LEADERSHIP <ul><li>The art  of influencing people  so that they will strive willingly and enthusiastically toward the achi...
The art of influencing people by persuasion or example to follow a line of action Interpersonal influence directed through...
Principle of Leadership <ul><li>People tend to follow those who offer then a means of satisfying their own personal goals ...
Ingredients  of Leadership <ul><li>Ability to use power effectively and in a responsible manner </li></ul><ul><li>Ability ...
Leaders <ul><li>Those who are able to influence others and who possess managerial authority </li></ul>
Autocratic style   <ul><li>Describes authority, dictate  work methods make unilateral decisions, and limit subordinate par...
Democratic style <ul><li>Describes a leader who tends to involve subordinates in decision making, delegate authority, enco...
Laissez-fair style (or free-rein) <ul><li>Describes a leader who generally gives the group complete freedom to make decisi...
Roles of Leaders <ul><li>Figurehead </li></ul><ul><li>Spokesperson </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiator </li></ul><ul><li>Coach </...
Types of Leaders   <ul><li>Transactional  Leader   </li></ul><ul><li>A leader who clarifies subordinate’s role and task re...
Charismatic Leader <ul><li>A leader who has the ability to motivate subordinates to excel and surpass expected performance...
Transformational Leader <ul><li>A leader distinguished  by a special ability to bring about innovation and change. </li></ul>
Interactive Leader <ul><li>A leader who is concerned with consensus building, is open and accommodating, and encourages pa...
Servant Leader <ul><li>A leader of works to fulfill subordinate’s needs and goals as well as to achieve the organizations ...
Satisfaction of Leaders <ul><li>A feeling of power and prestige  </li></ul><ul><li>A chance to help others </li></ul><ul><...
Dissatisfaction & Frustration of Leaders <ul><li>Too much uncompensated time </li></ul><ul><li>Too many “headaches” </li><...
Personality Traits of  Effective Leaders <ul><li>Self confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Trust worthiness </li></ul><ul><li>Domi...
Task – Related Personality Trait   <ul><li>Initiative </li></ul><ul><li>Sensitivity to other & empathy  </li></ul><ul><li>...
Leadership vrs Management <ul><li>Leadership   </li></ul><ul><li>Deals with change, inspiration, motivation and influence ...
<ul><li>Leadership  </li></ul><ul><li>Direction , vision and strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Network ,influencing people, cre...
Systems of Management <ul><li>Exploitive – authoritative </li></ul><ul><li>Benevolent - authoritative </li></ul><ul><li>Co...
Power <ul><li>The potential ability to influence behavior </li></ul>
Legitimate power <ul><li>Power that stems from a  formal management position in an organization and authority granted to i...
Coercive Power <ul><li>Power that stems from the authority to punish or recommend punishment </li></ul>
Reward Power <ul><li>Power that results from the authority to reward others  </li></ul>
Expert Power  <ul><li>Power that stems from special knowledge of or skill in the tasks performed by subordinates. </li></u...
Referent Power  <ul><li>Power that results from characteristics that command subordinates’ identification with, respect an...
Leadership Grid Managerial Grid
<ul><li>1.9 Management / Country-club Management </li></ul><ul><li>9.9 Management / Team management </li></ul><ul><li>1.1 ...
1.9 Management  <ul><li>Thoughtful attention to needs of people leads to a friendly and comfortable organization atmospher...
9.9 Management  <ul><li>work accomplished is from committed people through a common stake in organization purpose with tru...
1.1Management <ul><li>exertion of minimum effort is required to get minimum work done and sustain organization morale. </l...
9.1 Management  <ul><li>Efficiency result from arranging work in such a way that human elements have little effect.  </li>...
5.5 Management  <ul><li>satisfactory performance through balance of work requirements and maintaining satisfactory morale....
Committee  <ul><li>Is a group of person to whom, as a group, some matter is committed, </li></ul>
Process of Committees  <ul><li>Forming </li></ul><ul><li>Storming </li></ul><ul><li>Norming </li></ul><ul><li>Performing <...
Forming <ul><li>The first stage of process during which people join the group and a get to know each other.  </li></ul>
Storming <ul><li>The second stage of process in which members determine the objectives of the meeting. Conflicts arise.  <...
Norming <ul><li>The third stage in which members agree on norms and conflicts begin to be resolved. </li></ul>
Performing  <ul><li>The fourth stage where full functionality is achieved and conflicts are turned into agreements.  </li>...
Adjourning <ul><li>The final stage characterized with ending activities of committee.  </li></ul>
TYPE OF COMMITTEES  <ul><li>Formal   </li></ul><ul><li>A committee created by the organization as part of the formal organ...
<ul><li>Informal </li></ul><ul><li>A committee formed without specific delegation of authority and usually in advisory cap...
Vertical  <ul><li>A formal committee composed of a manager and his subordinates in the organization’s formal chain of comm...
Horizontal  <ul><li>A formal committee composed of persons from about the some hierarchical level but from different areas...
Special Purpose  <ul><li>A committee created outside the formal organization to under take a project of specific importanc...
Self Directed <ul><li>An informal committee formed by persons on voluntary basis to discuss ways of improving quality, eff...
Virtual  <ul><li>A committee that uses computer technology and groupware so that geographically distant members can intera...
Reasons for Using Committees  <ul><li>Group deliberation and judgment </li></ul><ul><li>Representation of interested group...
Misuse of Committees <ul><li>Replacement of a manager </li></ul><ul><li>Research or study </li></ul><ul><li>Unimportant de...
Disadvantages of Committees <ul><li>High Cost in time and money </li></ul><ul><li>Compromise at the least common denominat...
Characteristics of Effective Committees <ul><li>Clear agenda/objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Relevant skills and experience. ...
Group <ul><li>Two or more interdependent people interacting in a unified manner toward achievement of common goals </li></ul>
Characteristics of Groups <ul><li>Common Goal(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Roles </li></ul><ul><li...
Functions of Groups <ul><li>Disciplining members </li></ul><ul><li>Decision making, negotiating and bargaining </li></ul><...
Advantages of Groups <ul><li>Social satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Support for needs </li></ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul>...
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Principles of Management

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Principles of Management

  1. 1. LEADERSHIP <ul><li>The art of influencing people so that they will strive willingly and enthusiastically toward the achievement of groups goals </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to influence people toward the attainment of organizational objectives </li></ul>
  2. 2. The art of influencing people by persuasion or example to follow a line of action Interpersonal influence directed through communication toward goal attention
  3. 3. Principle of Leadership <ul><li>People tend to follow those who offer then a means of satisfying their own personal goals </li></ul><ul><li>“ The more managers understand what motivates their subordinates that more they are effective they are likely to be leaders” </li></ul>
  4. 4. Ingredients of Leadership <ul><li>Ability to use power effectively and in a responsible manner </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to comprehend that human beings have different motivation forces at different times and in different situations </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to inspire </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to act in a manner that will develop a climate conducive to responding to and arousing motivations. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Leaders <ul><li>Those who are able to influence others and who possess managerial authority </li></ul>
  6. 6. Autocratic style <ul><li>Describes authority, dictate work methods make unilateral decisions, and limit subordinate participation </li></ul>
  7. 7. Democratic style <ul><li>Describes a leader who tends to involve subordinates in decision making, delegate authority, encourage participation in deciding work methods and objectives, and use feedback as an opportunity for training. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Laissez-fair style (or free-rein) <ul><li>Describes a leader who generally gives the group complete freedom to make decisions and complete the work in whatever way it sees fit </li></ul>
  9. 9. Roles of Leaders <ul><li>Figurehead </li></ul><ul><li>Spokesperson </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiator </li></ul><ul><li>Coach </li></ul><ul><li>Team builder </li></ul><ul><li>Team player </li></ul><ul><li>Technical problem solver </li></ul><ul><li>Entrepreneur </li></ul>
  10. 10. Types of Leaders <ul><li>Transactional Leader </li></ul><ul><li>A leader who clarifies subordinate’s role and task requirements, initiates structure, provides rewards and displays consideration for subordinates </li></ul>
  11. 11. Charismatic Leader <ul><li>A leader who has the ability to motivate subordinates to excel and surpass expected performance. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Transformational Leader <ul><li>A leader distinguished by a special ability to bring about innovation and change. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Interactive Leader <ul><li>A leader who is concerned with consensus building, is open and accommodating, and encourages participation </li></ul>
  14. 14. Servant Leader <ul><li>A leader of works to fulfill subordinate’s needs and goals as well as to achieve the organizations larger objectives and mission </li></ul>
  15. 15. Satisfaction of Leaders <ul><li>A feeling of power and prestige </li></ul><ul><li>A chance to help others </li></ul><ul><li>High income </li></ul><ul><li>Respect and status </li></ul><ul><li>Good opportunities for advancements </li></ul><ul><li>Knowing “inside” information opportunities of control money and other resources </li></ul>
  16. 16. Dissatisfaction & Frustration of Leaders <ul><li>Too much uncompensated time </li></ul><ul><li>Too many “headaches” </li></ul><ul><li>Not enough authority to carryout responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Too many “people” problems </li></ul><ul><li>To much organizational “politics” </li></ul><ul><li>Pursuit of conflicting objects( or goals) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Personality Traits of Effective Leaders <ul><li>Self confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Trust worthiness </li></ul><ul><li>Dominance </li></ul><ul><li>Extroversion </li></ul><ul><li>Assertiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional stability </li></ul><ul><li>Enthusiasm </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of humor </li></ul><ul><li>Sincerity & warmth </li></ul><ul><li>High tolerance of frustration </li></ul><ul><li>Self-awareness & self -objectivity </li></ul>
  18. 18. Task – Related Personality Trait <ul><li>Initiative </li></ul><ul><li>Sensitivity to other & empathy </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility & adaptability </li></ul><ul><li>Internal locus of control </li></ul><ul><li>Courage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Resiliency </li></ul>
  19. 19. Leadership vrs Management <ul><li>Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Deals with change, inspiration, motivation and influence </li></ul><ul><li>Management </li></ul><ul><li>Deals with planning, organizing, directing, controlling and maintaining status quo </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Direction , vision and strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Network ,influencing people, creating teams & coalitions </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation ,inspiration, ideas ,dealing with needs </li></ul><ul><li>Dramatic change </li></ul><ul><li>Management </li></ul><ul><li>Plans,budgets,detailed steps&time tables </li></ul><ul><li>Organization, staffing, creating structures delegates responsibilities, policies, procedure monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Controlling,solving problems,creative actions </li></ul><ul><li>Predictability, order, implementing planned action meeting deadlines </li></ul>
  21. 21. Systems of Management <ul><li>Exploitive – authoritative </li></ul><ul><li>Benevolent - authoritative </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusive </li></ul><ul><li>Participative -group </li></ul>
  22. 22. Power <ul><li>The potential ability to influence behavior </li></ul>
  23. 23. Legitimate power <ul><li>Power that stems from a formal management position in an organization and authority granted to it </li></ul>
  24. 24. Coercive Power <ul><li>Power that stems from the authority to punish or recommend punishment </li></ul>
  25. 25. Reward Power <ul><li>Power that results from the authority to reward others </li></ul>
  26. 26. Expert Power <ul><li>Power that stems from special knowledge of or skill in the tasks performed by subordinates. </li></ul><ul><li>(In non-organization situation, by customers, clients, and those seeking professional advice) </li></ul>
  27. 27. Referent Power <ul><li>Power that results from characteristics that command subordinates’ identification with, respect and admiration for, and desire to equal excel or imitate zealously </li></ul>
  28. 28. Leadership Grid Managerial Grid
  29. 29. <ul><li>1.9 Management / Country-club Management </li></ul><ul><li>9.9 Management / Team management </li></ul><ul><li>1.1 Management / Impoverished management </li></ul><ul><li>9.1 Management / Task management. </li></ul><ul><li>5.5 Management / Middle-Of-The-Road management </li></ul>
  30. 30. 1.9 Management <ul><li>Thoughtful attention to needs of people leads to a friendly and comfortable organization atmosphere and easy and relaxed work tempo. </li></ul>Country club management
  31. 31. 9.9 Management <ul><li>work accomplished is from committed people through a common stake in organization purpose with trust and respect. </li></ul>Team Management
  32. 32. 1.1Management <ul><li>exertion of minimum effort is required to get minimum work done and sustain organization morale. </li></ul>Impoverished Management
  33. 33. 9.1 Management <ul><li>Efficiency result from arranging work in such a way that human elements have little effect. </li></ul>Task Management
  34. 34. 5.5 Management <ul><li>satisfactory performance through balance of work requirements and maintaining satisfactory morale. </li></ul>Middle of the Road Management
  35. 35. Committee <ul><li>Is a group of person to whom, as a group, some matter is committed, </li></ul>
  36. 36. Process of Committees <ul><li>Forming </li></ul><ul><li>Storming </li></ul><ul><li>Norming </li></ul><ul><li>Performing </li></ul><ul><li>Adjourning </li></ul>
  37. 37. Forming <ul><li>The first stage of process during which people join the group and a get to know each other. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Storming <ul><li>The second stage of process in which members determine the objectives of the meeting. Conflicts arise. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Norming <ul><li>The third stage in which members agree on norms and conflicts begin to be resolved. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Performing <ul><li>The fourth stage where full functionality is achieved and conflicts are turned into agreements. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Adjourning <ul><li>The final stage characterized with ending activities of committee. </li></ul>
  42. 42. TYPE OF COMMITTEES <ul><li>Formal </li></ul><ul><li>A committee created by the organization as part of the formal organization structure with specific delegation of authority. </li></ul>
  43. 43. <ul><li>Informal </li></ul><ul><li>A committee formed without specific delegation of authority and usually in advisory capacity (without any authority to take decisions) </li></ul>
  44. 44. Vertical <ul><li>A formal committee composed of a manager and his subordinates in the organization’s formal chain of command. </li></ul>
  45. 45. Horizontal <ul><li>A formal committee composed of persons from about the some hierarchical level but from different areas of expertise. </li></ul>
  46. 46. Special Purpose <ul><li>A committee created outside the formal organization to under take a project of specific importance or creativity. </li></ul>
  47. 47. Self Directed <ul><li>An informal committee formed by persons on voluntary basis to discuss ways of improving quality, efficiency and working conditions. </li></ul>
  48. 48. Virtual <ul><li>A committee that uses computer technology and groupware so that geographically distant members can interact to reach objectives </li></ul>
  49. 49. Reasons for Using Committees <ul><li>Group deliberation and judgment </li></ul><ul><li>Representation of interested groups </li></ul><ul><li>Dissipation of authority </li></ul><ul><li>Coordination of plans, policies & departments </li></ul><ul><li>Transmission & sharing of information </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation through participation </li></ul><ul><li>Avoidance of action </li></ul>
  50. 50. Misuse of Committees <ul><li>Replacement of a manager </li></ul><ul><li>Research or study </li></ul><ul><li>Unimportant decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Decisions beyond authority </li></ul><ul><li>Consolidation of divided authority </li></ul>
  51. 51. Disadvantages of Committees <ul><li>High Cost in time and money </li></ul><ul><li>Compromise at the least common denominator </li></ul><ul><li>Indecision </li></ul><ul><li>Tendency to be self destructive </li></ul><ul><li>Splitting of responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Imposition of view by strong minority </li></ul>
  52. 52. Characteristics of Effective Committees <ul><li>Clear agenda/objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Relevant skills and experience. </li></ul><ul><li>Mutual trust </li></ul><ul><li>Unified commitment </li></ul><ul><li>Good Management/Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiating skills </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Internal and external support </li></ul>
  53. 53. Group <ul><li>Two or more interdependent people interacting in a unified manner toward achievement of common goals </li></ul>
  54. 54. Characteristics of Groups <ul><li>Common Goal(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Roles </li></ul><ul><li>Norms and conformity </li></ul><ul><li>Belongingness </li></ul>
  55. 55. Functions of Groups <ul><li>Disciplining members </li></ul><ul><li>Decision making, negotiating and bargaining </li></ul><ul><li>Effective group interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul>
  56. 56. Advantages of Groups <ul><li>Social satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Support for needs </li></ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><li>Promote communication </li></ul><ul><li>Promote self-esteem through recognition </li></ul>
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