syllabus design for M.Ed, M.Phil Linguistics and Curriculum Designers


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Syllabus Design by Mudasar Jehan
Its M.phil Linguistics Presentation in ESP

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syllabus design for M.Ed, M.Phil Linguistics and Curriculum Designers

  1. 1. Presentation • Course Title: English For Specific Purposes • Course Code:ENG-000 • Topic :Syllabus and curriculum design development • Presented by: Mudassir Jehan • Presented to :Raza-e-Mustafa • Semester :4th • Class: M.Phil. (Linguistics) • UNIVERSITY OF GUJRAT,GUJRAT 6/7/2014 1
  2. 2. contents 1. What is Curriculum? 2. What is Syllabus? 3. What a curriculum includes? 4. Difference between curriculum and syllabus 5. Major types of syllabus 6. Curriculum and syllabus design 7. Two approaches to syllabus design 6/7/2014 2
  3. 3. 8.Types of syllabus design 9.Current trends of syllabus design 10.Eight common curriculum designs 11.Levels of curriculum design 12.Four important questions for syllabus designs 13.Suggested steps for planning syllabus for designers 14.Suggested principles for designing a syllabus that fosters critical thinking 6/7/2014 3
  4. 4. • 15.functions of syllabus • 16.syllabus /curriculum as discipline • of curriculum planning • 18.philosophy and curriculum design • 19.four main types of need analysis • 20.need analysis and course design • 21.types of english need analysis • 22.issues in ESP course design • 23.a model is? 6/7/2014 4
  5. 5. • 24.what a model should be? • 25.Five phases to perform improvement model • 26.most recognized –technical-scientific models and non-b technical scientific models • 27.why should we consider various models • 28.why should we consider introducing new curriculum models • 29approaches to curriculum design • 30.references • 31.appendix. 6/7/2014 5
  6. 6. What is Syllabus? • A syllabus is an expression of opinion on the nature of language and learning; it acts as a guide for both teacher and learner by providing some goals to be attained. • Hutchinson and Waters (1987:80) define syllabus as follows: “At its simplest level a syllabus can be described as a statement of what is to be learnt. It reflects language and linguistic performance”. • This is a rather traditional interpretation of syllabus focusing on outcomes rather than process. However, a syllabus can also be seen as a "summary of the content to which learners will be exposed" (Yalden.1987). • It is seen as an approximation of what will be taught and that it cannot accurately predict what will be learnt. A language teaching syllabus involves the integration of subject matter and linguistic matter. 6/7/2014 6
  7. 7. What is Curriculum? • “ an attempt to communicate the essential features and principles of an educational proposal in such a form that it is open to critical scrutiny and capable of effective translation into practice. “(Stenhouse 1975). • “the public face of a profession’s best educational thinking” (Fish 2003). • John Delnay (1959) says : • Curriculum is that which is taught at school. • Curriculum is a set of subjects. • Curriculum is content. • Curriculum is a sequence of courses. • Curriculum is a set of performance objectives. • Curriculum is all planned learning for which the school is responsible. • Curriculum is all the experiences learners have under the guidance of the school. 6/7/2014 7
  8. 8. What a curriculum includes? • formal and informal • overt and covert • recognised and overlooked • intentional and unintentional • it is determined as much by what it omits as what it contains 6/7/2014 8
  9. 9. Difference between Syllabus/course and Curriculum • Curriculum is wider term as compared with syllabus. Curriculum covers all the activities and arrangements made by the institution through out the academic year to facilitate the learners and the instructors. Where as Syllabus is limited to particular subject of a particular class. • Although the two are used interchangeably in some contexts, it is important to note the distinction. Curriculum is a much broader term than syllabus. It is an administrative piece of work that includes all the relevant information about the course such as aims and objectives, rationale for studying L2, learners and their proficiency level, content of curriculum (syllabus), implementation of curriculum (method), assessment and evaluation, the role of parents, administrators etc. So, curriculum includes a syllabus as well. Syllabus, on the other hand, refers to a more specific subject area. • There are two types of syllabuses. • Narrow syllabus is basically identifies what will be taught in classroom, the content of language to be taught. • Broad syllabus identifies which methodology to use as well as the content of new language to be taught. Syllabus is usually assessed and assessment criteria is usually part of curriculum. 6/7/2014 9
  10. 10. Conti… • According to Stern (1983) The terms "syllabus", "syllabus design" and "curriculum design" have given rise to confusion in terms of their definitions and use. The field of curriculum studies is part of the discipline of educational studies. In its broadest sense, it refers to the study of goals, content, implementation and evaluation of an educational system. In its restricted sense, curriculum refers to a course of study or the content of a particular course or programme. It is in this narrower sense of curriculum that the term "syllabus" is employed. According to Stern, "syllabus design" is just one phase in a system of interrelated curriculum development activities. • Shaw's (1975) survey of literature on second language syllabus development brings out the following distinction between "curriculum" and "syllabus". He says • "... the curriculum includes the goals, objectives, content, processes, resources, and means of evaluation of all the learning experiences planned for pupils both in and out of the school and community, through classroom instruction and related programs..." • He then defines "syllabus" as • "a statement of the plan for any part of the curriculum, excluding the element of curriculum evaluation itself." 6/7/2014 10
  11. 11. Conti… • "Curriculum" as defined by Allen (1984) is a very general concept. It involves consideration of philosophical, social and administrative factors which contribute to the planning of an educational programme. "Syllabus" then refers to that subpart of a curriculum which is concerned with the specification of what units will be taught. • In defining a language "syllabus", Noss and Rodgers (1976) refer to it as "a set of justifiable, educational objectives specified in terms of linguistic content". Here the specification of objectives must have something to do with language form or substance, with language- using situations, or with language as a means of communication. • Strevens (1977) says that the syllabus is • "partly an administrative instrument, partly a day-to-day guide to the teacher, partly a statement of what is to be taught and how, sometimes partly a statement of an approach ... The syllabus embodies that part of the language which is to be taught, broken down into items, or otherwise processed for teaching purposes." 6/7/2014 11
  12. 12. Conti… • In Wilkins' (1981) words, syllabuses are "specifications of the content of language teaching which have been submitted to some degree of structuring or ordering with the aim of making teaching and learning a more effective process." • Johnson (1982) explains syllabus as an "organized syllabus inventory" where "syllabus inventory" refers to the items to be taught. Crombie (1985) also defines "syllabus" as a list or inventory of items or units with which learners are to be familiarised. But Corder (1975) points out that it is more than just an inventory of items. In addition to specifying the content of learning, a syllabus provides a rationale of how that content should be selected and ordered (Mackey, 1980). • Candlin (1984) takes a different stand when he says that syllabuses are "social constructions, produced interdependently in classrooms by teachers and learners ... They are concerned with the specification and planning of what is to be learned, frequently set down in some written form as prescriptions for action by teachers and learners." • Basically, a syllabus can be seen as "a plan of what is to be achieved through our teaching and our students' learning" (Breen, 1984) while its function is "to specify what is to be taught and in what order" (Prabhu, 1984). 6/7/2014 12
  13. 13. MAJOR TYPES/APPROACHES OF SYLLABI • There are two major types of syllabus. 1. Product oriented 2. Process oriented • These two types have different sub types .Different types of syllabus rarely occur independently. Almost all actual language teaching syllabi are combinations of two or more of the types defined here. For a given course, one type of syllabus usually dominates, while other types of content may be combined with it. Furthermore, the all types of syllabi are not entirely distinct from each other. • Since there is no serious rationale behind the selection of only one of the inventory item types necessary to be chosen as a unit of organization. It is possible to design a syllabus involving lessons of varying orientation; for example, some including important functions, others dealing with situations and topics, and yet others with notions and structures. The underlying principle is that there should be flexibility to change the central point of the teaching material as the course unfolds. This will lead to a syllabus design which is flexible, less rigid and more responsive to the various student language needs. such syllabus is also called multi-dimensional syllabus. • For example, the distinction between skill-based and task-based syllabi may be minimal. In such cases, the distinguishing factor is often the way in which the instructional content is used in the actual teaching procedure. The characteristics, differences, strengths, and weaknesses of individual syllabi are defined as follows: 6/7/2014 13
  14. 14. 1:- Product-Oriented Syllabus • This kind of syllabuses emphasizes the product of language learning and is prone to approval from an authority. There are three types of syllabus described in the following: • (i) The Structural Syllabus • Structural syllabus. This type of syllabus represented the model of foreign language teaching at its beginning. It was selected and graded according to grammatical notions of simplicity and complexity, focusing only on one aspect of language-formal grammar. • Historically, the most prevalent of syllabus type is perhaps the structural or grammatical syllabus in which the selection and grading of the content is based on the complexity and simplicity of grammatical items. The learner is expected to master each structural step and add it to her grammar collection. As such the focus is on the outcomes or the product. • One problem facing the syllabus designer pursuing a grammatical order to sequencing input is that the ties connecting the structural items may be rather weak. A more fundamental criticism is that the grammatical syllabus focuses on only one aspect of language, namely grammar, whereas in truth there exist many more aspects of language. Finally, recent research suggests there is a disagreement between the grammar of the spoken and of the written language; raising complications for the grading of content in grammar based syllabuses. 6/7/2014 14
  15. 15. • It is based on a theory of language that assumes that the grammatical or structural aspects of language form are the most basic or useful . • The structural syllabus can be said to embrace a theory of learning that holds that functional ability arises from structural knowledge or ability. • The content of the structural syllabus is primarily grammatical form. • The demand of structural syllabi has tended to be limited to the sentence. • Semantically defined sentence types such as statements, questions, interrogatives and grammatically defined types such as simple, compound and complex sentences are seen. • Structural syllabi have most frequently been associated with cognitive methods of language teaching, Audio- lingual, Grammar Translation Method, Silent Way, and etc. • “Grammar” is frequently expected in a language class and usually constitutes familiar content. • According to that syllabi , grammatical concepts such as nouns, imperatives, plural, gerund are simply better defined than functional ones and also easily measured. • Yet the low transferability of structural knowledge to actual language behaviour severely limits its application in language teaching settings ,at least to language instruction whose goal is the ability to function in the language. • A fundamental criticism is that the grammatical syllabus focuses on only one aspect of language, namely grammar, whereas in truth there exist many more aspects to language. • Finally, recent corpus based research suggests there is a divergence between the grammar of the spoken and of the written language; raising implications for the grading of content in grammar based syllabuses. 6/7/2014 15
  16. 16. Conti… • (ii) The Situational Syllabus • The limitations found in structural approach led to an alternative approach where situational needs are emphasized rather than grammatical units. Here, the principal organizing characteristic is a list of situations which reflects the way language is used in everyday life i.e. outside the classroom. Thus, by linking structural theory to situations the learner is able to grasp the meaning in relevant context. • One advantage of the situational Syllabus is that motivation will be heightened since it is "learner- rather than subject- centered" (Wilkins.1976). However, a situational syllabus will be limited for students whose needs were not encompassed by the situations in the syllabus. This dissatisfaction led Wilkins to describe notional and communicative categories which had a significant impact on syllabus design. 6/7/2014 16
  17. 17. Conti… • (iii) The Notional/Functional Syllabus • In the 1970s this type of syllabus became an alternative to the structurally graded syllabuses in attempts to incorporate a broader view of language communication. Communicative skills rather than language per se became the focus of this syllabus type. • Wilkins' criticism of structural and situational approaches lies in the fact that they answer only the 'how' or 'when' and 'where' of language use (Brumfit and Johnson. 1979:84). Instead, he enquires "what it is they communicate through language" Thus, the starting point for a syllabus is the communicative purpose and conceptual meaning of language i.e. notions and functions, as opposed to only the grammatical items and situational elements. • In order to establish objectives of such a syllabus, the needs of the learners will have to be analyzed on the base of communication need. Consequently, needs analysis has an association with notional/functional syllabuses. White (1988:77) claims that "language functions do not usually occur in isolation" and there are also difficulties of selecting and grading function and form. • The above approaches belong to the product-oriented category of syllabuses. An alternative path to Syllabus Design would be to adopt process oriented principles, which assume that language can be learnt experientially as opposed to the step-by-step procedure of the synthetic approach. 6/7/2014 17
  18. 18. • Notional/ functional syllabus has been closely associated with what has been called “ communicative language teaching”. • According to communicative approach, language is used as vehicle for the expression of functional meaning. The functional view emphasizes the semantic and communicative dimension rather than the grammatical. • It leads to a specification and organization of language teaching content by categories of meaning and function rather than by elements of structure and grammar • functional/ notional syllabus includes not only the elements of grammar and lexis but also specify the topics, notions and concepts the learner needs to communicate. • Notional/ Functionalism was initially associated with a cognitive type of learning theory that called for explicit presentation of language material, conscious recognition and practice. Sequencing and grading of language material do not seem to be of major concern. • Functions associated with multiple forms are the basis for instruction. • So a few structures can be used to perform many functions. Inviting someone out. • Also, the syllabi is limited to short utterances or exchanges involving the functions in question. Routines are short and presented primarily a vehicle for teaching, formulaic utterances generally used to perform some specific function such as I`d love to but I cant. 6/7/2014 18
  19. 19. 2:- Process-Oriented Syllabus• Process-Oriented Syllabuses are developed as a result of a sense of failure in product-oriented courses to enhance communicative language skills. Syllabus is a process rather than a product. That is, focus is not on what the student will have accomplished on completion of the program, but on the specification of learning tasks and activities that s/he will undertake during the course. • (i)Procedural/Task-Based Syllabus • This latest type focuses on and emphasizes classroom activities that stimulate internal learning processes. This syllabus type specifies the tasks, activities, and problems engaged in the classroom which will be carried out in the real world. • Prabhu's (1979) 'Bangalore Project' is a classic example of a procedural syllabus. Here, the question concerning 'what' becomes subordinate to the question concerning 'how'. The focus shifts from the linguistic element to the educational, with an emphasis on learning or learner. Within such a framework the selection, ordering and grading of content is no longer wholly significant for the syllabus designer. Arranging the Syllabus around tasks such as information- and opinion-gap activities, it was hoped that the learner would perceive the language subconsciously whilst consciously concentrating on solving the meaning behind the tasks. There appears to be an indistinct boundary between this approach and that of language teaching methodology. • A task-based syllabus assumes that speaking a language is a skill best perfected through practice and interaction, and uses tasks and activities to encourage learners to use the language communicatively in order to achieve a purpose. Tasks must be relevant to the real world language needs of the student. That is, the underlying learning theory of task based and communicative language teaching seems to suggest that activities in which language is employed to complete meaningful tasks, enhances learning. 6/7/2014 19
  20. 20. • The task based syllabus: • The defining characteristic is that it uses activities that the learners have to do for non-instructional purposes outside the classroom. • Tasks are a way of bringing the real world to the classroom: developing surveys. • The intent of task-based is to use learners 'real-life needs and activities as learning experiences, providing motivation through immediacy and relevance. • The language needed to carry out the tasks is not provided or taught beforehand, but discovered by students and provided by teachers and other resources as the task is carried out. • The one aspect of language knowledge that may not be addressed by task- based instruction, however, is explicit metalinguistic knowledge, or the ability to make descriptive or prescriptive statements about the language. 6/7/2014 20
  21. 21. • The primary theory of learning underlying task-based instruction is Krashen´s acquistion theory. • Language is gained through exposure to and participation in using it • The theory of language most closely associated with task-based learning is communicative • (with its 4 components). 6/7/2014 21
  22. 22. How are task selected? • According to students` cognitive skills and linguistic readiness for particular tasks, their need for the particular discourse or interactional type, and availability of resources for carrying out the task. • The following shorter tasks should be undertaken before longer and more complex ones: tasks requiring known information • Advanced learners may be able to handle tasks that extend over several days or weeks: call for a great deal of new or unknown information, require complex processing such as evaluation, comparison.. 6/7/2014 22
  23. 23. Examples of task based syllabus • Beginning level • Preparing profiles of class members for other classes or teachers • Planning and carrying out a class outing or picnic or dinner. • Producing a class cookbook • Filling out applications • Preparing a handbook to the school to be used by other students • Producing an employement procedure guide- where to go.. Whom to talk to • Writing various types of letters • Producing newsletters for the other students • Designing an electronic forum • Advanced • Writing term papers for other content classes. • Doing a price comparison survey of food stores. • Producing collections of the learners` community folklore. 6/7/2014 23
  24. 24. Positive characteristics • Widely applicable. • Suitable for learners of all ages and backgrounds. • Functional ability should be a natural outcome of the instructional experience. • Negative Characteristics • Problems lie in implementing the instruction: requires creativity and initiate on the part of the teacher. • If teachers are traditional, or do not have the time or resources, this type of teaching may be impossible. • Traditional students may not like it either: they feel they are not learning anything. 6/7/2014 24
  25. 25. application • Real life tasks should be devised: • Dilemmas, ranking exercises, survey or • questionnaire design. • It works better in ESL environments, due to the I+1 ( comprehensible input) students are exposed to. • For our context, if resources are available: computers, internet access, and others, it can be used. 6/7/2014 25
  26. 26. Conti… • (ii)Learner-Led Syllabus • The notion of basing a syllabus on how learners learn language was proposed by Breen and Candlin (1984). Here the emphasis lies on the learner, who it is hoped will be involved in the implementation of the syllabus design. By being fully aware of the course they are studying, it is believed that their interest and motivation will increase, coupled with the positive effect of nurturing the skills required to learn. • However, as suggested earlier, a predetermined syllabus provides support and guidance for the teacher and should not be so easily dismissed. Critics have suggested that a learner-led syllabus seems radical and utopian in that it will be difficult to follow as the direction of the syllabus will be largely the responsibility of the learners. • This leads to the final syllabus design to be examined ; the proportional syllabus as suggested by Yalden (1987). • (iii)The Proportional Syllabus • The proportional syllabus basically attempts to develop an "overall competence”. It consists of a number of elements within the main theme playing a linking role through the units. This theme is designated by the learners. It is expected initially that form will be of central value, but later, the focus will turn towards interactional components. The syllabus is designed to be dynamic, not static, with sufficient opportunity for feedback and flexibility. • The shift from form to interaction can occur at any time and is not limited to a particular stratum of learners. As Yalden observes, it is important for a syllabus to indicate explicitly what will be taught, "not what will be learned". This practical approach with its focus on flexibility and spiral method of language sequencing leading to the recycling of language, seems relevant for learners who lack exposure to the target language beyond the classroom. 6/7/2014 26
  27. 27. • Iv. SKILL BASED SYLLABUS • ESP: English for Specific Purposes • EAP: English for Academic purposes • Skill: a specific way of using language that combines structural and functional ability but exists independently of specific settings or situations. Examples: • reading skills, • writing skills: reports, speeches, • listening skills: getting phone calls • Talking orders in a restaurant • Skill based approaches: Competency based instruction: • What the learner should be able to do • as a result of instruction. • After so many hours of English instruction, • what should you be able to do? • How many hours of driving classes do • you need to be a competent driver? 6/7/2014 27
  28. 28. • The content of the language teaching is a collection of specific abilities that may play a part in using language. • Skills are things that people must be able to do to be competent in a language, relatively independently of the situation or setting in which the language use can occur. • The primary purpose of skill-based instruction is to learn the specific language skill. A possible secondary purpose is to develop more general competence in the language, learning only incidentally any information that may be available while applying the language skills. • Skill based is becoming widely used in adult education ESL programs for immigrants and refugees. • The skills are presented broadly and with varied and variable applications • ( e.g. intensive reading of many different types texts) so that specific skills and global ability are developed simultaneously. • Examples: • Advanced reading course: • guessing vocabulary from context • reading for the main idea • inferring • summarizing readings • Dictionary work • critical reading skills • Analysis of paragraph structure. 6/7/2014 28
  29. 29. Positive characteristics of skilled base syllabus • It is useful when learners need to master specific types of language, either exclusively or as a part of a broader competency. • It is easy to predict the skills someone will need to deal with in a given context ( at a college: good writing and reading skills). • Relevance to student-felt needs or wants is an advantage. 6/7/2014 29
  30. 30. Negative side.. Potential drawbacks • The degree to which ability to perform specific tasks in a language is dependent on or independent of overall language proficiency. • The skills or competencies can be too limited ( for phone operators and not general education: thinking skills. That is too say it can be too technical). 6/7/2014 30
  31. 31. application • It is appropriate when learners need specific skills, and when the skills are well defined and learners don’t need the other skills. • It has valuable applications in life skills and vocationally oriented language programs for adult immigrants and refugees. • More appropriate for adults • Language programs preparing students for academic work. 6/7/2014 31
  32. 32. • V.CONTENT BASED SYLLABUSV. • It is the teaching of content or information in the language being learned with little or nor direct explicit effort to teach the language. • It is closely related to provide instruction/ education to children of immigrants (LEP, limited English Proficiency). One solution to the problem of LEP has been controlled immersion programs… but also bilingual programs: but they are costly. • Immersion: students are given content instruction in a language they may not control well or at all. • The learning theory associated with content based instruction is an acquisition theory ( Krashen). • CONTENT • Any content based syllabus is by definition identical to the syllabus of a content course at any level in science, social studies, or any other school. 6/7/2014 32
  33. 33. Positive Characteristics • Students learn language and subject matter simultaneously. • There is a perfect match: what is neeed and what is provided. • The motivational aspect of content based instruction, provided that students find the content material interesting. • Negative Characteristics 6/7/2014 33
  34. 34. Negative characteristics • It can lead to premature fossilization due to lack of corrective feedback. • It is problematic with beginning or low level adult students. • Applications: • Most applicable in primary and • secondary school settings (biligual schools of • the country. Would you be ready to teach • Science to 5th graders? History? It is a • possibility. 6/7/2014 34
  35. 35. • Iv. A cultural syllabus • Stern (1992) introduces ‘cultural syllabus’ to be incorporated into second/foreign language education. There are many challenges regarding defining the concept of culture. Seelye (1984:26) refused to define culture, calling it ‘a broad concept that embraces all aspects of the life of man’, and Brown (1994) calls it the “glue” that binds a group of people together. In order to have a better understanding of the term culture, Stern (1992:208) suggests that writers ‘have tried to reduce the vast and amorphous nature of the culture concept to manageable proportions by preparing lists of items or by indicating a few broad categories’. 6/7/2014 35
  36. 36. • Stern keeps on by discounting such lists as presented by Brooks and Chastain as providing only ‘cultural titbits’. Nostrand’s (1978) emergent model is praised by Stern as an attempt to overcome this, as is Seelye’s observation that all of mankind have the same needs, and that different groups will satisfy these needs in different ways, as this gives a viewpoint for studying culture. However, Stern also implies that although both Nostrand’s and Seelye’s work give a viewpoint, they are difficult to be put in practice. Hammerly (1982) suggests a mix of anthropological culture and classical culture. He highlights three areas, i.e. information culture, behavioural culture and achievement culture. Stern believes this to be valuable, but claims that it does not solve the problem of the range of cultural topics. • Believing in the fact that there is a consensus on the objectives of teaching culture, Stern (1992) indicates that aims should be: • • A research-minded outlook • • The learner’s own country • • Knowledge about the target culture • • Affective goals; interest, intellectual curiosity, and empathy. • • Awareness of its characteristics and of differences between the target culture • • Emphasis on the understanding socio-cultural implications of language and language use 6/7/2014 36
  37. 37. A lexical syllabus• As one of the advocates of the lexical syllabus, Willis (1990, 129-130) asserts that “taking lexis as a starting point enabled us to identify the commonest meanings and patterns in English, and to offer students a picture which is typical of the way English is used”. He continued to claim that they were able to follow through the work of Wilkins and his colleagues in their attempt to establish a notional syllabus. They also were able to suggest to students a way of referencing the language they had experienced. Thus learners were able to use their corpus in the same way as grammarians and lexicographers use a corpus in order to make valid and relevant generalizations about the language under study. 6/7/2014 37
  38. 38. • Specifically speaking, Willis’ lexical syllabus is firmly based on real language. It draws on the COBUILD research which provides an analysis of a corpus of natural language of twenty million words. The COBUILD corpus provides the content of the lexical syllabus, the commonest words and phrases in English and their meanings. It also provides some insights into that content which modifies and shapes the way syllabus designers treat the language in the course books. Thus, the picture of the language one pictures in designing such a syllabus is quite distinct from what one might present intuitively. In fact, intuition on its own cannot identify the most frequent words and phrases of the language, • or even recognize their importance. Previously the course writer’s reliance on intuition has resulted in misrepresentations in the handling with the language. The proposed lexical syllabus is actually based on a body of research into natural language rather than other pedagogic grammars. The result is to put forward a more complete pedagogic description of the language and a better balanced description as well. 6/7/2014 38
  39. 39. • One of the most significant features of designing such a syllabus is the shift of responsibility for learning onto the learner. Instead of offering discrete patterns to the learner, we enabled the learner to experience a corpus of language which is in many ways typical of the language as a whole, and to learn from examining and analyzing this corpus. By exposing learners to carefully selected language, and by arming them with analyzing that language for themselves, the syllabus helps the learners successfully achieve their goals. Specifically speaking, it is the issue of a dynamic element in the process that is the learner's creativity. In fact, by exploiting the creativity, the learning is vastly made more efficient. • Lexical syllabuses identify a target vocabulary to be taught normally arranged according to levels such as the first 500, 1000, 1500, 2000 words. 6/7/2014 39
  40. 40. Curriculum/Syllabus Design • Syllabus design: Concerns the selection of items to be learnt and the grading of those items into an appropriate sentence. • Curriculum design: Also concerned with the planning, implementation, evaluation, management and administration of education programmes. • It is the process by which the raw data about a learning need is interpreted to produce an integrated series of teaching-learning experiences. • To design a syllabus is to decide what gets taught and in what order. For this reason, the theory of language underlying the language teaching method will play a major role in determining what syllabus should be adopted to what type of students. Theory of learning also plays an important part in determining the kind of syllabus used. For example, a syllabus based on the theory of learning evolved by cognitive code teaching would emphasize language forms and whatever explicit descriptive knowledge about those forms. A syllabus based on an acquisition theory of learning, however, would emphasize unanalyzed and carefully selected experiences of the new language. • The choice of a syllabus is a major decision in language teaching, and it should be made as consciously and with as much information as possible. There has been much confusion over the years as to what different types of content are possible in language teaching syllabi and as to whether the differences are in syllabus or method. Several distinct types of language teaching syllabi exist, and these different types may be implemented in various teaching situations. 6/7/2014 40
  41. 41. • After having understood what the terms "curriculum" and "syllabus" refer to, the next step would be to come to terms with what language "syllabus design" encompasses. • According to Webb (1976), syllabus design is understood as the organization of the selected contents into an ordered and practical sequence for teaching purposes. His criteria for syllabus design is as follows: • progress from known to unknown matter • appropriate size of teaching units • a proper variety of activity • teach ability • creating a sense of purpose for the student. • Garcia (1976) expands on this and provides more comprehensive criteria which should be taken into consideration when designing a language syllabus. 6/7/2014 41
  42. 42. • "particulars concerning the social forces, the prejudices, the habits and the motives of the student population, the relation of student characteristics to what are considered universal concepts in language learning processes, contemporary insights into the nature of the language, and how it should be taught to non-native speakers and for what realistic purposes, must guide curricular decisions." • Designing a language syllabus is no doubt a complex process. According to Amran Halim (1976), the language course designer has to pay serious consideration to all the relevant variables. He has grouped all the variables into two categories, namely: • linguistic variables, which include the linguistic relations, between the language to be taught and the language or languages which the student uses in his daily activities; and • Non-linguistic variables which range from policy to social, cultural, technological and administrative variables. 6/7/2014 42
  43. 43. • According to Munby (1984), syllabus design is seen as "a matter of specifying the content that needs to be taught and then organizing it into a teaching syllabus of appropriate learning units." • Maley (1984) sums it up when he says that syllabus design encompasses the whole process of designing a language programme. • He says that "the needs analysis Which produces an order unit of items to be taught is organically related to a methodology consistent with the syllabus, a set of techniques consistent with the methodology, and evaluation procedure consistent with the whole." • From the above explanations on syllabus design, it can be concluded that syllabus design involves a logical sequence of three main stages, that is, i) needs analysis, ii) content specification, and iii) syllabus organization. • This follows very closely the general model advocated by Taba (1962) which gave the following steps: • needs analysis • formulation of objectives • selection of content • organization of content • selection of learning activities • organization of learning activities • decisions about what needs evaluating and how to evaluate. 6/7/2014 43
  44. 44. 6/7/2014 44
  45. 45. Two approaches to syllabus design • There are basically two types of ESP courses, which we might call English-through and English-for. • English-through means teaching English through the lens of an ESP field. The aim of the course is to bump your students up to a higher level of global language proficiency (e.g. from CEF level B2 to C1). That means teaching all the grammar, vocabulary and pronunciation that all other language learners have to study. And making sure your students understand the language structures at that level and can use them as well as others of the same level. It also means working on the four skills - to improve reading speed and listening comprehension, spoken confidence and written style. All that sort of thing. • In other words, it's just like any other English course. The only difference is that everything is done in the context of the ESP field. So you teach present perfect through examples from that field and practise it with a field-relevant role-play, or whatever. You work on their reading skills by giving them increasingly challenging things to do with texts about their field. The ESP field exists in the course primarily as a means of keeping the course interesting and relevant. If you work in finance, for example, you might get more out of a report-writing task on the causes of the credit crunch than on the pros and cons of fox hunting Or whatever. 6/7/2014 45
  46. 46. Types of syllabus design • There are three major types of syllabus design 1.Target cantered syllabus design • What learners need and want may conflict. We must remember that there are external constraints (classroom facilities/ time) that will restrict what is possible. • We also have to take into account our own theoretical views and experiences of the classroom. • There are many different approaches to ESP course design. • It is the simplest and more familiar kind to English teachers (Ts). It aims to draw as direct a connection as possible between the analysis of the target situation and the content of the ESP course. It proceeds as follows: 6/7/2014 46
  47. 47. 6/7/2014 47
  48. 48. • However, it has a number of weaknesses: • 1. It starts from the learner and their needs. It might be considered a learner-centred approach. The learner is simply used as a means of identifying the target situation. • 2. It is a static and inflexible procedure, which can take little account of the conflicts and contradictions that are inherent in any human endeavour. • 3. It appears to be systematic. • 4. It gives no acknowledgement to factors which must inevitably play a part in the creation of any course. Data is not important in itself. • 5. The lg-centred analysis of target situation data is only at the surface level. It reveals very little about the competence that underlies the performance. • This course design fails to recognise the fact that, learners being people, learning is not a straightforward, logical process. • A lg-centred approach says: • ‘This is the nature of the target situation performance and that will determine the ESP course.’ 6/7/2014 48
  49. 49. 2. SKILLS-CENTRED syllabus DESIGN • It is a reaction both to the idea of specific registers of English as a basis for ESP and to the practical constraints on learning imposed by limited time and resources. Its aim is not to provide a specified corpus of linguistic knowledge but to make the learners into better processors of information. • It is founded on 2 fundamental principles, one theoretical, the other pragmatic: • Underlying any lg behaviour are certain skills and strategies, which the learner uses to produce or comprehend discourse. • 2. The pragmatic basis for the skills-centred approach derives from a distinction made by Widdowson (1981) between goal-oriented courses and process-oriented ones. • The emphasis in the ESP course in not on achieving a particular set of goals, but on enabling the learners to achieve what they can within the given constraint. 6/7/2014 49
  50. 50. • The role of needs analysis in this approach is twofold: • 1. it provides a basis for discovering the underlying competence that enables people to perform in the target situation. • 2. it enables the course designer to discover the potential knowledge and abilities that the learner bring to the ESP classroom. • This approach takes the learner more into account: • it reviews lg in terms of how the mind of the learner processes it rather that as an entity in itself • it tries to build on the positive factors that the learners bring to the course (previous knowledge), rather that just on the negative idea of ‘lacks’. • It frames its objectives in open-ended terms, so enabling learners to achieve at least sth. • This approach still approaches the learner as a user of lg rather than as a learner of lg. The processes it is concerned with are the processes of lg use not of lg learning. • A skills-centred approach says: ‘we must look behind the target performance data to discover what processes enable sb to perform. Those processes will determine the ESP course.’ 6/7/2014 50
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  52. 52. 3. LEARNING-CENTERED syllabus design • LEARNING-CENTERED APPROACH • It is based on the principle that learning is totally determined by the learner even though Ts can influence what is taught • The learner is one factor to consider in the learning process, but not the only one. • It is seen as a process in which the learner use what knowledge or skills they have to make sense of the flow of new information. • It is an internal process, which is crucially dependent upon the knowledge the learner already have and their ability an motivation to use it. • It is a process of negotiation between individuals and the society. Society sets the target and the individuals must do their best to get as close to that target as is possible. • A learning-centred approach says: ‘we must look beyond the competence that enables sb to perform, because what we really want to discover is not the competence itself, but how sb acquires that competence 6/7/2014 52
  53. 53. 6/7/2014 53
  54. 54. • This approach has 2 implications: • 1.Course design is a negotiated process. The ESP learning situation and the target situation will both influence the nature of the syllabus, materials, methodology and evaluation procedures. • 2. Course design is a dynamic process. It doesn’t move in a linear fashion. Needs and resources vary with time. The course design, therefore, needs to have built-in feedback channels to enable the course to respond to developments. 6/7/2014 54
  55. 55. • If we took a learning-centred approach, we would need to ask further questions and consider other factors, before determining the content and methodology of the course: • What skills are necessary to be taught? • What are the implications for methodology of having a mono-skill focus? • How will the sts react to doing tasks involving other skills? • Do the resources in the classroom allow the use of other skills? • How will the learners react to discussing things in the mother tongue? • How will the sts’ attitudes vary through the course? Will thy feel motivated? • How do sts feel about reading as an activity? • The important point is that these questions must be asked and the results allowed to influence the course design 6/7/2014 55
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  57. 57. Current trends of syllabus design • The co-existence of the old and the new • The emphasis on learning process • The inclusion of non-linguistic objectives in syllabus • The emergence of the multi-syllabus 6/7/2014 57
  58. 58. Eight Common Curriculum Design • 1. Content-based instruction • purpose: knowledge, acquisition • activity: facts, data, and representative form • 2. Shell Based Instruction • purpose: process and manipulation • activity: practice, ordering application • 3. Inquiry Approach • purpose: awareness, interest • activity: unknown, sampling • 4. Conceptual Learning • purpose: understanding • activity: big ideas, familiarity • 6/7/2014 58
  59. 59. • 5. Interdisciplinary Learning • purpose: making connection • activity: application • 6. Cooperative Learning • purpose: coordinating social skills • activity: group work • 7. Problem Solving • purpose: apply skills • activity: current events • 8. Critical and Creative Thinking • purpose: construction of new forms • activity: model building, imagination 6/7/2014 59
  60. 60. Levels of syllabus/curriculum design. • Every syllabus has three levels: • Planned : what is intended by designers • Delivered : what is organised by institution • what is taught by teachers • Experienced: what is learned by students 6/7/2014 60
  61. 61. Four important questions for syllabus designers • What educational purposes do we seek to attain? • What educational experiences are likely to attain these purposes? • How can these be organised effectively? • How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained? • Tyler,R. 1949 6/7/2014 61
  62. 62. Suggested Steps for Planning Syllabus: • Develop a well-grounded rationale for your course. • Decide what you want students to be able to do as a result of taking your course, and how their work will be appropriately assessed. • Define and delimit course content. • Structure your students’ active involvement in learning. • Identify and develop resources. • Compose your syllabus with a focus on student learning. 6/7/2014 62
  63. 63. Suggested Principles for Designing a Syllabus that Fosters Critical Thinking: • Critical thinking is a learnable skill; the instructor and class fellows are resources in developing critical thinking skills. • • Problems, questions, or issues are the point of entry into the subject and a source of motivation for nonstop inquiry. • • Successful courses balance the challenge to think critically with supporting students’’developmental needs. • • Courses should be assignment centered rather than text and lecture centered. Goals, methods and evaluation emphasize using content rather than simply acquiring it. • • Students are required to formulate their ideas in writing or other appropriate means. • • Students should collaborate to learn and to stretch their thinking, for example, in pair problem solving and small group work. • • Courses that teach problem-solving skills nurture students’ metacognitive abilities. • • The developmental needs of students are acknowledged and used as information in the design of the course. Teachers in these courses make standards explicit and then help students learn how to achieve them. 6/7/2014 63
  64. 64. Syllabus Functions: • Establishes an early point of contact and connection between student and instructor • • Describes your beliefs about educational purposes • • Acquaints students with the logistics of the syllabus • • Contains collected handouts • • Defines student responsibilities for successful course work • • Describes active learning • • Helps students to assess their readiness for your syllabus • • Sets the course in a broader context for learning • • Provides a conceptual framework • • Describes available learning resources • • Communicates the role of technology in the course • • Can improve the effectiveness of student note-taking • • Can include material that supports learning outside the classroom • • Can serve as a learning contract 6/7/2014 64
  65. 65. Curriculum /syllabus as a Discipline • Graduate and undergraduate students take • courses in: • Curriculum development • Curriculum theory • Curriculum Evaluation • Secondary School Curriculum • Elementary School Curriculum • Middle School Curriculum • Community College Curriculum • Curriculum in Higher Education 6/7/2014 65
  66. 66. Foundations of Curriculum Planning • Social Forces • The Treatment of Knowledge • Human growth & development • Learning as a process • Technology 6/7/2014 66
  67. 67. Philosophy and curriculum design • Philosophies and curriculum leaders • Five Educational Philosophies • Perennialism • Idealism • Realism • Experimentalism • Existentialism 6/7/2014 67
  68. 68. Four main types of need analysis • 1.Target Situation Analyses- in which situations learners use the target language most? Over the telephone, delivering presentations, meetings, hotel reception. What do they need L2 for? • 2. Learning Situation Analysis- in which style learners have been taught before? structural, procedural, communicative. What is the best way to get Learners to L2 target level? • 3.Present situation Analysis- where the learners are now proficiency wise? Give them a test and diagnose their level of proficiency in reading, writing, listening and speaking • 4.Means Analysis- what resources they have, what learning styles they are used to, what are their class dynamics etc. 6/7/2014 68
  69. 69. Needs Analysis and course design • This section discusses the definitions of language needs analysis. Needs analysis is a very valuable tool in identifying where the learners are and where learners should be. If we are to analyse needs, we have to know what kinds of needs are • . • Many practitioners define language needs analysis in various ways and from different viewpoints. The definition of Language Needs Analysis is based on the work of Nunan (1991), Backman and Palmer (1992), and Brown (1995), in which they define Language Needs Analysis is a set of tools, techniques and procedures for determining thelanguage content and learning processes that involves systematic gathering of specificin formation about the language needs to meet the learning needs of a particular group of learners. The needs of a specific group of learners must be satisfied by the suitable teaching methods based on curriculum and context. In general, needs analysis is a method in findinglearner’s need in order to improve their English language skills. 6/7/2014 69
  70. 70. • This section discusses the definitions of; language needs analysis, types of English language needs, methods of collecting data of needs analysis, English for Specific Purposes (ESP) syllabus, and course design for ESP. The term “needs analysis” was originated by Michael West of India in the 1920swhen he was trying to establish the way the learners should learn English. In the field of language program planning, needs analysis is the first step in developing a language curriculum (Brown, 1995). It is a systematic and on going process of gathering information about learners’ needs, interpreting the information, and then making course decisions based on the interpretation in order to meet the needs. It can be seen that it is the responsibility of the teachers and planners in investigating the learners to which the language they need in order to produce and teach an effective course. 6/7/2014 70
  71. 71. Types of English Language Needs analysis • This section discusses the types of needs related to the specific group of learners in this study.The first two types of needs taken into account for needs analysis of ESP coursedesign are target needs and learning needs (Hutchinson & Waters, 1987).1. 6/7/2014 71
  72. 72. • 1.Target needs • refers to what the learner needs to do in the target situation.Hutchinson and Waters describe the target needs in terms of necessities, lacks and wants.Necessities are what the learner has to know in order to perform effectively in the target situation. Thus, it is a matter of observing the existing proficiency of the learners. However,to identify necessities alone is not enough; we also need to know what the learner knowsalready in order to decide which of the necessities the learner lacks. Lacks are what thelearners already know that are the gaps between the target proficiency and the existingproficiency of the learners. Wants can be considered to be the perception of the needs of the learners. In other words, wants are what the learners feel they need. It is concernedwith asking questions about target situation and the attitudes towards situation of thevarious participants in the learning process.2. 6/7/2014 72
  73. 73. • 2.Learning needs • can be considered as what the learner needs to do in order tolearn. Learning needs covers all of the factors connected with the process of learning, suchas attitudes, motivation and awareness, personality, learning styles and strategies andsocial background.Both target situation needs and learning needs are important to ESP course design.They can guide the direction of ESP course design to meet the learners’ needs since theyinfluence on the nature of the syllabus, materials, methodology, and evaluation procedures.In research studies, the researcher can examine the needs, problems, wants and other implementation factors by investigating the target situation and learning situation in order to adjust the new information for learners.In summary, both target situation and learning needs are important. They can guidethe direction of ESP course design to meet learner’s needs. The researcher concentratesontarget needs • which are the English language needs of the Metropolitan Police Officers inorder to provide the services for the foreign tourists. 6/7/2014 73
  74. 74. Issues in ESP Course Design • The work that has been done in the field of ESP has generally followed the assumption that if a group of learners English language needs can be accurately specified, then this identification can be used to determine the content of a language programme that will meet these needs (Munby, 1978). Such interpretations were common in the 1970s and 1980s when needs analysis in ESP contexts was widespread in language teaching (Nunan, 1988; Strevens, 1988). 6/7/2014 74
  75. 75. • Then, such procedures were used as the initial process for the specification of behavioral objectives which then explored different syllabus elements such as functions, notions and lexis in a more detailed manner (Nunan, 1988). To this day, this assumption is generally adhered to by most ESP practitioners when they design or mount a wide variety of ESP courses such as English for civil servants; for policemen; for insurance staff; for medical students; for legal staff; for nurses; for human resource personnel etc 6/7/2014 75
  76. 76. • Such ESP courses are also prevalent in a young and rapidly developing country like Malaysia. After gaining independence from the British in 1947, Malaysia underwent necessary changes in her infrastructure, international trade and economy and these transformations established the need for relevant and learner-centred ESP courses in globalised work contexts. Since the 1970s, there has always been a need for ESP courses in various ESP contexts in multicultural, multireligious and multiethnic Malaysia. 6/7/2014 76
  77. 77. • ESP researchers are of the view that once learners specialized needs and special language registers are identified, then relevant teaching materials can be used to teach the course more effectively. When Language for Specific Purposes (LSP) became widespread, more determined efforts were made to design comprehensive LSP syllabus that focused on learners needs. But needs analysis did not find its remarkable influence and position in LSP until Munbys (1978) approach to needs analysis was introduced. Despite numerous criticisms, many researchers still see the value of using Munbys Communicative Needs Processor as they view it as being contributory in many developmental ways (Jordan, 1997; Phan, 2005). 6/7/2014 77
  78. 78. • Needs analysis is neither unique to language teaching nor within language training but it is often seen as being the corner stone of ESP and leads to a very focused course (Dudley-Evans & St. John, 1998: 122). Although there are various ways of interpreting needs, the concept of learner needs is often interpreted in two ways: • as what the learner wants to do with the language (goal-oriented definition of needs) which relates to terminal objectives or the end of learning; and • what the learner needs to do to actually acquire the language (a process-oriented definition) which relates to transitional/means of learning. 6/7/2014 78
  79. 79. • Traditionally, the first interpretation was widely used and accepted. However, in todays globalised teaching and learning contexts, ESP courses tend to relate to both at the same time but tend to focus on the process-oriented approach in aligning students needs with their present working scenarios. • In view of these concerns, Dudley-Evans and St. John (1998: 145) discuss criteria for ESP course design and put forward useful steps for ESP teachers and course designers to consider. They list these concerns surrounding course design in the form of the following questions: 6/7/2014 79
  80. 80. • • Should the course be intensive or extensive? • • Should the learners performance be assessed or non-assessed? • • Should the course deal with immediate needs or with delayed needs? • • Should the role of the teacher be that of the provider of knowledge and activities, or should it be as facilitator of activities arising from learners expressed wants? • • Should the course have a broad focus or narrow focus? • • Should the course be pre-study or pre-experience or run parallel with the study or experience? • • Should the materials be common-core or specific to learners study or work? • • Should the group taking the course be homogenous or should it be heterogeneous? • • Should the course design be worked out by the language teacher after consultation with the learners and the institution, or should it be subject to a process of negotiation with the learners? 6/7/2014 80
  81. 81. • By asking these questions prior to planning course design, the ESP teacher can be better prepared, more so if the teacher has to balance out some of these parameters which are linked to institutional and learner expectations (Dudley-Evans and St. John, 1998). In this respect, these parameters of course design were considered and adhered to by the researcher and will be addressed in the findings section below. • In most instances, the content of any ESP course should only be determined by a comprehensive needs analysis as this first step is seen as being absolutely crucial if ESP practitioners wish to design a course that will maximally benefit their learners (Wright, 2001). In the literature of needs analysis, some of the following aspects are often recommended by experts: • • Placement testing (administering tests designed to assess general English ability and ability to perform adequately in work contexts this might help determine the starting level of courses in the ESP course) 6/7/2014 81
  82. 82. • • Linguistics needs analysis (to identify skill development, linguistic structures, lexical items, language functions and levels of formality) • • Learning needs analysis (identify learners attitudes towards different kinds of methodology, learning tasks and activities); and • • Learner perceptions analysis (discover learners perceptions of themselves and others as part of their company culture, and their relationships with people from other company cultures) 6/7/2014 82
  83. 83. • In analysing course design issues in any teaching and learning context, it is generally an accepted fact that the process of matching aim and method is not simply a mechanistic one of finding out what is the aim and then finding an appropriate method to achieve it. With reference to course design matters, an inescapable fact of most needs analysis is the amount of vast information collected and of deciding what may or may not prove to be relevant clues towards resolution of hunches which may or may not be discarded (Alasuutari, 1998). Hence, ESP researchers need to realize that the accumulation of information about their prospective learners communicative events is a trial and error period and needs to be considered before some of it is discarded as it forms part of the continuous dialectic by which aims and methods, hunches and observations are fine tuned to suit the specific ESP teaching and learning environment. 6/7/2014 83
  84. 84. A Model is…?? • A simplified, yet communicable representation of a real-world setting or situation. • May be synonymous with design. • It is an organized way of accomplishing a goal or task • Models are useful because they provide guidance and structure. Systems models bring various groups, individuals, information, and activities together to achieve the goal and to provide continuous feedback in order to improve the curriculum. • Furthermore, a model should be... • Practical • Realistic • Efficient • Inclusive 6/7/2014 84
  85. 85. There are five phases to the Performance Improvement Model... • Analyze • Design • Develop • Implement • Control 6/7/2014 85
  86. 86. Most Recognized Technical-Scientific Models • 1.The Ralph Tyler Model: • Four Basic Principles • 2. The Hilda Taba Model: • Grass-roots Rationale • 3.The Francis Hunkins • Decision-Making Model 6/7/2014 86
  87. 87. The Ralph Tyler Model: Four Basic Principles • This is the best known technical-scientific model. • In 1949, Tyler published Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction, in which he outlined four key points: 1) purposes of the school, 2) educational experiences related to the purposes, 3) organization of these experiences, and 4) evaluation of the purposes. • From this rationale came Tyler’s model • This model was developed by Ralph Tyler to simplify the curriculum development process. • Consists of four primary steps… • Development of performance objectives • Development of activities • Organization of activities • Evaluation 6/7/2014 87
  88. 88. • The Tylerian Model was expanded by Doll (1986)to include: • Statement of need, based on assessment • Statement of objective • Content list and organizational plan • Description of learning experiences • Evaluation plan • Plan to solicit support for the curriculum 6/7/2014 88
  89. 89. The final model that we will look at is the Ten-Step Curriculum Planning Model • This model first appeared in the NASSP Bulletin in 1984 in an article by Zenger and Zenger. It is an inclusive, organized approach that certainly meets the definition of “systematic model.” It is commonly used in the school setting. • When using the “Ten-Step” Model, the process • may or may not include all steps. • may begin or end at any of the steps. • steps may be repeated as necessary • evaluation is a critical component of all steps 6/7/2014 89
  90. 90. Ten steps in preparing a practical language teaching syllabus: • Determine, to the extent possible, what outcomes are desired for the students in the instructional program. That is, as exactly and realistically as possible, defines what the students should be able to do as a result of the instruction. • 2. Rank the syllabus types presented here as to their likelihood of leading to the outcomes desired. Several rankings may be necessary if outcomes are complex. • 3. Evaluate available resources in expertise (for teaching, needs analysis, materials choice and production, etc.), in materials, and in training for teachers. • 4. Rank the syllabi relative to available resources. That is, determine what syllabus types would be the easiest to implement given available resources. • 5. Compare the lists made under No. 2 and 4. Making as few adjustments to the earlier list as possible, produce a new ranking based on the resources’ constraints. • 6. Repeat the process, taking into account the constraints contributed by teacher and student factors described earlier. • 7. Determine a final ranking, taking into account all the information produced by the earlier steps. • 8. Designate one or two syllabus types as dominant and one or two as secondary. • 9. Review the question of combination or integration of syllabus types and determine how combinations will be achieved and in what proportion. • 10. Translate decisions into actual teaching units. • 6/7/2014 90
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  92. 92. The Hilda Taba Model: Grass-roots Rationale • In Taba’s book, Curriculum development: Theory and Practice (1962), she argued that there was a definite order to creating the curriculum. • Where Taba differed from Tyler was that she believed that those who teach the curriculum, the teachers, should participate in developing it. She advocated what has been called the grass-roots approach, a model whose steps or stages are similar to Tyler’s. • Although Tyler did not advocate that his model only be employed by persons in the central office, educators during the early days of curriculum making thought that the central authorities really had the knowledge thereby creating “top down” curricula. • Taba believed that teachers should begin the process by creating specific teaching-learning units for their students. • More specifically, she advocated that teachers take an inductive approach to curriculum development—starting with specifics and building to a general design—as opposed to the more traditional deductive approach— starting with the general design and working toward the specifics (see handout). 6/7/2014 92
  93. 93. The Francis Hunkins Decision-Making Model • The model has seven major stages: curriculum conceptualization and legitimization, diagnosis, content selection, experience selection, implementation, evaluation; and maintenance. • What sets this model apart is its recommended first stage of curricular decision making. The first stage requires that participants engage in deliberation regarding the nature of curriculum and also its educational and social-political value. This approach addresses the concerns of reconceptualists, of putting stress on understanding the nature and power of curriculum (see handout). 6/7/2014 93
  94. 94. Nontechnical-Nonscientific • This approach considers that the curriculum evolves rather than being planned precisely. • The nontechnical camp focuses on the subjective, personal, and aesthetic. They stress not the outputs of production but rather the learner, especially through activity-oriented approaches to teaching and learning. • Advocates of this approach might well identify themselves as postmodern (i.e., the world is viewed not as a machine but as a living organism). Therefore, individuals who consider themselves postmodern realize that one cannot separate curriculum development from the people involved in the process or from those who will experience the curriculum. 6/7/2014 94
  95. 95. Most Recognized Nontechnical-Nonscientific Models • Allan Glatthorn: Naturalistic Model • 2. The Deliberation Model • 3. Postpositivist-Postmodern Models 6/7/2014 95
  96. 96. Allan Glatthorn: Naturalistic Model • This model takes a middle-ground approach. It is neither modern, although it does advocate following a sequence of specific stages, nor postmodern, although it can be argued that is promises a great deal of uncertainty and surprises. • 2. The model contains eight steps (see handout). 6/7/2014 96
  97. 97. The Deliberation Model • This model represents a means of reasoning about the practical problems of what to include in the curriculum. • The process is non-technical primarily because it does not accept a linearity of action. That is, it is not necessary to blindly follow steps 1, 2, and 3. • Through deliberation, people are cognizant of the players in the process and aware of their views, ideas, and agendas. What type of knowledge and what view of knowledge does the person involved in deliberation bring to the process? • Effective deliberation involves stages, although there is no agreement as to the exact number of stages. What is proposed is a six-stage process (see handout). 6/7/2014 97
  98. 98. Postpositivist-Postmodern Models • This model causes curriculum makers to assume an openness to process, an eye for the unexpected, and a willingness to let individuals interact with curricular matters as they evolve. • Proponents of this approach to curriculum believe that the actual planning process assumes its own ethos. Ends are transformed into new beginnings; people in the process are altered; students, teachers, and even course materials are changed as the dynamics and chaos unfold. • The aim of curricula designed from this viewpoint is not to have students arrive at understandings, but essentially to realize that they have more work to do, to continually make their understandings new. 6/7/2014 98
  99. 99. Postpositivist-Postmodern Models (Continued) • Curriculum becomes a process of development to be experienced in unique and at first unimagined ways, rather than a static body of knowledge to be presented within a strict time table. • 5. Curriculum participants are engaged in a critical dialogue with themselves and others in the planning process and interact with an evolving content of the curriculum. This approach to curriculum creation can never be articulated with a universal precision. • 6. “If you gather together to create a curriculum, it will emerge.” 6/7/2014 99
  100. 100. Why should we consider various models? • To keep the educational system up-to-date with prevailing advancements in various subjects. • To reduce the gap between actual output and required output. • To adopt blended mode of education. • To offer more meaningful education. • To offer international standard so that credit transfers, student, faculty exchange program can take place 6/7/2014 100
  101. 101. When should you consider introducing new curriculum models? • When the gap between existing and expected outcome is noticeable. • Adoption of new advancements become essential to carry forward. • A new methodology such as blended mode of education demands change of curriculum. 6/7/2014 101
  102. 102. Various Approaches to Curriculum Development • Behavioral • Managerial • Systems • Academic • Humanistic • Reconceptualist (understand, not just implement or evaluate, the curriculum) 6/7/2014 102
  103. 103. Behavioral Viewpoint • Goals and objectives must be specified. • Content and activities must be sequenced based on objectives. • Learning outcomes must be evaluated based on goals and objectives • Managerial Viewpoint • Curriculum planned in terms of programs, schedules, space, resources. • Supervisory & administrative aspects are concerned. 6/7/2014 103
  104. 104. Systems Viewpoint • Takes in to account systems theory, systems analysis, and systems engineering (used mostly in business, government & military) • Academic Viewpoint • Related to broad aspects of schooling (discipline, values, extra-curricular) • Humanistic Viewpoint • Student centered 6/7/2014 104
  105. 105. Reconceptualist Viewpoint • Focuses on larger ideological and moral issues of education • Views school as an extension of society • Curriculum Practioners • Successful Curriculum Practioners must be able to select and organize: • Goals and objectives • Content (subject matter) • Incorporate methods, materials, and media • Interactive & Engaging learning experiences and activities • Evaluation techniques 6/7/2014 105
  106. 106. References • Brindley, 1989, "The role of Needs Analysis in adult ESL programme design" • Graves, 2001, "Teachers as Course Developers", CUP • Munby, 1978, "Communicative Syllabus Design" CUP • Hutchinson & Waters, 1996, "ESP a learning centred approach" CUP 6/7/2014 106
  107. 107. • Brumfit, C.J. and Johnson, K. (1979) The Communicative Approach To Language Teaching. Oxford University Press. • 2. Hutchinson, T. and Waters, A. (1987) English For Specific Purposes: A Learning Centred Approach. Cambridge University Press. • 3. Long, R.W. and Russell, G. (1999) "Student Attitudinal Change over an Academic Year". The Language Teacher. Cambridge University Press. • 4. Nunan, D. (1988) Syllabus Design. Oxford University Press. • 5. Prabhu, N.S. (1987) Second Language Pedagogy. Oxford University Press. • 6. Richards, J.C. and Rodgers, T.S. (1986) Approaches And Methods In Language Teaching. Cambridge University Press. • 7. White, R.V. (1988) The ELT Curriculum: Design, Innovation And Management. Blackwell Publishers Ltd. • 8. Widdowson, H.G. (1978) Teaching Language As Communication. Oxford University Press.. • 9. Wilkins, D.A. (1976) Notional Syllabuses. Oxford University Press. • 10. Yalden, J. (1987) Principles of Course Design for Language Teaching. Cambridge University Press. 6/7/2014 107
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