be lowly born, And range with humble livers content, Than to be perked up in a glistening grief, And wear a golden sorrow CLEARING IN THE SKY BY JESSE STUART Q1. Why didn’t the old man follow the advice of the doctors? Ans. The old man didn’t act upon the advice of the doctors because he had a large family to support and he was the only earning member in his family. He took a bold step and selected a small patch of land on the hill top, which he visited daily. All this exercise helped him in regaining his lost power/energy. It is well said: He conquers who endures. ~Persius Q2. What did the doctors tell the old man? Ans. All the doctors, whom the old man visited, advised him to spend the rest of his 3|Page MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 3|Page MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 3|Page MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 3|Page MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 3|Page MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018
  • 4. days with his family and told him not to take long walks. Some of them also suggested him to sit still, but he paid no heed. Q3. Had the son ever been there before? Ans. The son visited the clearing in the sky frequently with his mother and father, when he was six years old. His father also made a wooden plough, which the son lost in the furrow. He visited it regularly with the exception of the last three years. Q4. Why did the old man take the steep path? Ans. The old man selected the steep path to regain and enhance his lost energies, which proved very profitable as he got rid of all the diseases and live a happy health life by defeating death. “It is inevitable that some defeat will enter even the most victorious life. The human spirit is never finished when it is defeated...it is finished when it surrenders.” Similarly the old man was not ready to surrender. Q5. What were the feelings of the old man at the age ? Ans. At the age of seventy, the old man enjoyed the life full of warmth and real achievement as he defeated death many time by not following the warnings of the doctors. To prove the doctors wrong, he established a farm on the top of the hills and kept on visiting it. He considered the farm as the fruit of his labour. He loved to touch and smell soil that he prepared. He also showed his ardent desire to taste the fruit of his form. As Isaac remarked, “Happiness does not come from doing easy work but from the afterglow of satisfaction that comes after the achievement of a difficult task that demanded our best.” Q6. Describe the physical appearance of the old man? Ans. The old man is seventy years old with wrinkled red face and blue eyes. He has a stick in his hand and a blue bandana on his shoulder, which he used for wiping sweat. Despite his old age, he is still active and healthy. He has strong will power to act. Q7. What is the theme of the story Clearing in the sky? Ans. The story Clearing in the Sky reveals that man is not made for defeat, a man can be destroyed but not defeated. In this simple story, the son reflects his father’s determination, deep love for nature and the strength of human spirit. For 40 years, the doctors warned him not to work, but he proved the doctors wrong through the strength of his spirit and defeated death many times. 4|Page MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 4|Page MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 4|Page MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 4|Page MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 4|Page MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018
  • 5. Dark They Were Golden Eyed Q1. Why did Harry want to go back to the earth? Ans. Harry wanted to go back to the earth because he felt that his body tissues had been drawn tight due to vacuum. He also felt himself to be submerged in a chemical that would dissolve his intellect and disintegrate his past. He realized himself like a salt of crystal in mountain stream, which would dissolve anyway. Q2. Why did Mr. Bittering want to stay at mars? Ans. He wanted to stay at Mars sue to the fear of atomic war going on the earth. Moreover, the atom bomb had destroyed all the spaceship stations and rockets in New York and he hoped someday, rocket would come to the Mars to take them back to the earth. Q3. What sort of Climate did the Bittering Family face at Mars? Ans. The Martian Climate was dangerous and replete with chemical. Mr. Bittering felt himself to be in the center of a vacuum, which would draw his soul from his body. The climate had completely changed their appearance, they became dark coloured and golden eyed. Everything on Mars was disintegrating gradually in the chemical climate. Q4. What was the condition of the Bittering Family on hearing the news of war on the earth? Ans. Bittering family was extremely dejected on hearing the news of war on the earth. Their hopes to return to the earth were shattered. They could hardly believe that they had to live rest of their life on Mars with little chances of existence. Q5. What was the condition of the house constructed by the Bittering family? Ans. The house built by the Bittering family, underwent disintegration because of chemical in air and Martian virus. At night, everything was covered by fog. The boards had been warped out of shape. It was not an earth’s man atmosphere and everything was losing its identity. Q6.How social were the people of Mars? Ans. The lieutenant told the Captain that Martians were friendly, dark people with golden eyes. They were capable to learn English fast. He also reflected that they could be made friends easily. Ironically, the Martian people were the same, who migrated from 5|Page MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 5|Page MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 5|Page MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 5|Page MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 5|Page MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018
  • 6. the Earth to Mars to live in peace and whose physical appearance underwent mutation, so the Captain and Lieutenant could not identify them. “Thank you, Ma’am” By Langston Hughes Q1. What was the time when Roger tried to snatch the purse of the women? Ans. It was about 11 O’ Clock, dark, when the boy came across her to snatch her purse. Q2. What did happen to the boy when he tried to snatch the purse? Ans. When the boy (Roger) tried to snatch the woman’s purse, the strap of the purse was broken with the single tug, but Roger was not able to run away because his weight and the weight of the purse combined caused him to lose his balance. Instead of, moving away successfully he fell on his back on the sidewalk (Foot path). Q3. What was the reaction of the woman? Ans. After the incident, the woman simply turned around and kicked the boy right square in his blue jeaned sitter. She bended down, picked up the boy up by his shirt front, and shook him until his teeth rattled. But later, she became as polite and kind as a mother. Q4. What was the conduct/reaction of the people who saw the incident? Ans. The passer by or the people had not shown any particular reaction or attitude. They just stopped for a moment to know the matter. Q5. How did the boy look physically? Ans. He seems to be of fourteen or fifteen years, weak and was wearing tennis shoes and blue jeans. Q6. What was the condition of the boy when the woman gave him few jerks? Ans. He was nervous and frightened. Sweat popped out on the boy’s face and he began to struggle. He was sure that the woman would certainly send him to jail. Q7. Why did the woman ask the boy to wash his face? Ans . She wanted to make him clean and wanted to reform him as if he were her son Q8. Why didn’t the boy run from the house of the woman? Ans. The boy did not run away because he didn’t want to be mistrusted again as the behaviour of the lady became polite and motherly. Q9.Why didn’t the woman watch the boy while preparing dish? Ans. She was sure that the boy must have been reformed by her polite treatment, would not betray her again, that’s why she didn’t pay any attention to the boy while 6|Page MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 6|Page MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 6|Page MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 6|Page MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 6|Page MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018
  • 7. preparing dish. Q10.What was the nature of the woman’s job? Ans. Mrs. Jones worked in a hotel beauty shop, which stayed open late and was often visited by blondes, red-heads, and Spanish women. THE PIECE OF STRING by Guy De Maupassant Q1.Why did Manana accuse Hubert of picking the lost pocket-book? Ans. Manana accused Hubert because he saw him picking something on the way to the market place and kept on insisting that Hubert should be held responsible for the loss of the pocket –book. Q2.What did the people think of Hubert when they heard of the return of the pocket-book by some other persons? Ans. They held the same view as that of Manana. Although Hubert was innocent, yet the villagers still held the view that he was to be blamed for picking up the pocket book and they also held the view that Hubert sent it later to the Mayor just to save his own skin. Q3.Why did George give the pocket-book to his employer? Ans. George handed it over to his employer solely because he desired it to be restored to its owner, whose address he could not read as he was uneducated. Q4. What did make Hubert shameful? Ans. The gilt of being called a liar, made him ashamed. He considered better to die with honour than to live without it. Q5.Why did the people make fun of his innocence? Ans. The people made fun of his innocence because they were habitual in fabricating, such cock and bull stories. Another fact that he was poor and they also considered that he would not be able to defend himself in the face of allegations. Q6.Why did he keep claiming his innocence before his death? Ans. He kept on claiming his innocence and tried his best to prove it. He hated to be called a liar, even after his death. He did not want to live a life of dishonour and he 7|Page MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 7|Page MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 7|Page MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 7|Page MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 7|Page MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018
  • 8. considered his character as his destiny. It is well remarked by Thomas Hardy:Character is destiny; And destiny is fate. It is really a curse to live a life of disgrace and being abused.But still they can not escape any punishment as James Russell Lowell remarked; Truth forever on the scaffold Wrong forever on the thorn Yet that scaffold sways the future And behind the dim unknown Standeth God within the Shadow Keeping watch above His own. THE REWARD Q1. What discussion was going on at the club? Ans. The topic under discussion at the club was the determination versus opportunity and their inter-relationship. Jorkens emphasized the importance of determination for practical success in life, however, Terbut supported opportunity. He was of the view that without opportunity, determination is fruitless. Q2. What did Terbut think of Jorken’s argument? Ans. Terbut opposed Jorken’s argument and said that opportunity is far more important than determination. He gave the example of a person, who desired to be the a Skating Champion of the Sahara but he might fail to achieve his target only due to lack of money. Q3. How did Jorkens convinced Terbut that a man can become a skating Champion of the Sahara? Ans. Jorkens convinced Terbut that a man could become a skating Champion of the Sahara and could make money by building a skating-ring in the Sahara and would organize a competition there. Q4. How did Gorgios persuade his people to make his country strong? 8|Page MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 8|Page MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 8|Page MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 8|Page MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 8|Page MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018
  • 9. Ans. In order to convince his people, Gorgios joined politics and made fine speeches preaching his ambition. He persuaded that the glory of their country would be multiplied and they could win their rights from their enemies, if the seat of the court acrobat was formally created. Q5. What was the point of view of the parents of Gorgios? Ans. The parents of Gorgios emphasized the importance of time and achievement of ambitions in the early age. However, Gorgios always tried to prove them wrong like other boys of his age. Later, he realized the importance of his parent advice while he was striving for accomplishment of his ambition of creating the seat of court acrobat. Q6.What is the theme of the story? Ans. The theme of the story is “When there is a will, there is a way” and man is not made defeat. A person can achieve anything in his life if he trusts in his faculties and has faith in hard work in as Emerson said: Trust thyself; every heart vibrates to that iron string! Nothing is impossible in the world if a person has decided to achieve anything as every king was once a helpless baby and every great building was once only a sketch. Q7. Describe the scene of inauguration? Ans. For inauguration ceremony, the court hall was converted into a gymnasium. The lights and a band in pale green and gold played softly. All the courtiers, including member of the royal family, were sitting on one side. Gorgios entered in a golden acrobatic dress made of red velvet under the flood of golden light. I Have a Dream By Martin Luther King Q1. Write a note on the struggle of Martin Luther King Junior? Ans. Martin Luther King was a priest as well as a well-honoured political leader of the Black Race during the Civil Rights Movements dating from 1950’s to 1960’s in America. He was awarded Nobel Prize for Peace in 1964. He took steps and raised voice against racial prejudice and injustice. He lead the freedom moments in the Southern States of America for 9|Page MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 9|Page MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 9|Page MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 9|Page MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 9|Page MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018
  • 10. the Black Race /Negroes. During these moments, he and his supporters underwent torture and suffering but nothing could stop them from preaching sanctity of freedom, fraternity, faith in equality and human rights. In the early 1960’s, he was jailed in Birmingham, where he wrote a letter to a local newspaper titled “The Letter from a Birmingham Jail” regarding brutality of police to citizens. He won the freedom struggle and rights for the Negroes. He was shot dead during a protest on 4th April, 1968 in Memphis. Q2.What was the condition of Negroes in his days? Ans. In 1950’s when the movement for Civil Liberty was at its peak; the Negroes in America were living a pitiable and pathetic life. They were not only hated but also but also treated worse than animals. They had to face tough trails and tribulations. They were kept in narrow jail cells. They had to undergo the storms of persecution and staggered by the winds of police brutality. They were wallowing in the valley of despair in search of freedom and justice. They were neither considered for well-paid jobs nor higher education. To uplift the life of Negroes Martin Luther King sacrificed his own life. Q3. What was the subject matter or theme of Martin Luther’s speech, “I Have a Dream”? Ans. Martin Luther King was a strong supporter of the rights and freedom of the Negroes in America. In his speech, “I Have a Dream”, he emphasized that education and awareness would gradually change the thinking of the people. He wanted to preach the fact that hate can’t drive out hate only love can do that. He wanted to preach peace, love for humanity and fraternity through out the world. In the Southern part of America, the Black race was considered to be inferior to White Race. Martin Luther stressed that only love, freedom, fraternity and equality of human rights could bridge up the gap between the white and black race in America. Peace is never possible without freedom of speech and liberty from poverty and injustice. Freedom never means to maintain one’s own freedom and seize the freedom of others as Nelson Mandela remarks:For to be free is not merely to cast off one’s chains, but to live in a way that respects and enhances the freedom of others. We cannot separate peace from freedom because no one can be at peace unless one has 10 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 10 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 10 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 10 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 10 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018
  • 11. one’s freedom. Martin Luther King wanted the people to give practical shape to his dreams, which was the dream of the whole humanity. Our religion Islam is also a great supporter of universal brotherhood, sanctity of human life and rights regardless of race, caste, colour and religion. Our Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) also preached that no white man is superior to a black man. THE GIFT OF MAGI Q1. What is the central idea of “The Gift Of Magi”? Ans. Love, generosity, and the various definitions of wealth and poverty are central themes in "The Gift of the Magi," in which a poor, loving young couple sell the only valuable things they own to give each other special Christmas gifts. Della Young sells her beautiful hair to buy Jim a gold watch chain, and Jim sells his heirloom watch to buy Della some hair combs. These gifts are useless, in one sense; Della cannot wear her combs without her hair, and Jim, without his watch, cannot use his watch chain. However, Jim’s remark, is also a comment on the value of the gifts. They are too nice not only because of the money they represent but also because of the sacrificial love they represent. Self-sacrifice in the name of love is the wisest gift. Q2. How much did she save for Christmas? Ans. Della saved one dollar and eighty seven cents through bargaining while buying meat and food. She saved money through careful buying only because she wanted to purchase Christmas gift for Jim. Q3. Why did Della sell her hair? Ans. When Della found no other way to get money for Jim’s gift, she started weeping desperately. During the same moment, the idea of selling hair came to her mind, thus she rushed to Sofronie’s Shop; who was a large, white and cold-eyed woman and bought Della’s hair for twenty dollars. Q4. Why Della did selected gold chain for Jim? Ans. Della chose gold watch chain for Jim because it had both quietness and value like Jim, and was made of pure material. Moreover, Jim’s watch had never a good chain and he always avoided to take out watch from his pocket in public places. 11 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 11 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 11 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 11 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 11 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018
  • 12. Q5. Why did they want to present gifts to each other? Ans. Jim and Della had sacrificial love for each other and they did not want to celebrate Christmas without presenting gifts. Thus, both sold their most valuable gifts for each other. Q6. What was the wisdom in selling the most valuable things? Ans. In "The Gift of the Magi," O. Henry tells the story of Jim and Delia Young, a poor young couple who wanted to buy each other special Christmas gifts, which ironically cancel each other out because Della sold her hair to buy Jim a chain for his watch, which he in turn had sold to buy her a fine set of combs for her hair. Despite the fact that these gifts are now useless, Jim and Delia have given each other the greatest gift of all, which the narrator compares to the gifts given to the Christ child by the wise men, or magi: selfless love. Their love for each other is unlimited. A MILD ATTACK OF LOCUSTS By Doris Lessing Q1. How did the farmers try to prevent the main swarm of the locusts from lading on their fields? Ans. The farmers were used to such calamities and knew how to handle them. They took every possible preventative or safety measures to prevent the main swarm of the locusts from lading on their fields; especially they prepared piles of wood and grass and set it on fire. When the smoke started rising from the myriads of fire, they constantly added wet leaves to make it more acrid (acidic) and black because the locusts were allergic to smoke. This preventive kept the locusts from the field for a longer time. Moreover, they also made rattling sound with the help of tins and other metallic things to stop them from settling. Q2. Why even after all the crops were destroyed, did the men continue to fight the 12 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 12 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 12 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 12 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 12 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018
  • 13. swarm? Ans. Although the locusts devastated the green fields and crops, yet the villagers kept on fighting because they knew that the attack of locusts might turn out like a bad weather. Once the swarm of locusts settled on their lands/fields, they would start breeding and they might go on for the next two to three years. The farmers also knew that the locusts would definitely eat up all the new crops too, so they kept on fighting desperately to avert this calamity. Q3. What was the condition of the land when the locusts had moved to the south? Ans. After the attack of locusts, the land gave the view of wilderness, as all the greenery especially the crops were eaten up by the locusts, leaving behind only the patches of barren land. Everything was to be replanted and the fields seemed to be in ruins. All the trees, buildings, bushes and earth were completely covered was gone under the moving brown masses. The villagers were expecting rain, which might spring some new grass, because the cattle would die otherwise. For Margaret, it was a great calamity and she felt like a survivor after war. Q4. What are the measures the farmers should have taken to save their crops? Ans. Disaster or calamities are mostly remembered for the number of people that they have killed, the property consumed by their ferocity, and the social and psychological trauma (shock) that they leave in their wake. Calamities as these effects are, disaster also bring out all the stupidities, mistakes, wrong decisions, , frailties and the ultimate incapability of human beings in conquering- or even defending against- the forces of nature beside the best that human nature has to offer. Moreover, calamities always come as an unpleasant surprise, for which no nation is pre-planned or ready to face. 13 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 13 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 13 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 13 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 13 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018
  • 14. In this story, the attack of locusts is also like an unpredictable calamity, which can neither be predicted and nor easily averted. Although the farmers were used to this kind of attacks and the knew the precautions as well, yet they could not avert it. If it had been possible for them to avert them, they would have taken all the measures, however, the should have taken the following measures:a. They should have sprayed the insecticides in time. b. They would have known the symptoms of such attacks must have some precautions before hand. c. They must have got help form Agricultural Department to control this kind of attack. d. They should have used bio- pesticides like fungus, which spread disease among the locusts and result in their ultimate death. Q5. Write a note on the character of Margaret. Ans. Margaret is a young girl, belonging to the village being attacked by the locusts. It was her first experience of life to be under attack of locusts and she was greatly shocked. She could not understand what to do and she felt herself like a saviour from a war. But at the same time she could not understand the happiness of the farmers after the disappearance of the locusts from that area. Shaheen Academy, G-6-1/3, Islamabad. Ph-2279319 The Gulistan of Saadi By Sheikh Saadi Q1. What do you know about Sheikh Saadi? 14 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 14 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 14 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 14 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 14 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018
  • 15. Ans. Abū Muslih-ud-Din bin Abdullah Shīrāzī (died 691 AH), better known by his penname as Sheikh Saadī Shirazi , was one of the major Persian poets of the medieval period. He is recognized not only for the quality of his writing, but also for the depth of his social thoughts. His best known works are Bostan ("The Orchard") completed in 1257 and Gulistan ("The Rose Garden") in 1258, which are a description of Saadi's travels and analysis of human psychology and wisdom. Q2. How did Nushirvan advise to his people? Ans. Nushirvan-the great Persian King, who was known for his justice and kindness, warned his subject/people against destruction by cruelty and injustice. He advised them, “A tyrant does not remain in the world; but the curse on him abides for ever”, mean an unjust and cruel is cursed forever and there are no sound existence of such a king. On another occasion Sheikh Saadi remarked about an unjust king in the following words:“A tyrant cannot be a Sultan, As a wolf can’t be a shepherd, A king who establishes oppression, Destroys the basis of the wall of his own reign”. Q3. What remedy was suggested by the physician for the disease of the king? Ans. The physician prescribed the king that his disease could only be cured with the bile of a person having certain qualities. His servants searched for such person and at last a farmer’s son was found to have the required qualities. The king also got the consent of the boy’s parents by presenting them handsome sum. Q4. Why did the boy look towards the sky and smile? Ans. The boy looked towards the sky to seek justice from Almighty Allah against the brutality of the king and smiled at the foolishness and lust of his parents for the trash of the world that for a little sum they forgot the parents-son relationship. The boy also said that if the king failed to get agreement of his parents, they would seek justice from Qazi. On the contrary, the parents agreed for his bloodshed and the Qazi who was to do justice also passed the decree for his assassination. Q5. What should be the role of Qazi? Ans. A Qazi should be a paragon of justice having considerable knowledge and understanding of social and moral laws. He should be impartial and not to be influenced 15 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 15 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 15 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 15 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 15 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018
  • 16. by the Rulers and Kings of any state. His decision should be on merit regardless of social status and position. Q6. Why did the king weep? Ans. The king when listened to the words of helpless boy. He considered himself to be cruel and unjust, who is going to kill an innocent boy for his health. He also though about his foolishness that he was dependent upon the worldly provisions while the little boy was seeking justice from Allah. With these feeling, he started weeping and released the boy with wealth and affection. THE FOOLISH QUACK Q1. What is the clump of trees? Ans. A clump of trees means a group or a groove or a furrow of trees grown close to each other. Q2. What was stuck in the camel’s throat? Ans. A water-melon was stuck in the camel’s throat while grazing in the field. Q3. What did the quack pretend to cure? Ans. The quack pretended emphatically to cure goiter i.e the swollen throat. Q4. What did the quack do with the old woman? Ans. He wrapped a blanket around the old woman’s throat and hit it hard with mallet .i.e he repeated the same practice, which he did with the camel. Q5. What was the result of the cure? Ans. The cure resulted into the instant death of the poor old woman. Q6. What was the punishment inflicted on the quack by the villagers? Ans. The punishment inflicted or imposed on the quack by the villagers was to dig the 16 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 16 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 16 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 16 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 16 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018
  • 17. grave for the burial of the old woman and a beating in addition to digging. Q7. For whom did the quack dig the grave? Ans. He dug the grave for the old woman, whom he killed with his notorious and abortive practice of curing goiter. Q8. What did the quack do in the next village? Ans. The quack again pretended to be expert in curing goiter. Q9. Why didn’t the villagers let the old man get cured? Ans. They did not let the old man cure because the quack warned them that in case of old man’s death, he should not be held responsible. Hearing this, the villagers said that they had nothing to do with a doctor, who talked of death before curing. Q10. Why did the quack come back to the camel-men? Ans. He came back to the camel-men to taunt him for misguiding or misleading him regarding the cure of goiter. Q11. How did the camel-men cure their camel? Ans. They cured their camel by tying a blanket round the neck of their camel and hit it hard with a mallet. The water-melon stuck in the throat of the camel was crushed with the blow and the camel swallowed the food instantly. It was a natural way meant for animals based on common sense, but was not for human beings. THE USE OF FORCE By William Carlos Williams Q1.What was the condition of the parents on the arrival of the doctor? Ans. The parents especially the mother was disturbed about the health of her daughter, she was spick and span and apologetic lady. On the arrival of the doctor, the father tried to move for the doctor but the doctor rushed not to bother him. Both the father and the mother of the little girl were nervous and they were eyeing the doctor up and down distrustfully. Q2. How did the child behave with the doctor? 17 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 17 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 17 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 17 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 17 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018
  • 18. Ans. The child behaved adamantly and was ready for her medical check up. She was inwardly quiet and healthy in appearance with expressionless face. She also reacted strongly, when the doctor tried to open her mouth for throat examination. Q3. Why did the doctor call her by her first name? Ans. The doctor called the child by her first name “Matilda” to make her sure that he is intimate and friendly. He also wanted to make her realize that he was their family doctor and had already known them. Q4. Why did the parents rebuke the little girl? Ans. The parents rebuked the little girl for her misbehavior and partly because she knocked away the glasses of the doctor as he lovingly approached her to examine, which fell a few yards away on the kitchen floor. Q5. How did the doctor threaten the sick child? Ans. Considering the children lying on the death bed due to ignorance, the doctor indirectly threatened the little girl by saying that if she did not cooperate for her throat examination he would open it by force for her. Q6. How did the child look by appearance? Ans. The child was as strong as heifer in appearance but her face was flushed due to high fever and she was breathing rapidly. She was inwardly quiet and was eyeing the doctor furiously with expressionless face. In short, she was as cute as the children, who appear in the photogravure section of the Sunday magazines. Q7. Why did the parents keep the child in the kitchen? Ans. The parents kept the sick child in the kitchen to keep warm, where she was resting in her father’s lap. They kept her there also because the house was very damp sometimes. Q8. How did the doctor succeed in examining the sick child? Ans. When the doctor failed to convince the sick child to open her mouth for examination, as a last resort he grasped head of the girl and tried to put the wooden tongue depressor between her teeth. When he succeeded in doing so, the girl crushed the wooden depressor with her teeth into splinters. Then he asked for a metallic spoon 18 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 18 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 18 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 18 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 18 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018
  • 19. and pushed it her mouth until she gagged showing the tonsils covered with membrane. Q9.Under what circumstances the use of force can be justified? Ans. The use of force can not be justified in general, however, in cases where danger to life is imminent; the use of force becomes inevitable. In the lesson, “The Use of Force”, the doctor and the parents tried their level best in politely and kindly but as a last resort they had to use force at the risk of her life to examine her throat. OVERCOAT Q1. How did the young man look physically? Ans. The young man was well groomed having sleek and shinning hair and wore side burns. He had tin mustache as if drawn with a pencil. He was wearing brown overcoat according to fashion of that day, a green flat hat and white silk scarf knotted at his neck. The coat was well cut and its material was good. The lapels of the coat were stiff and the sleeves were well creased. Indeed he was very happy in that dress. Q2. Why were the people doing on the mall? Ans. The people were enjoying themselves and had fun in variety of hotels, restaurants, cafes and snack bars according to their means. Q3. Why did a tongawala and a taxi drive approach the young man? Ans. They mistook him as a rich man and thought he might be needed a vehicle to move through the bazaar. However, both were turned away in a peculiar style especially the taxi driver with “No thank you”. Q4. Why did not the young man buy the carpet? Ans. The young man could not buy the carpet because he was not well off. He praised the carpet as being fine but a little bit costly. He further said to him that he would come again after some days. He said so to conceal his poverty. Q5. Why did the driver of the truck escaped away? Ans. The truck driver sped away after the young man ran over by his truck because he imagined that the young man would have been critically injured. He thought that if he stopped there, he would definitely be arrested for this mishap. 19 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 19 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 19 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 19 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 19 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018
  • 20. Q6. Narrate the scene of removing the overcoat from the body of the young man? Ans. After being taken to the hospital, the overcoat was removed from the body of the young man, it was found that under the coat he was wearing only a tattered sweater. Under the sweater, he was wearing a dirty vest which was reflecting that he has not taken bath for many days. Q7. Give the list of the articles, which were found from the coat of the young man? Ans. The articles recovered from various pockets of the young man were a small black comb, a handkerchief, six annas, a few pies, a half smoked cigarette, a little diary and a few handbills, which the shopkeepers thrust upon him on that night. Q8. What is the central idea of the story “Overcoat”? Ans. The basic theme or central idea of this story is that most of the people pretend to be rich and tries to hide their poverty and miseries because they are looked upon by the elite class, who has merely made the physical appearance to be final yardstick of measuring character and status in the society. But we should judge people around us morally not materially as Our true beauty is defined by our soul; our appearance is just a camouflage we use to hide our true beauty, our true identity... THE ANGEL AND THE AUTHOR AND OTHERS By Jerome K Jerome Q1. At what point of the journey in his dream did the author hear the throbbing sound of wings? Ans. One night, in his dream the author felt that he was flying up towards the sky. While he was moving up and up he could observe the little luminosity down on the earth. At this moment, he heard the throbbing sound of the wings behind him. When he turned around, he saw that it was the recording angel. Q2.What time of the year was it? Ans. It was about a fortnight (two weeks) after Christmas, when the writer had a worrisome dream. The author dreamt that he was moving up towards the sky. Q3. What does the author like about Christmas? Ans. The author tells the angel that he likes Christmas, because it makes everybody good especially the lovely sentiments and the noble deeds that people keep on repeating from a little before 20 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 20 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 20 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 20 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 20 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018
  • 21. Christmas up to the end of January. There is also an ironic element in the writer’s opinion that usually people do good deeds only for a limited time each years just to show off especially during the religious days. Q4. Write down the good deeds the author has admitted are a great joy on Christmas? Ans. The good deeds that the author has done are as follow:- 1 He submitted ten shillings subscription to the daily telegraph’s six penny fund for the unemployed. 1 He attended four charity dinners, later he had to suffer from stomach problem. 1 He sent his twelve self-signed photographs to a charity bazaar to be sold to raise funds. 1 He also performed in Talbot Chimneys and helped to raise funds for the destitute (poor) British in Johannesburg. 1 Moreover, he sent his old clothes along with a useable coat to rummage sale and bought a raffle to help the poor. Q5. Why noble deeds are always a great joy for the author? Ans. Good deeds bring spiritual satisfaction to everyone. Similarly for the author good deeds are of great joy, he tries to recall all his good deeds that he has done during his lifetime. In his dream, he is dead and realizes that he has lost all opportunities for good deeds. He also tells the angel that noble deeds are always a great joy to him and he loves to think of all the good deeds he himself has done. He often thought of keeping a diary--noting them down each day as it would be so nice for one's children. Noble deeds not only satisfy one’s conscience but also a true way to win God’s love. A tree is known by its fruit; a man by his deeds. A good deed is never lost; he who sows courtesy reaps friendship, and he who plants kindness gathers love. Q6. What is the central idea of the story “The Angel and The Author and The Others”? Ans. Man does not become conscious of the escaping time and opportunity that has been bestowed to him by Almighty Allah. Here in this story, the author realizes that he is no more alive and has lost all the opportunities to perform good deeds. Thus he recalls his good deeds with the ironic vein that majority of us start doing good during the specific religious occasions. In other words, in order to protect himself 21 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 21 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 21 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 21 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 21 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018
  • 22. from damnation he starts mentioning his trivial deeds which are of no significance. The idea of death, the fear of it, haunts the human like nothing else; it is a mainspring of human activity and this fear can only be overthrown or defeated through good deeds and following the ways prescribed by Almighty Allah. 22 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 22 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 22 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 22 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 22 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018
  • 23. HEAT LIGHTENING Q1. What did the girl can’t describe the killer? Ans. The girl couldn’t describe the killer because she was extremely frightened and nervous. She completely lost her senses, when she saw the killer dragging the dead body of the woman. Later, she was also chased by the killer and she was certain that she would also be murdered. In this anxiety, she was not able to muster up her courage to give details regarding the murderer/ killer. Q2. Why did the girl leave her on the side of the road? Ans. She left her car solely because her car ran short of f uel/gas. It was a stormy night with heavy rain and she banked her car along the road side. As a last resort, she came out of her car with the hope to get help or any other assistance f orm the passers-by. As she was strolling along the road, she was horror-stricken by the terrible scene. Q3. Why did the girl consider the first man her 23 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 23 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 23 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 23 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 23 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018
  • 24. helper? Ans. The girl extremely nervous saw a horrible and act, which made her disturbed. The uncountable f ear and threat of being chase and murdered kept on haunting her mind. In alarmed state, she reached the bus stop; where she came across the first man, whose compassionate and kind words made her trust him. He posed as if he were her well wisher as he positively suggested her first also the man positively second man trusted him as inquired the to pretended murder inf orm to the hide/save case and police. The her, when arrived. The frightened girl blindly her well-wisher and she was f ar away from considering the first man, the murderer. THE OYSTER AND THE PEARL Q1. Do you think that it is right to allow Clay to believe that there is a pearl in the oyster? Elaborate. Ans. Clay wants 300 dollars to get his f ather back home and desires to buy some present f or his mother. He wishes to see f amily united and regain the lost happiness, as his f ather left them f or unknown place, owing to everyday disputes. Clay plans to search f or his f ather but he lacks money f or this purpose. He has associated all of his hopes with the oyster and the pearl. The oyster, however, 24 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 24 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 24 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 24 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 24 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018
  • 25. symbolises the obstacles and the pearl is hope. Moreover, when he comes by an oyster on the sea shore he becomes happy and optimistic. He is confident to find pearl in the oyster, even there was none. Everyone except Harry tells him that there is nothing inside of the oyster. Harry agrees with Clay only because he wants to make him happy. The writer understands the circumstances, pays 300 dollars to Clay to help him and saves him from being disappointed and disillusioned. However, it is wise decision on the part of the Harry Van Dusen and the writer not to disappoint the innocent boys, who is living in the world of harmless dreams through selfsacrifice. Q2. Why does the writer willing to buy the pearl? What does he mean by saying: As far as I am concerned the whole thing is a pearls? Ans. During the discussion regarding, the oyster and the pearl, the writer was present in Harry’s shop f or hair cut. Like other people of the town, he knew that there was no pearl in the oyster and that one out thousand carried the pearl, it was f ew and f ar between. Though he was certain that he would not be getting anything from the worthless /ordinary oyster, yet he bought it f or 300 dollars to help the poor Clay indirectly. Moreover, he did not want to shatter the innocent boy’s dreams and hopes of bringing in happiness. Q3.What was Harry’s philosophy? What is your opinion about it? Ans. Lif is a pendulum between smiles and tears. To love e and to be loved is the greatest existence of human lif e. Cheerful lif e is always based on self-sacrifice, humanity, patience, tolerance and fraternity. Harry’s philosophy is to 25 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 25 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 25 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 25 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 25 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018
  • 26. take it easy and relax; consequently, the lif will be happy and e serene. He tries to propagate his philosophy by talking to people, when he is cutting hair. It is almost as if the haircuts were just a way of getting people in his shop to talk. The name of the town is O.K.-by-the-sea, which symbolises that life isn’t perfect but by taking it easy, it can be more fun. He knows that the people are living a very miserable and hectic lif e without any sympathy or helping hand. All the town people are preoccupied by the cares of chaotic lif There is no way out f e. or them, they can neither laugh nor weep. However, Harry’s philosophy makes them hopeful and happy. He tries to free the town people from their worries, particularly in the case of Clay, who wants money to get his f ather back home and to buy gifts f or his mother. A VISIT TO A SMALL PLANET By Gore Vidal Q1. How does Kreton prove his extraordinary powers? Ans. Kreton, an alien visitor from outer space, who is fascinated by human beings and determined to make his visit everlasting and memorable. He possesses extraordinary powers, which are being displayed at the time of threat from the army or personnel of General Powers. The prominent traits of his power are as below:-  He creates an invisible fortification (defence wall), surrounding his spaceship, when General Powers orders his personnel to penetrate into it.  Kreton has used his powers of mind to levitate or cease all of the rifles and weapons in the world for fifteen seconds.  He has a highly technological way of operating his spaceship without instrument or control panel.  He has the ability of reading the minds and behaviour of the people before revelation. 26 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 26 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 26 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 26 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 26 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018
  • 27.  He is strong and advanced enough to take the control of the whole world. Q2. What do you know about Kreton and what is the purpose of his visit to the earth? Ans. Kreton is a visitor from other planet. He is forty years old, mild, pleasant looking man with side whiskers, dressed in the fashion of 1860. He is cool-minded. He possesses high intellectual and has the ability to read the mind dressed. He self-dependent and represents an ideal civilization. He is the man of extraordinary powers and above human ill-will and malice. On General Power inquiry regarding the purpose of his arrival, he reflects his interest in the human beings and their behaviour. He also says to Speldings, “ You are my hobby” and “I am going native”. He means to say that he has come to earth for everlasting visit. When General Powers questions him regarding his intention to capture America, he replies that he will take the charge of the whole world including America and intends to reform it. Q3. What is the theme of the play “A Visit to a Small Planet? Ans. Using Kreton as a satiric personification of American’s ugly underbelly (cunningness), Vidal’s play employs a common science-fiction scenario to explore not alien but American’s life and directly the hollow and materialistic nature of all the human beings, who are uncivilized and good at nothing except wars. The writer has aptly employed the character of Kreton to expose the real face of human beings i.e. hypocrisy, selfishness, callousness, cruelty, violence and war crime against humanity. Here, Kreton also acts as writer’s mouthpiece and through his satirical remarks like “Here civilization is just beginning” and “You fragile butterflies”, Vidal has put forward the idea that the people on the earth are inferior in civilization and technology to the other inhabitants of other planets. Moreover the elements of violence, hatred and the fever to expand one’s territories are the characteristics of ancient civilizations. Kreton says that the people of earth seek satisfaction by hurting others even in 20th Century and consider themselves more civilized than other nations or their enemies. Kreton, who is the representative of both an alien nation and the future man, is free of human emotions of hatred, hostility and prejudice including all other evil emotions. He plans to live on earth for ever to reform the human civilization, which has gone worse. 27 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 27 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 27 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 27 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 27 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018
  • 28. THE RAIN W.H. Davies I HEAR leaves drinking rain; I hear rich leaves on top Giving the poor beneath Drop after drop; 'Tis a sweet noise to hear These green leaves drinking near. 28 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 28 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 28 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 28 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 28 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018
  • 29. Ref erence: These verses have been taken from the poem The Rain, written by W H DaviesContext: In this poem, the poet has portrayed the scenery of a rainy day. The rain beautifies the entire atmosphere and f alls drop after drop on lush green leaves of the tree. But this romantic and natural scene is not to be enjoyed by the poor, who are shelter less , thus can not admire and enjoy the beauty and music of rain. Rain appears as a hindrance in their daily routines and gives them a tough time as and they have no alternative except to suff er in the wet cold weather. To escape from the coming deluge, he seeks shelter under trees, which doesn’t serve as a perf ect shelter. However, the scene of the sunshine after the rain symbolizes hope and happiness f or poor. Explanation:-In this stanza, the poet portrays the fresh serene and musical atmosphere created by rain. When it rains, the poet observes the tree leaves sipping / drinking rain water and giving a f ascinating melody. The leaves after rain can be seen fresh and f ull of water. This natural music is sweet, pleasant and worth of listening. Despite its pleasantness, it is not fruitf ul or enjoyable f or poor and the penniless. The poor man has no other choice or shelter except the tree. In this cold wet world, the suff erings of poor are as countless or limitless as the rain drops, which f drop all after drop. As Shakespeare remarked:When sorrows come, they, Come not single spies, But in battalions. THE greatest enemy to the man, who has to carry on his body his entire wardrobe, is rain. As long as the sun shines he is indiff erent, but if he is caught in a wet condition after sunset, he is to be pitied. He does not f ear any ill consequences to health from being wet; however, he does not like the uncomf ortable sensation of shivering and not being able to keep warm. This unsettled f eeling is often made worse by an empty stomach. In f act a f ull stomach is his one saf eguard against the cold, and he cares not then, if the rain and the wind penetrate his clothes. Stanza 2. And when the Sun comes out, 29 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 29 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 29 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 29 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 29 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018
  • 30. After this Rain shall stop, A wondrous Light will fill Each dark, round drop; I hope the Sun shines bright; 'Twill be a lovely sight. Explanation: -In these verses, the poet remarks that sunlight will brighten the whole atmosphere after the rain is stopped. The sun shines with full glamour and gives a new look to all the things. The other side of the gloomy picture is always bright. As every dark clod has a silver lining and after rain there are always roses. Here in the verses, sunshine is the symbol and ray of hope f or the poor in the dead, dark and cold world of uncountable suff ering. The suff erings may stay a little longer, yet not f orever. Human lif is a pendulum between smiles and e tears; he has to endure suff erings and dejection, without any excuse. The poet encourages the poor to keep up hope and happiness through the imagery of bright sunshine, which injects a new spirit and lif e in every creature. In this regard Henry Wardsworth Longf ellow has beautifully remarked in his poem- An April Day :Be still, sad heart, and cease repining; Behind the clouds the sun is shining; Thy f ate is the common f ate of all, Into each lif some rain must f e all, Some days must be dark and dreary. NIGHT MAIL Night Mail is a simple poem written by W. H. Auden. In this poem, the travels poet the describes whole night the to journey bring mail of a coach containing that letters, postal orders and cheques f or people living in diff erent parts 30 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 30 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 30 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 30 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 30 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018
  • 31. of the country. The journey is not always the same. Sometimes the “Night Mail” coach has to climb upwards and sometimes it crosses the plains but it always reaches its destination through on time. grasslands, During the journey cotton fields, the coach moorland, etc. passes The poet mentions the attitude of the birds as it approaches, they become active to peep at it through bushes. The sheepdogs are not at disturbed by the noise of the train as they are lost in their slumber (deep sleep). The poet minutely mentions all the details that when the night mail passes through the f arm the people are not disturbed. They continue to sleep. Only a jug placed in a bedroom shakes gently with the vibration of the passing train. *************** LOVELIEST OF TREES -THE CHERRY NOW STANZA -1 Loveliest of trees, the cherry now Is hung with bloom along the bough, And stands about the woodland ride Wearing white for Eastertide. Reference: These verses have been taken from the poem “Loveliest of the Cherry Now” written by A.H Housman. Context:- In this poem, the poet has beautif ully portrayed and mirrored the beauty of cherry tree in bloom. The poet’s joy mirth, birth and happiness lie in the splendor of cherry trees, which are 31 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 31 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 31 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 31 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 31 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018
  • 32. embellished colourf ul flowers, adding to the splendid herald of spring. Moreover; the melodious rhythm of the verses lends majesty and grandeur to the influence of the poem. The poet sketches the shortness of his lif by making an apt comparison e of the spring season with the period of lif Here the approaching e. spring is portrayed through f ascinating colours of flowers and magical glimpse of nature. Explanation:- In these verses, the poet shows his deep and unbounded love and f ascination f or the cherry tree. He holds that cherry is the loveliest tree, which is in f ull bloom and splendor, and its branches are laden with the attractive flowers. To poet, it appears that the cherry tree is standing along the way to f orest /woods, wearing the white shining overcoat of snow to welcome the eve of Easter. The poet’s praise f or cherry garden and its f ascinating surroundings reflects his love f or nature. The cherry tree here also symbolizes the tree of life with its own spring and autumn i.e. lif e and death, mirth and dirge (Funeral song). The poet keeps up his hope of lif through the e inspiration of cherry tree, as it is said by Abignale:“Every endless night… has a shinning day Every darkest sky…. Has a shinning rain” (Abignale) It is universal truth that every withered plant or thing has its hope preserved which comes to lif through e tragedy, but bringing lif e and a brand new day with the blossoming cherry in the wood world, creates a new sense and scene of cheerful lif e. In the winter season all the vegetation seems to be dead the tree are bare, the grass is brown, and all the flowers have disappeared. In March the climate changes often suddenly. The warm, moisture laden west wind prevails and the air becomes warm and mild. The flowers come out, the tree put f orth new leaves and the grass becomes green. STANZA- 2. Now, of my three score years and ten, Twenty will not come again, And take from seventy springs a score, It only leaves me fifty more. 32 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 32 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 32 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 32 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 32 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018
  • 33. Explanation: In these verses, the poet laments about his past lif e and its golden moments, and associates it with the spring season. The white glory of the cherry tree in bloom, reminds him of the springs of his lovely lif which has now become a history e, (past) f or him. At the same moment, the cherry tree also symbolizes the shortness and uncertainty of human lif in the e f orm of spring and autumn season. Human lif is as limited as that e of a flower. The more it is beautif ul and sweet smelling the sooner it is withered. Here in these verses, the poet also grieves that the early twenty years of his lif e will not bounce back. These early twenty years of poet’s lif e were the years of youthful and tension free lif e. STANZA -3. And since to look at things in bloom Fifty springs are little room, About the woodlands I will go To see the cherry hung with snow. Explanation :-In this stanza, the poet reflects the shortness and uncertainty of human lif e, which is not long enough to enjoy the beauties of nature. That’s why he says in brooding pessimism that fifty years are a little time to enjoy lif in the recesses of nature. Like Wordsworth, the e poet desires to take ref uge in the beautiful and charming world of cherry and want to escape from the gloomy and short world. He longs f or an everlasting tour to woodland to enjoy the splendour of the blooming cherry trees. ************************* O WHERE ARE YOU GOING? "O where are you going?" said reader to rider, "That valley is fatal when furnaces burn, Yonder's the midden whose odours will madden, That gap is the grave where the tall return." Reference: These verses have been taken from the W. H. 33 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 33 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 33 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 33 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 33 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018
  • 34. Auden’s poem “O Where Are You Going? Context: This poem is a dialogue between two imaginary persons, personified as Reader and Rider. The Reader, whose lif is based on theoretical concepts and nothing practical, is e a timid and terrified person. On the other hand, the Rider is a brave, courageous and practical man. Although his journey is replete with innumerable dangers, yet he is determined to accomplish it through thick and thin or whatever suff erings and sorrows come in his way. Through the dialogue between two opposite f orce i.e the Reader and Rider the poet has tried to preach the philosophy of lif that man is not made e for defeat and one must be determined and confident to achieve the goals of life without losing courage and hope. The Reader in this poem is the representative of all those cowards, who die ten times before death. The valley is the symbol of hardships and mysteries of lif e. Explanation: In these verses, the Reader, who is coward, full of awe and astonishment, discourages the Rider from continuing his tough task of travelling. He says that the valley where the Rider is going is replete with heaps of dung /waste material, whose nasty smell may sicken him or madden his mind. To strike further horror in the heart and mind of the Rider, the Rider adds that there is also a grave in the f orm of a gap f or those, who try to cross it. At the very outset, the Reader tries discourage the reader from accomplishing reader is impractical, unrealistic and f ar so he can’t overcome obstacle of lif as e remarked: to frighten and his journey. The more frightened, Shakespeare has Extreme fear can neither flight nor fly "O do you imagine," said fearer to farer, "That dusk will delay on your path to the pass, Your diligent looking discover the lacking 34 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 34 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 34 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 34 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 34 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018
  • 35. Your footsteps feel from granite to grass?" Explanation:- In the above mentioned verses, the Reader warns the Rider regarding the risks and tragedies, which may bef all during his journey. He says that although the Rider is undertaking his journey during the day time, yet at dusk it will become dark and deadly, where his intelligence and vigilance will display his ignorance regarding mysteries of lif e. The Reader also warns him that the f ootsteps on granite are diff erent from those on grass. In other words, he means to say that the path that the Rider has chosen is tortuous and twisted. The f earer tries to discourage the rider so that he may withdraw from his ambition to cross and conquer the valley replete with dangers, f ailures, sorrows and suff erings. It’s true that bad time never plays trumpet, however, one must be ready to f ace it courageously. In spite of the Reader’s predictions and discouragement, the Rider is not ready to give f or him. To him, the will power matters not the path / journey, which is either tough or straightf orward and a determined person never complains about such things, as it is well said by Tom Wilson:You can complain because roses have thorns, or you can rejoice because thorns have roses. No doubt God created us, but He gave us the power of choice to shape our own lives and fortunes. It is depends upon a person, how he reacts during happy moments or in tough times. "O what was that bird," said horror to hearer, "Did you see that shape in the twisted trees? Behind you swiftly the figure comes softly, The spot on your skin is a shocking disease." 35 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 35 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 35 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 35 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 35 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018
  • 36. Explanation: In the above mentioned verses, the Horror/Reader terrifies the Hearer /Rider regarding mysterious event or phenomenon, which may bef all during his journey. Supernatural creatures, having terrible f aces, may appear in his way. The trees, in that valley, are the dwelling place f or such ghostly creatures, which may chase him to death. The Horror points out that the tiny spot on his f ace and body are the symptoms of deadly disease. From the very outset, the main objective of the Reader is to frighten the Rider, who is determined to cross the land of terror and dismay. The Rider believes in deeds not the baseless words, because deeds are fruits; words are but leaves. Shakespeare has rightly remarked about will power that our bodies are gardens to which our wills are gardeners. "Out of this house," said rider to reader, "Yours never will," said farer to fearer, "They're looking for you," said hearer to horror, As he left them there, as he left them there. Explanation: - The concluding stanza of the poem indicates that the Rider doesn’t get frightened of the Readers pseudo warnings. He bears the iron will power to cross the valley. The traveller says to the reader that the brave and courageous people are not afraid of the hardships of lif e and always struggle till death. They trust in their capabilities and live on the principal of “Do or Die”. Regarding will power and self-reliance, Emerson has rightly quoted: Trust thyself; every heart vibrates to that iron string! Such people never wait f or opportunities or the dangers to be over, because deciding today is less risky than waiting till all the risks are removed and when there is a will there is a way. 36 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 36 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 36 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 36 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 36 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018
  • 37. The Rider further remarks that Reader’s world is limited and can’t come over the barrier of the shortcoming of his own character. Ironically, the doubts and f ears that the Reader has been trying to create in the mind and heart of the Rider, are waiting f or him; he will definitely become prey of his f ears and doubts. Saying this, the Rider left the Reader and assumed his journey. IN THE STREET OF FRUIT STALLS Wicks balance flame, a dark dew falls In the street of fruit stalls’ Melon, guava, mandarin, Pyramid-piled like cannon balls, Glow red-hot, gold-hot from within Reference: These verses have been taken from the poem “In the Street of Fruit Stalls” By Jan Stallworthy. Context: In this Poem, the Jan Stallworthy has reflected dark and harsh reality of lif through death and destruction e caused by war, poverty and miseries of lif e. But all these suff erings have f ailed to crush man’s love f or pleasure. He still searches f or delight in the short sweetness of lif just e like the children, who enjoy the sweet spray of juice f orgetting all about the misery of lif they live in. These e children are too innocent to comprehend the dark and harsh reality of lif e. Explanation: In this first stanza, the poet has used the dark imagery “dark dew f ”. He has portrayed evening time alls with dark and grim future inflicted by war in the street of fruit stalls, where various fruits are piled up in a conical f orm like pyramid. The imagery of fruits is symbolizing both pleasure and misery. Pleasure in the sense that they are in variety, having sweet taste and colour yet at the same time symbolizing the cannon balls likely to be used in war. They reflect hot, red and golden colours, which in dim light appear like bombs. The whole world is engulf ed in the darkness of war, misery and poverty. The same darkness is f ound in the fruit street. War and 37 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 37 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 37 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 37 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 37 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018
  • 38. its horrors have shattered the human psychology to such an extent that diff erent kinds of fruits look like bombs. In the dim light of lanterns they glow red hot or appear gold hot. Dark Children with a coin to spend Enter the lantern’s orbit; find Melon, guava, mandarinThe moon compacted to a rind The sun in a pitted skin Explanation :Here in this stanza, the poet has used the word “ Dark Children”, which reflect that the poor children with innocent hopes and dark future find pleasure in these fruits like melon, guava and other fruits. They innocently hold a coin standing in the light lanterns. F or them this is the only hope and pleasure of lif to buy and enjoy the taste e of various fruits. Dark children symbolize insignificant of human lif in the eyes e of those who wage war and bring about misery to f ellow humans. The situation is so grim that the moon and the sun have f ailed to perf orm their normal f unctions as a result of which darkness and gloom have enveloped the world. In spite of all this man ’s love f or pleasure is still an integral part of his nature. The children are oblivious of their miserable living conditions. They buy diff erent fruits and eat with relish. The juices wet all parts of their f aces. The condition of the poet is, however, diff erent. He f eels sad at the present situation and has serious concern about the f uture. They take it, break it open, let A gold or silver fountain wet Mouth, fingers, cheek, nose, chin: Radiant as lanterns, they forget The dark street I am standing in. Explanation: They buy the fruit and break it open they tasty juice runs down their cheeks lips and stick to their hands. F or them the pleasure is cheap and they are unaware of the war going on, harsh realities of lif and grim f e uture, where man is man’s enemy and which is also disturbing the poet. 38 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 38 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 38 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 38 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 38 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018
  • 39. **** A SINDHI WOMAN Barefoot through the bazaar, And with the same undulant grace As the cloth blown back from her face, She glides with a stone jar High on her head And not a ripple in her tread. Explanation : In these verses, the poet draws a realistic sketch of a Sindhi woman, who is passing through the bazaar leading towards Karachi slums, in a harmonious and peaceful manner. Although the cloth, with which she has covered her f ace, is blown back from f ace but still she is walking gracefully with a stone jar on her head way and there is no wavering in her walk. In this stanza, the poet is paying tribute to a Sindhi woman, who has firm f aith in hard work and holding the burden of lif e in the f orm of stone jar high on her head. She is confident that’s why she has no repentance or despair regarding the tough time that her lif has given her as e Sophocles has remarked “Despair often breeds disease”. Watching her cross erect Stones, garbage, excrement, and crumbs Of glass in the Karachi slums, I, with my stoop, reflect... They stand most straight Who learn to walk beneath a weight Explanation : In this stanza, the poet observes that the way , the Sindhi woman holding the stone jar on her head, reflects as if her body is a cross. In other words, it appears to the poet as if the Sindhi woman is hanged on 39 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 39 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 39 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 39 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 39 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018
  • 40. the cross by the cruel lif but still she f e aces these troubles courageously and does not bow bef ore brutal lif Even the e. garbage, filth and small pieces of glass in Karachi slums cannot stop her from her destination i.e she has no f ear that her f eet will be injured or spoiled despite baref ooted. She is self-reliant and self sufficient that’s not does not bow bef ore anyone or extend her hand to anyone to receive sympathies. In the last three verses, the poet with his bent back thinks that he could not learn to walk beneath the weight i.e. does not know how to shoulder the troubles of daily lif e and says that those who know how to remain steadf ast in the f ace of troubles and miseries are great and triumphant. ******** TIMES The poem ‘Time’ is an ecclesiastical poem, which highlights the importance of time in organizing the phenomenon and cycles in the universe. The anonymous poet reflects that everything in this world is systematic and every process /phenomenon takes place at the stipulated or specified time i.e. the change of season, the cycle of lif from birth to death, the time of marry making, the e moment of victory and rejoicing, time to worship and time to go to bed, season to sow and time to reap. Time f or mirth and time f or dirge (lament). In short all our activities are interwoven in the net of time and it is indispensable entity in human lif e. Q1. Explain the message in the first eight lines of the poem “Time”? Ans. The first eight lines of the poem emphasizes the importance of time and reflect that every process /phenomenon occur in this world at stipulated time prescribed by the nature. A time to 40 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 40 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 40 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 40 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 40 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018
  • 41. sow the crops and the time season to reap. Everything in this world is time oriented. Time of birth and moment of death i.e. both happy and sad moments are intermingled in human lif as it is well e said:“Human lif is a pendulum between smiles and tears” e In human lif e the moments of marry making and moments of mourning over the f uneral are also specified. Those people never succeed, who keep on waiting f or good time and hesitate to work and to take risk. Deciding today is less risky than waiting till all the risks opportunity are removed, and chance man in must his take lif e, f ull because advantage chance of and opportunities never repeat. THE FEED Ahmed Nadeem Qasimi Holding a grain of millet in her beak The mother sparrow has come to feed. The young ones are so tiny and small Form head to toe they are beaks. Reference: These verses have been taken from the “THE FEED”, which is written by Ahmed Nadeem Qasimi. poem Context: In this simple and expressive poem, the poet, through his keen observation, portrays the unf athomable/ boundless love and kindness of a mother f or her young ones, who are very small and only f ew days old, which can not stand to their f eet. The new born are in the nest and the mother sparrow goes out and brings a grain of millet in her beak to be divided among ten chicks / fledglings. The poet marvels at the way the mother sparrow distributes one grain among ten chicks judiciously. A mother is she, who can take the place of all others, but whose place no one else can take. 41 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 41 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 41 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 41 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 41 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018
  • 42. Explanation: In these verses, Ahmed Nadeem Qasimi demonstrates the way the mother sparrow f eeds her chicks. She is holding a grain of cereal and comes to the nest of her young ones, who are tiny, f eatherless and cannot fly in search of f ood, so they are entirely dependent on their mother, as a mother understands what a chick does not say. All the young ones are crying with hunger and the mother sparrow has to f eed them. In this stanza, the poet Ahmed Nadeem Qasimi illustrates the love of mother f or her children as she tries her best to provide f ood to her children or young ones in time. The mother is the symbol of love and blessing on the lips and in hearts of children. It is the courage of a mother who looks after her children throughout the day, until they are mature. In other words, mother is a bank, where we deposit all our hurts and worries. To whom the mother sparrow should f eed? Conjoining beak with beak, With whom should she solace? Fissuring the atom, You have learnt to weep and wail in a loud tone, Splitting the grain, You have learnt to set lif on f e oot. Could you split the grain? One grain to be f ed to the ten young ones. Explanation: - When she returns to the nest with grain in her beak , she is perplexed as to whom she should f eed first, as all the chicks are joining their beaks with the beak of mother sparrow. They are crying with hunger and impatient to be f eed first, and giving tough time to their mother to decide. Her love f or every chick is equal and judicious. F or her everyone is equally loving and deserving. As a last resort, she splits the grain into smaller pieces and f eed all of them at a time. She does not want to reject any one of them. The mother sparrow has also keen observation, whether her chicks have learnt to splits the grain or whether they can stand on their f eet. As it is the responsibility of the mother sparrow to train and polish her young ones f or 42 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 42 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 42 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 42 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 42 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018
  • 43. practical lif e. In this stanza the poet illustrate the justice of a mother f or her children or young ones. He has portrayed the unique and ideal personality of a mother and highlights the problems which are to be resolved by the mother single handedly. As it is well said: Hundreds of dewdrops to greet dawn; Hundreds of lamps in the purple clover; Hundreds of butterflies in the lawn; But only one mother the world wide over. It is the universal hallmark of the great and unique personality of mother that in this entire cold and hollow world no one possesses deep, strong and deathless love except mother. ******************** THE HOLLOW MEN T.S. ELIOT We are the hollow men, we are the stuffed men. The first verses of the poem indicate a contradiction that surprises us. Hollow means “having a cavity within”, implying the idea of `emptiness´. It also has a figurative meaning, that of “lacking real value or significance”. Stuffed, however, means “filled by packing things in (to the point of overflowing)”. So now we appreciate the diff erence between the ideas of lack and abundance. But what do the hollow/stuff ed men lack and what do they have in great quantities? If we look at line 4 (Headpiece filled with straw) we’ll notice the author highlights this part of the body as the one `stuff ´, and considering ed the headpiece as the representation of the mind, we’ll assume that these two verses have a symbolic, figurative meaning: the hollow men –who the speaker belongs to ( We are)- are f ulfilled with absurd, non-sense ideas and thoughts, causing them to be –in a contradiction in terms- empty and futile (let’s look back at the second meaning of hollow). Leaning together (line 3) works in the text as an adjective because of the absence of the verb `to be ´. `To lean´ means “to incline or bend from a vertical position”. This indicates submission or even surrender (Alas!, line 4, 43 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 43 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 43 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 43 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 43 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018
  • 44. expressing unhappiness and pity), and it might also mean that the hollow men are praying in their knees. This idea is supported by the f ollowng description of their voices: Our dried voices, when we whisper together are quiet and meaningless. Their voices are not dry but dried, connoting that they’ve been dried by something or someone, but what or who? That’s something we still ignore. When the hollow men in their leaning –praying- whisper together, in group, their voices have no sense, they don’t even exist –another contradiction, can a voice be quiet?-, they ’re hollow, like the men themselves. In lines 8-10 the voices are compared with wind in dry grass or rat’s feet over broken glass in our dry cellar. In both cases, we could argue that wind `doesn’t aff ect´ dry grass –if it were humid, the wind would dry it anyway- and rat’s f eet `aren`t aff ected´ by broken glass, because of their size. What’s more, a cellar –a basement- is supposed to possess humidity, but it is dry, like the grass and the voices. This comparison greatly accentuates the `meaninglessness´ of the voices, which is, by generalisation, applicable to the men as well. The next stanza is configured by two verses. The first one is Shape without form, shade without color. What may it mean? At first glance, we could say that, f or instance, shape and form are synonyms and shape without form is another contradiction that confirms the previous ideas about the poem. But the truth is that they ’ve got a slight diff erence in meaning: a shape is the visible, external f orm of something, whereas a form is the shape and structure of something as distinguished f orm its material or content. So, we’re dealing with an element that can be distinguished by its external configuration but not by its inside. Shade without color has a similar meaning. A shade is a partial darkness caused when something covers the light, but it’s without color, that is, it doesn’t cause any visual sensation, it cannot be perceived. The whole verse gives us the idea of vanity and futility, as things can only be perceived indirectly through their external appearance. The second verse in this stanza is Paralyzed force, gesture without motion. Now we’re not in front of a f act of perception, but of movement. It’s supposed that a force is a mobile energy or power, but here it’s paralyzed, and a 44 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 44 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 44 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 44 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 44 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018
  • 45. gesture, which can be static or not, is obvously motionless. This verses emphasises the concept of paralysis and stasis: everything is hollow and the situation won’t change. Furthermore, if we take into account both verses together, we obtain the image of a `dead corpse´: it’s just something material, static, completely soul-lacking and absent of lif e. The last stanza makes ref erence to people apart from the hollow men (Those who have crossed with direct eyes, to death’s other kingdom remember us). In this sentence, the use of the present perf ect instead of the present simple used so f ar gives us the idea of a past action recent in time, or even a remote action with a present consequence. It’s said that they’ve crossed – indicating movement- with direct eyes, to death’s other kingdom. Direct eyes do not hesitate, move or close, they’re always staring at the same point without blinking. Death’s other kingdom implies the existence of another reality belonging to death. So those either knew where they were going or they have simply not crossed to the beyond itself on their own, it seems that they’ve had some kind of guidance to one of its `parallel worlds´; they ’ve been led. Those have a strong connection with us (the hollow men), as they remember them, they knew who they were, but if at all (line 16) -without necessity or just as a simple anecdotethe hollow, stuff ed men are remembered by those as such, and not as lost, violent souls. ****************** LEISURE William Henry Davies What is this life if, full of care, We have no time to stand and stare. No time to stand beneath the boughs And stare as long as sheep or cows. Reference: These verses have been taken from the poem 45 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 45 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 45 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 45 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 45 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018
  • 46. “Leisure”, which is written by William Davies. Context: In this poem, the poet has criticized the very f ast and busy style of lif e of the modern people. Being awfully busy in their worldly aff airs, they do not enjoy the beauty of the various animate and inanimate objects of Nature. He urges upon them to spare some moments to stop, watch and enjoy the beauty of the living and lif eless objects of nature. According to William Davies, lif e full of worries and troubles is worthless to live. Explanation: In these verses the poet tells us that our lif e is f ull of worries and cares in modern times. And the situation has become worse by the f act that we have no time left spare in our daily routine to stand f or a while and see all around us the beauty of nature. We should have spare time t o see and observe the nature all around us, standing under the green shady branches /trees like cows and sheep. Leisure is to be got and nature to be enjoyed in that leisure, otherwise our lif will always e be f ull of worries, troubles and tensions. No time to see, when woods we pass, Where squirrels hide their nuts in grass. No time to see, in broad daylight, Streams full of stars, like skies at night. Explanation: The poet f eels sorry f or the modern man, who is o busy in his material lif that he has completely ignored his mental e and spiritual lif e. When we pass through a green f orest, we are unable to see the pretty and sweet squirrels that are hiding their walnut in the grass. When we pass near by a stream, we ignore and do not watch and enjoy its twinkling water waves, which are shinning as brightly on the earth as the sky shines due to the twinkling stars at night. No time And watch No time Enrich to turn at Beauty's glance, her feet, how they can dance. to wait till her mouth can that smile her eyes began. 46 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 46 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 46 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 46 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 46 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018
  • 47. Explanation: In these verses, the poet regrets that the modern man , being awfully busy in their worldly aff airs has no spare time to stop and turn to watch and enjoy :a. the beauty of Nature, b. how beautif ully her f eet can dance; c. how her beautiful talk can add to that smile which her looks spread and scatter later on. Here the poet has personified the beauty of Nature as “a goddess of beauty”, i.e. a f air maiden, always smiling and dancing around us. A poor life this if, full of care, We have no time to stand and stare. Explanation: In this concluding verse of the poem. In this verse, the poet has expressed his opinion that our lif e, if it is always full of cares and worries, is very miserable. In f act, he wants to say that we may be materially rich but, mentally and spiritually, our lif becomes very miserable and e poor if we do not have any spare time to stop, watch and enjoy the beauty of the various objects of nature. ************ Describe the poem “Leisure” as a criticism on the time worship? In this poem, Leisure” worship of time and William the f ast Davies moving has criticized the lif in the western e society .Modern man is missing the beauty of nature and the charm of innumerable animate and inanimate objects. The poet repents that the modern people have become materialistic and are sunken in their worldly and material pursuits. Moreover they are spiritually and morally hollow. While moving through the f orest they have no spare time to 47 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 47 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 47 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 47 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 47 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018
  • 48. stop and observe the beautif ul squirrels, which are a part of the beauty of nature, are hiding the walnuts, in the grass. In addition to it, they pass beside the streams; they do not observe the silvery bright waves, glittering just like the stars which twinkle in the sky in the night. So they are neglecting and missing the beauty and blessings of nature. At the same time they have no time to amuse themselves with the beauty f or lady or the glance of goddess of beauty who also contributes to the beautiful nature. They have no time to watch how marvelously her f eet are moving and how her talk can enhance that magical smile which her looks sprinkles later on. In this poem the poet personifies nature as “a goddess of nature”, which the beauty of is always charming and f ascinating So, those who have no spare time to enjoy the beautif images are unf ul ortunate. The main theme of this poem is that the modern has totally neglected the importance and beauty of nature and it is crystal clear that the modern man is more sensitive towards the woes and anxieties of this modern and materialistic lif e. ***************** RUBA’IYAT Allama Iqbal was a great thinker, philosopher and eminent poet of Sub-continent. His poetry is the magnificent and melodious blend of mysticism and self-reliance. Allama Iqbal used poetry as a platf orm to preach gospel that most people already believed in, yet none had the courage to stand up f or. Like a weapon, saved f or the time of need, 48 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 48 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 48 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 48 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 48 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018
  • 49. yet never actually taken out, f or the f ear of hurting one ’s own self. He used his poetry mainly to stir the slumbering oblivious masses of Muslim world through thought provoking and deep rooted philosophy of lif e and religion. In other words, he used poetry as a weapon of words to evoke the spirit of self-reliance and firm f aith in the Muslims of Subcontinent. He also wanted them to keep up their own trends and tradition. After loss of freedom, it was his earnest desire that the Muslims must regain their glory and gravity as a nation. Iqbal’s poetry did, in f act, arouse a whole nation. Stanza 1. Faith is like Abraham at the stake to be Self-honouring and God-drunk is faith. Hear me, You whom this age’s way so captivate! To have no faith is worse than slavery. Reference: These verses are taken from the Rubaiyat, which is written by Allama Muhammad Iqbal. poem Context: In this short and thought provoking poem, Allama Iqbal has criticized and condemned the moral hollowness and materialistic attitude of the modern society. He laments over the loss of f aith, which in f act maps out the direction of human soul. He is of the opinion that in this modern age of materialism and f ascination, f aith strong like that of Hazrat Abraham (A.S) is needed. He also emphasizes that Muslim harmony depends upon true f aith in Islam. The Europeans lack f aith and spirituality that is why there is no harmony and fraternity among them. Muslims have become mad in pursuit of f oreign (Western) music and materialism, and have lost their identity and dignity as a nation. Explanation: In this stanza, Iqbal has illustrated the power or f orce of f aith by narrating the example of Hazrat Abraham (A.S), Who was thrown into fire by His enemies, however, by dint of his firm and unflinching f aith, the fire was miraculously turned into a garden. It is only because of 49 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 49 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 49 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 49 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 49 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018
  • 50. His love f or religion and steadf astness. He (A.S) was God f earing and God loving, that’s why Allah blessed him and saved him from suff erings. It is owing to the hallmark of his unflinching f aith in religion that he was unmoved by the treats of His enemies. Later Iqbal addresses the whole Muslim Nation and says that they have become a victim of the materialistic European or Western civilization and captivated by the its glamour. He also holds the view that f aithless person is the prisoner of f oreign trends and tradition, and f aithlessness is worse than slavery. F aith is very basic to the f oundations of Islam. Iqbal wanted the Muslims to regain their lost prestige and vigour. He said on another occasion:O’ Slumbering Muslim, arouse, you be dynamic too Lo! The Horizon is aglow, you spur into action. F aith and freedom are part and parcel with each other. Freedom is not descended upon a nation; a nation must raise itself to it. In this stanza, Iqbal regrets that the Muslims of his time, have become a slave to modern materialistic world and have lost their f aith in the healing power of Islam. Stanza 2. Music of strange lands with Islam’s fire blends, On which the nation’s harmony depends; Empty concord is the soul of Europe, Whose civilization to no Mecca bends. Explanation : In theses verses, Iqbal presents his analysis that the European /Western Culture and civilization lack harmony, fraternity and good-will. They are materialistic and are fighting with one another f or baseless things. Religious guideless have no appeal f or them. Here Iqbal also criticizes the Muslims f or bring captivated and allured by the modern cult of music and glamour of European civilization. He holds the view that Islam is torch-bearer in the blind alleys of European world of ignorance and materialism. Islam is the 50 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 50 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 50 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 50 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 50 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018
  • 51. only religion which brings harmony, uncountable blessings and fraternity in the human society. The soul of Europeans lacks humanity, harmony and vigour; it has no light to guide or bless Western people. They have no model like Islam to f ollow and their civilization stands alienated and divided. Their civilization has no dignity and direction to lead its f ollowers. However, the Muslims have a great center i.e Mecca which keeps all the Muslims united through out the world . They gather there with one aim, raise praise to Allah in one language (Arabic) and in one unif orm (Ah’ram). About f aith and believers Holy Prophet (PBUH) said, “A believer to another believer is like a building whose different parts enforce each other”. The Prophet Muhammad ( PBUH ) then clasped his hands with the fingers interlaced (while saying that). This greatness is not f ound in European Civilization. Stanza 3. Love’s madness has departed: in The Muslim’s veins the blood runs thin; Ranks broken, hearts perplexed, prayers cold, No feeling deeper than the skin. Explanation: Here is this stanza the poet narrates in a pensive mood that the Muslims have lost fraternity and love f or Religion (Islam). Their blood has become thin .i.e. they have become weak and their f aith is frail. They lack unity, discipline and dignity. They are leading astray by f ollowing the modern materialistic European civilization, that’s why they do not tolerate one another, their ranks are broken i.e. their f ortification is frail. They lost the glory, which was achieved by their ancestors. They are away from religion; consequently their hearts are depressed and dejected. Moreover, their supplications are not eff ective and are unsanctioned. ****************** THE TALE OF TWO CITIES Q2. Under what circumstances the victims have to pass 51 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 51 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 51 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 51 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 51 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018
  • 52. through? Ans. The victims had to pass through the worse experience of human history. It was a heart rending and terrible spectacle of destruction and human misery, which turned the beautiful smiling Cities of Nagasaki and Hiroshima in to deep dark valley of tears, taking away the loving one, depriving mother of their loving sons, women of their husbands bringing to them unbearable misery and unrealizable loss. It was an acute agony as the cries of the grieved and bereaved mother and injured citizens lying in the open fields, were echoing everywhere. There was no flesh on the arms and legs of the dead persons or victims of this disaster as the edges of their white bones were visible under their charred skin. However, the poet pays tribute to the brave and courageous people of these two devastated cities as they bore the miseries and pains with immense dignity. Q3. Describe the scene of devastation? Ans. It was a heart rending and terrible spectacle of death and destruction of human lif e and property. The environment of both the cities was woeful, which were turned into wilderness in f ew seconds. Moreover, the intensity of the radiations so severe that the all the victims turned into ashes. The concrete houses and buildings were reduced to rubble. The hills were presenting a horrible bald structure. The dead bodies were lying everywhere, with no one to dispose off. There was neither any help f or the injured nor coffin f or the dead. After this tragedy, Nagasaki was presenting the sketch of hell and a deadly vale of tears and suff ering. Such suff ering could not be borne by anyone even by a brute. Q4. What is the theme of the poem? Ans. Man has been fighting wars since time immemorial, but in the ancient time war was not f ought on a large scale making use of highly destructive weapons. The invention these weapons have turned this f airy land into a sphere of suff ering and misery, where clouds of unprecedented death are prevailing. If at all weapons should be retained and developed then these should be f or def ence purpose and f or 52 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 52 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 52 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 52 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 52 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018
  • 53. marinating freedom only. But it will be f ar better if these weapons are destroyed internationally and all the nations must enter a treaty or pact that they will not be violating the law of abandoning and destroying the law of highly destructive weapons. Through this poem, the poet wants to preach the idea that war is not the end of all the human problems. Man is the Crown of Creation; he must maintain the sanctity of human lif and freedom. However, the courageous and determined e nations are never threatened by death and destruction, they even possess the ability to grow gardens out of ashes. This is proved by the Japanese and they have uplifted themselves as a great nation. It is being said by the world bodies like UNO and its allies that they will use the modern technology f or the well being of the humanity as a whole, but most of the scientists belonging to highly advanced counties have f ailed to f ollow their f aith in the well being of humanity. The modern scientists ironically are not serving their nation or humanity but they are the creator of troubles who have the license to invent devastating weapons, highly dangerous gases and chemicals in order to become f amous and pioneer in extermination of their enemy’s race. The scientific and technological progress of man has pushed mankind into a hopeless abyss and a dark vale of tears. After observing and suff ering through two world wars and the violence against two great cities of Japan, man has not rejected the invention of highly explosive chemicals and weapons of mass destruction and all the nations are working on Darwin ’s principle i.e. Survival of the fittest. Man should not celebrate at the death of his enemy because his own lif is also uncertain as it is well remarked e by the Mian Muhammad Bukhsh, “ Don’t rejoice on the death of your enemy as your friend too has to die”. ############## CRITICAL SUMMARY MY NEIGHBOUR FRIEND 53 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 53 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 53 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 53 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 53 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018
  • 54. BREATHING HIS LAST Bullah Shah was a great saint and mystic poet. In this poem, he highlights the harsh reality of death and love of Allah. He also advises others to f ear God and keep themselves ready f or death. moments comes The of poet lif e. across This the is witnessing death scene wretched neighbour’s his terrifies reality of the lif e i.e. last poet. death He and can’t be averted by even thousand laments. Every person in this world is like a traveler in the train of lif e, who is to depart sooner or later. Death brings end to everything and is a door to the world of eternity. The dead person passes away but leaves behind mourners. They cry and mourn over his death but to no avail as death is a dark camel, which kneels at every man’s gate. Life is an uncertain there ready is f or realizes voyage; no it. escape It is a that yet death from f act is death a is certain Thus must get death. that reality and by witnessing death that we all have one to experience. It is never desirable to lose a loved one. Death is never a charming sight. The poet world f eels appears the to be pangs of his insignificant friend ’s after the departure; departure the of the loved-one. The poet thinks that a man can def eat death only by gaining the love of God in this world as well as the world hereafter. Thus man is at a loss if he doesn ’t love Allah and lead his lif in the ways prescribed by religion. The e poet emphasizes the temporary stay of man in this world. 54 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 54 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 54 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 54 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 54 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018
  • 55. According to him the only valuable and everlasting thing and relation in this world is the love of Allah. HE CAME TO KNOW HIMSELF The poem He Came to Know Himself is written by Schal Sarmast. The poet wants to acknowledge his love f or the Creator-the Almighty. Allah is the Creator of everything including man and love of Allah is the everlasting relation in this universe. The poet stresses that man has come to this world with a quest and mission. He must make eff orts to know himself and in these eff orts he stumbles upon the love of God. Man’s love f or God helps him to meditate (think/ponder) and worship with keen interest. Man is on a journey to self-discovery and in this process he discovers God’s love. He comes closer and closer to God. The poet wants man to know God by knowing himself. Once man realizes creation that created he by is God, a he wonderf ul starts thing/ crown appreciating God of and developing a strong bond with him. The poet uses the f amous personalities from religion and history to interpret his point of view. If man moves on the ways prescribed by the Creator, definitely He also showers a cascade of blessing on man. The poet gives the example of Mansur, who was a sufi dervaish and was so deeply sunken in the love of God that he even didn’t stepped back from having his head cut off f or the love of Lord. Mansur happily went to the gallows 55 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 55 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 55 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 55 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 55 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018
  • 56. because he has discovered himself and thus discovered God. It was this love of God which brought Hazrat Yousaf (A.S) to the slave market of Egypt to be sold as a slave only f or the love of God. In the end, the poet says that he speaks the bare truth i.e. the temporary stay of man in this world and nothing is everlasting except the love of the Lord. ************************ GOD’s ATTRIBUTES STANZA- I God calls Himself ‘Seeing” to the end that His eye may scare you from sinning. God calls Himself ‘Hearing’ to the end that You may close your lips against foul discourse. God calls Himself ‘Knowing’ to the end that You may be afraid of Him to plot an evil. Reference: These Jalaluddin Rumi’s verses have Poem God’s been taken Attributes, f orm which is translated into English by Dr. Nicholson. Context: In this short poem, Rumi has sung the praises of God and His attributes. He says that God is Omnipresent (Present everywhere), Omniscient (all knowing and all seeing) and Omnipotent (Almighty/Supreme). How clear of sight is He 56 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 56 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 56 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 56 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 56 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018
  • 57. and keen of hearing! (Al-Kahf (The Cave) - Roukh 4). Rumi also believes that all these attributes of God are so blessed and commanding that human beings refrain from committing sins and avoid f orbidden attributes of things. God are He not further mere says vain that titles these but meaningful and eff ective f or character & soul building to be successful in this world as well as in the are and lif e hereafter. These names also prevent us from conspiracy and any kind of loathsome (immoral) discourse/ discussion. Explanation: In these verses, the poet describes that God calls himself “All Seeing”, “All Hearing”, “All Knowing” i.e , Omniscient and Omnipresent. The poet says that these unique attributes create f ear in our hearts and we step back from sin and crime. The knowledge that God has a keen eye on all of his creatures, prevents us from sinning. The f act that He is hearing everything, even the whispers in our hearts and the thought process in our minds make us f earf of loathsome and immoral conversation. As it ul appears in the Holy Qur’an, "Nothing is like Him; and He is The Hearer, The Seer." (ash-Shura 42/11) The truth that God is All Knowing i.e Omniscient even the secrets of hearts, creates a terror in human being and refrain them from conspiracy (plotting) and backbiting. 57 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 57 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 57 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 57 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 57 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018
  • 58. Allah is the omniscient, Whose knowledge comprehends in the most perf ect manner all things, hidden or open, the small and the great. Nothing is absent from His knowledge, nor anything is hidden from Him even if it be the weight of the smallest ant. Whether at rest or in motion, the state of things is known to Him prior to and during its occurrence. He is neither ‘heedless nor is He errant’. God’s attribute of Omnipresence is beautifully narrated in the Holy Qur’an in the f ollowing words: "There is no secret conf erence of three but He is their f ourth, nor of five but He is their sixth, nor of less or more but He is with them wherever they be: And afterward, on the Day of Resurrection, He will inf orm them of what they did. Indeed, Allah is Knower of All Things." (al-Mujadalah 58/7) STANZA II These are not mere accidental names of God As a Negro may be called camphor; So are these names derived from God’s attributes, And not mere vain titles of the First Cause. Explanation: attributes are In these verses, Rumi believes that God’s not illogical or vain /futile, but have an important eff ect and significance f or the character building, and salvation of human beings. These names/ attributes have a distilling eff ect and purify our intentions and ref orm the 58 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 58 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 58 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 58 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 58 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018
  • 59. soul. Human being may be dignified and distinguished by their specific titles, but no one has unique qualities and beautiful & blessed attributes like that of God. Comparing God’s attributes to Human titles will be just like comparing a Negro with white aromatic camphor. However, God’s attributes are His real qualities and are genuine, absolutes & significant. ********************** LOVE –AN ESSENCE OF ALL RELIGIONS BY Jalaluddin Rumi Stanza1: Through love thorns becomes roses and Through love vinegar becomes sweet wine, Through love the stake becomes a throne, Through love misfortune becomes good fortune, Through love burning fire becomes pleasing light, Through love stone becomes soft as butter. Reference: These verses have been taken from the poem, “Love –An Essence of All Religions” written by an eminent Persian poet -Jalaluddin Rumi. Context: In this poem, the poet has drawn our attention to the power and hallmark of love, which is the soul and spirit of all the religions. Love is an act of endless f orgiveness, a tender look, which turns adversities into pleasure, f or 59 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 59 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 59 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 59 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 59 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018
  • 60. instance, thorns become roses, vinegar becomes sweet wine, burning fire becomes a bright pleasing light, sickness becomes health and a king becomes a humble slave. Love is a light, which brightens the dark alley of hate and spreads its warm tender f eelings and hopes. Love is spontaneous and craves expression through joy, through beauty, through truth, even through tears…Love is like a moment; which is neither lost in yesteryears nor does it crave for tomorrow. The sole reason of war, hate and suff ering in the world, is religious diff erences, if all the religions give vent to love, this world can become a saf er place f or the future generations. In other words, life friendships. To is to love, be and fortified to be by many loved, is the greatest happiness of existence. Explanation: In this stanza or verses the poet Jalaluddin Rumi reflects that love is a great f orce in human lif which e, brings radical changes. Although, lif is the bed of thorns, e replete with dread and destruction, yet according to Rumi, it can become a bed of roses with sweet fragrance and warm smiles, if it (lif e) is mingled with love. Love can change pain into pleasure through its miraculous and supernatural eff ect. It is love, which alters a post to which a person is tired f or execution to throne and inspires him f or the execution of his goals/ ambitions. Rumi further illustrates that love is the f orce which mould the detestable (hateful) passions into everlasting warm f eeling. Through love a stones-hearted and stubborn (inflexible) becomes gentle, humble and flexible to 60 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 60 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 60 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 60 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 60 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018
  • 61. compassionate f eeling. With sword and hate one cannot bring the whole world to subjugation/subjection, it is only love, which conquers the undef eatable and paves all the hurdles, as it is well remarked by Martin Luther King: “Hate cannot drive out hate Only love can do that”. Stanza 2. Through love grief becomes a joy, Through love lion becomes harmless Through love sickness become health Through love the wrath seems to be a mercy, Through love the dead rise to life, Through love the king becomes a slave. Explanation: In these verses, Jalaluddin Rumi soothing consoles and healing power of love. It highlights the the poor grieved people and makes lif worth of enjoying. It ref e orms the callous man to humble and celebrated citizen. According to Rumi even the harmless and humble. f erocious beast i.e lion can become as It is love, which helps man to get rid of physical and spiritual sickness. It brings a deprived and dejected man to lif Love derives away all human worries, as e. it is well said by Sophocles: One word Frees us all the weight and pain of life; That word is love. 61 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 61 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 61 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 61 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 61 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018
  • 62. Love has also civilizing eff ect, which can make a proud, cruel and obstinate (unyielding) king as humble as slave. In this poem, the poet Jalaluddin Rumi is of the view that love is a great f orce in private and public lif It draws e. the map of human emotion towards aff ection and kindness. It is like a f eeling that emanates from the heart and extends through the blood to every cell of the body. Hate can not deed forgive bring of and the world to subjection man, according to Hazrat forget. Love is greater and the best Ali(R.A), is to than illusions and as strong as death. Love is like a lamp, which needs to be f ed out of oil of another’s heart; otherwise its flame burns low. ***************************** IN THE BROKEN IMAGES He is quick, thinking in clear images; I am slow, thinking in broken images. Reference: These verses have been taken from the poem “In Broken Images” by Robert Graves. Context: In this poem, the poet has highlighted two kinds of persons having diff erent and quite opposite ways of thinking. The first type of person sees everything in clear images and trusts them without questioning. Soon he comes up with f acts that later prove to be wrong. Thus all his eff orts go waste and he is conf used. Whereas the other types of person sees lif is broken images and he does not e trust them. He questions everything and when the f acts f ail him, he is not confused. He appreciates his senses and develops a new understanding from his f ailures. So lif should e not be taken at its f ace value because our inquisitive 62 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 62 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 62 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 62 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 62 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018
  • 63. nature helps us to grow and find new meaning in diff erent realities of lif As lif is 10% what happens to you and 90% e. e how you react to it. Explanation: A person perceives lif e in simple and clear images. He has pre-conceived notions about everything in lif e. He trusts everything that he sees. He is quick in making decisions based on his previous knowledge. He doesn’t question the f acts while there is another person who sees lif e like a broken and scattered glass painting or jigsaw puzzle. He contemplates a lost and keeps thinking about problems and f acts of lif He questions his senses and the e. f acts of lif When he is f e. aced with f ailure he is not confused because he learns through his f ailure and trails. Lif is the e art of drawing without an eraser. Lif isn't about finding e yourself. Lif is about creating yourself. e He becomes dull, trusting to his clear images; I become sharp, mistrusting my broken images. Explanation:- The person, who is overconfident about his abilities and clear images, becomes dull and dead. His f aculties are not sharp because he doesn’t believe in practice and its potential. All this makes him idle, which is the beginning of all vices. The other person does not trust anything. He does not believe in whatever he sees. All the images are broken f or him. Disappointment and f ailure help him to make more alert and sharp. Success depends upon previous preparation, and without such preparation there is sure to be failure. Trusting his images, he assumes their relevance; Mistrusting my images, I question their relevance. Explanation :- The person, who trusts his images is also quick to assume their truth and clarity. He becomes so used to trusting everything that he becomes ignorant. He believes his f acts without questioning that he becomes ignorant. He 63 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 63 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 63 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 63 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 63 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018
  • 64. believes in his f acts without questioning and this leads him towards conf usion and f ailure. The other kind of person never believes in his images. He questions the truth of every matter. He is never satisfied. He keeps questioning his findings and as a result keeps growing. Such a person has potential to develop. Assuming their relevance, he assumes the fact; Questioning their relevance, I question their fact. Explanation: - The ignorant man assumes everything based on his previous knowledge. He considers all his findings as relevant, important and truthful. Soon he draws f acts and conclusions from his images which all bound to disappoint him later on. The other man questions everything as he does not trust his broken images. He can never be satisfied with his knowledge. Even if he finds a f act reaches a sound conclusion, it is incomplete f or him. When the fact fails him, he questions his senses; when the fact fails me, I approve my senses. Explanation :-The ignorant man is not ready to accept f ailure. When his f acts prove him wrong, he loses control and questions his understanding and his senses. He loses hope and becomes disappointed as the outcome wad against his expectations. The confused person, when f aced with f ailure is least bothered by it. As he was already expecting it, f ailure is no shock f or him. He approves of his senses and inquisitive nature. The questioning of his broken images has given him a sense of confidence. As it is well remarked that our greatest glory is not in never falling, but in rising every time we f all. He continues quick and dull in his clear images; 64 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 64 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 64 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 64 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 64 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018
  • 65. I continue slow and sharp in my broken images. Explanation: The person, who sees lif in clear images is at a e loss. The whole process has turned him into a dull and doubtful person. He trusted too much on his previous knowledge. This aff ected his understanding of f acts in an adverse manner. The person, who sees lif in broken images, e becomes sharp in intellect and reasoning. Although he has already mistrusted everything yet his f ailure enriches his thoughts. He in a new confusion of his understanding; I in a new understanding of my confusion Explanation: The man, who has a clear view of lif in the e beginning of the poem, is all confused when it ends. He thinks that he knows everything, which is great mistake on his part. He does not question f acts and happenings, thus takes them relevant. This results in his f ailure and he starts doubting his understanding and his senses. The man, who is conf used about his broken images in the beginning of the poem, has gained a new insight into the reality of lif His questioning of the f e. acts helps him to see everything in a diff erent light. His inquisitive nature opens up a new avenue of thoughts f or him. He has emerged as a strong and intelligent person from his confusion. IN BROKEN IMAGES The poem “In Broken Images” by Robert Graves is a philosophical poem depicting a moral lesson. Lif is a mixture e of confusion and understanding. The poet tells us that the broken images clear his confusion and give him an understanding of the reality of lif Lif is f e. e ull of twists and turns; it’s never simple and straightf orward. The road of lif e twists and turns and no two directions are ever the same. 65 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 65 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 65 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 65 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 65 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018
  • 66. Yet our lessons come from the journey, not the destination.” The poet stresses that a man should remain inquisitive (inquiring) about the images of lif whether they e are broken or clear. A person who trusts his clear images without proof becomes dull in lif and his all capabilities are e rusted due to idleness. He questions his senses after the f ailure of f acts but mistakes. He continues confused. On the does other to not be hand, learn dull a and there is lesson in the from end another his he man is who mistrusts his broken images. He thinks, observes, verifies the f acts and concludes result using the scientific method. He questions his f acts and is not disappointed when his f acts f him. Instead he develops confidence in his senses. In this ail way, he acquires deep insight of a scientist and a philosopher. His sharpness and intelligence are polished. Thus we should always remain thoughtful and considerate about the f acts of lif A clear and definite way of thinking e. can lead us to the ground realities of lif e. As lif is the art e of drawing without an eraser.” ***************************** 66 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 66 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 66 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 66 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018 66 | P a g e MU H A M MA D A Z A M, L E C T U R E R , F G S D C O L L E G E , WA H C A N T. PH-03335418018

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