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02 Bones, Joints, Muscles General Considerations
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02 Bones, Joints, Muscles General Considerations

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PPt presentation for Bones …

PPt presentation for Bones
made my Dr. Frank Navarrete

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  • 1. BONES O sseous tissue Skeletal System
  • 2.
    • The study of bones is called osteology
    • Rigid form of connective tissue forming the skeleton.
    • Supporting framework of the body consists of over 200 bones.
    • In average adult human skeleton has around 206 bones
    • It comprises around 14% of the total body weight
  • 3. How many bones?
    • A newborn baby has approximately 300 bones
    • An average an adult human has 206 bones (these numbers can vary slightly).
  • 4.
    • Bones are living structures having a blood and nerve supply
      • Periosteum (outer lining)
    • Living bones have some elasticity (results from the organic matter) and great rigidity (results from microscopic tubes of inorganic calcium phosphate)
  • 5.
      • Function s of the bones
      • Protection for vital structures
      • Support ; forms a rigid framework for the body
      • Forms the mechanical basis for movement
      • Formation of blood cells (bone marrow)
      • Storage of salts ; calcium, phosphorus, iron, magnesium-thus provide a mineral reservoir
        • Bones are not entirely made of calcium, but a mixture of chondroitin sulfate and hydroxyapatite (70% of a bone)
    • NEW: Endocrine regulation by hormone Osteocalcin , (regulation of blood sugar and fat deposition)
  • 6.
      • Types of Bones
      • T here are t wo main types
        • spongy (cancellous) and compact bone
  • 7.  
  • 8.
      • Bones forming the skeleton is classified as:
      • Axial skeleton
        • skull, vertebrae, ribs, and sternum
      • Appendicular skeleton
        • bones of the upper and lower limbs and the associated bones
  • 9.
      • Bones are also classified according to their shape
      • Long bones (humerus, bones of the fingers)
          • have a shaft and two extremities
      • Short bones (foot and wrist bones)
          • more or less cuboidal in shape
      • Flat bones (bones forming the calvaria, sternum, scapula)
      • Irregular bones (facial bones and the vertebrae)
      • Pneumatic bones (maxilla, frontal bone)
          • contains air cells or sinuses
      • Sesamoid bones
          • round or oval nodules of bones that develop in certain tendons
      • Accessory bones
        • develops as a result of additional ossification center or lack of fusion (mainly in foot)
      • Heterotopic bones
        • develops as a result of trauma or constant strain (thigh muscles of horseback rider)
  • 10.
      • BONE MARKINGS
      • Surfaces of the bones are not smooth.
      • Bones display elevations, depressions and holes.
      • The surface features on the bones are given names to distinguish and define them.
  • 11.
      • Linear elevation
        • superior nuchal line, iliac crest
      • Round elevation
        • tubercule (small eminence), protuberance (swelling)
      • Sharp elevation
        • spine, process
      • Facets
        • area with a smooth surface where a bone articulates with another bone
      • Rounded articular area
        • head, condyle
  • 12.  
  • 13.  
  • 14.  
  • 15.
      • Depressions
        • fossae (small depression), groove (sulcus, long narrow depressions)
      • Foramen
        • hole
      • Canal
        • a foramen having length
      • Orifice
        • opening
      • Meatus
        • a canal entering a structure
  • 16.  
  • 17.  
  • 18. Anatomy of a Long Bone
    • Diaphysis
      • Shaft
      • Composed of compact bone
    • Epiphysis
      • Ends of the bone
      • Composed mostly of spongy bone
    Figure 5.2a
  • 19. Gross Anatomy of a Long Bone
    • Epiphyseal line
    • Thin line of bony tissue spanning the epiphysis that looks different from the rest.
    • Is the remnant of the epiphyseal plate. (growth)
    • The epiphyseal plate (hyaline cartilage) is seen in young, growing bone.
    Figure 5.2a
  • 20. Bone Growth
    • Epiphyseal plates allow for growth of long bone during childhood
      • New cartilage is continuously formed
      • Older cartilage becomes ossified
        • Cartilage is broken down
        • Bone replaces cartilage
  • 21. Clinical Note
    • Avascular necrosis
      • Bones are supplied by 1-3 nutrient arteries, if these rupture, or in some types of fracture there may be necrosis (death) of bone.
  • 22. JOINTS
  • 23.
    • Arthrology is the study of joints .
    • Joints are formed by the articulation between the articular surfaces of two or more bones.
    • Articular system consists of joints and their associated bones and ligaments.
  • 24.  
  • 25.
    • Classification of joints
    • Structural classification
      • Fibrous joints: Joined by fibrous connective tissue
      • Cartilaginous joints: Joined by cartilage
      • Synovial joints: Joined by a capsule
  • 26.
    • Classification of joints
    • Functional classification
    • Synarthrosis - permits little or no mobility. Most synarthrosis joints are fibrous joints (e.g. The Skull).
    • Amphiarthrosis - permits slight mobility. Most amphiarthrosis joints are cartilaginous joints (e.g. Vertebrae).
    • Diarthrosis - permits a variety of movements. All diarthrosis joints are synovial joints (e.g. Shoulder, Hip, Elbow, Knee etc)
  • 27.
    • Fibrous joints
    • There is a fibrous connective tissue b et w een the articular surfaces.
      • Syndesmosis: Articulating surfaces are connected firmly by a connective tissue e.g. distal tibio-fibular joint
      • Suture: Found between the skull bones
      • Gomphosis: Found between the dentures and the alveoles of the upper and lower jaw
  • 28.  
  • 29.  
  • 30.  
  • 31.
    • Cartilaginous joints
    • Cartilaginous hyaline tissue lies between the articular surfaces.
    • These joints can make very limited amount of movement.
      • Synchodros i s: The cartilaginous tissue between the articular surfaces are lost within time and the joint loose the ability of movement e.g. sphenoid-occipital
      • Symphys is : There is a di s c made of fibrocartilaginous tissue between the articular surfaces. e.g. joints between the vertebrae (vertebral discs), symphysis of the pubis (pelvis). All symphysis are found in the midline.
  • 32.  
  • 33.  
  • 34.  
  • 35.  
  • 36.
    • Synovial joints
    • This type of joints have three common features:
      • Joint cavity
      • Articular cartilage: The articular surfaces are covered by hyaline cartilage
      • Articular capsule: This structure surrounds the joint and formed of two layers.
          • Fibrous membrane: Protects and gives firmness to the joint stability, continues with the periosteum
          • Synovial membrane: Lines the inner surface of the fibrous membrane but does not cover the articular cartilage. Secretes a fluid known as synovial fluid . This fluid helps to minimize the friction between articular sufaces.
  • 37.  
  • 38.  
  • 39.
    • Synovial joints (continued)
    • Articular capsules are usually strengthened by articular ligaments
      • These are from dense connective tissue and they connect the articulating bones to each other.
      • Articular ligaments limit the undesired and/or excessive movements of the joints.
      • Articular ligaments are classified as intrinsic and extrinsic ligaments.
        • Intrinsic ligaments are the thickening of a portion of the articular capsule.
  • 40.
    • Synovial joints (continued)
    • In addition to the main features of the synovial joints there are some additional features that are common ly seen :
      • Articular disc: Help to hold the bones together. In some joints it is attached to only one of the bones.
      • Labrum: Some synovial joints have a fibrocartilaginous ring called labrum which deepens the articular surface for one of the bones. e.g. glenoid labrum
  • 41.  
  • 42. Synovial joints (continued)
    • Classification of the synovial joints
    • Synovial joints are classified according to the shape of articulating surfaces and/or the type of movement they can make.
  • 43.
    • Synovial joints
    • 1- Ball and socket joint
    • 2- Condyloid joint
    • 3- Saddle joint
    • 4- Hinge joint
    • 5- Pivot joint
    • 6- Plane
  • 44. Synovial joints (continued)
    • Plane joints
      • They permit gliding or sliding movements.
      • Articular surfaces are almost flat.
      • e.g. acromioclavicular joint, carpometacarpal joint
  • 45.  
  • 46. Synovial joints (continued)
    • Hinge joints (ginglymus, trochlear)
      • This type of joints are also uniaxial and permits flex. and ext. around the transverse axis.
      • Bones are joined with strong collateral ligaments. e.g. elbow and knee joints
  • 47.  
  • 48. Synovial joints (continued)
    • Condyloid joints
      • These are biaxial joints that permit movement in in two axes (trans.-sagit.)
      • e.g. radiocarpal joint, metacrpophalyngeal joints
  • 49.  
  • 50. Synovial joints (continued)
    • Saddle joints
      • T he articular surfaces resembl e a saddle shape and are concave and convex respectively .
      • e.g. carpometacarpal joint of the thumb
  • 51.  
  • 52. Synovial joints (continued)
    • Ball and socket joints
      • Multiaxial (movable around all three axes)
      • The spheroidal surface of a bone articulates with the socket shaped articular surface of another bone.
      • e.g. shoulder joint
  • 53.  
  • 54. Synovial joints (continued)
    • Pivot joints
      • Uniaxial joints that allow rotation.
      • Rounded part of a bone rotates in a sleeve or ring like osteofibrous structure
      • e.g. prox-dist radioulnar joints
  • 55.  
  • 56.
    • Nerve supply of the joints
    • According to the Hilton’s law the nerves innervating a joint are the branches of the nerves that innervate the muscles acting on that joint and the nerves innervating the sensory areas around that region.
    • The nerves convey impulses regarding conscious proprioception (from the joint capsule) and pain (from the fibrous membrane).
  • 57.
    • Vessel supply of the joints
    • There are a number of vessels that supply the blood circulation in a joint.
    • These are the branches of surrounding vessels.
  • 58.
    • Features supplying the joint stability
    • These features prevent the dislocation of the joint.
      • The negative pressure within the joint cavity
      • Joint capsule and the ligaments
      • Muscles and their tendons around the joint
      • Shapes of the articular surfaces
  • 59. Clinical Note
    • Degenerative Joint disease/ Osteoarthitis
    • Over use of a joint wears the cartilage causing degenerative changes, common in hip, knee, vertebral column & hands.
    • Increased friction causes pain.
    • May require pain management, change in lifestyle, surgery or joint replacement.
  • 60.
    • MUSCLES
  • 61.
    • Myology, musculus (mus-mouse)
    • Muscles move the skeleton, face and organs.
  • 62.
    • There are three types of muscles
    • Striated muscle (skeletal muscles)- voluntarily controlled, though exceptions exist
    • Non-striated muscle (smooth muscle) - involuntary
    • Cardiac muscle
  • 63.
    • Striated muscle s are innervated by the somatic nervous system
    • Non-striated and c ardiac muscle are innervated by the autonomic nervous system
  • 64.  
  • 65.  
  • 66.  
  • 67.
    • Muscles are formed of fusiform type cells.
    • Muscle cells are also referred as muscle fibers .
  • 68.
    • Superficial fascia and deep fascia
  • 69.  
  • 70.  
  • 71.  
  • 72.
    • Parts of a muscle
    • Belly (fleshy part)
    • T endon (in certain muscles termed as aponeurosis )
  • 73.
    • Tendons attach to the bones and cartilage, skin or to the superficial fascia.
    • Origin and insertion (prox.-dist, fixed-moving)
  • 74.
    • Bursae
    • Tendinous sheats
      • Both are soft tissue pads containing synovial fluid that prevents the friction of tendons from the surrounding tissue.
  • 75.  
  • 76.  
  • 77.
    • Muscle terminology
    • Muscles are generally given names according to their shapes, location, number of their bellies, function, and size
      • rhomboideus major
      • palmaris longus
      • biceps brachii
      • tibialis posterior
      • flexor carpi ulnaris
      • teres major-teres minor
  • 78.
    • Contraction
    • When a muscle contracts its length decreases by 1/3 or ½
    • Isotonic contraction - the length decreases
    • Isometric contraction - the length does not decrease
  • 79.
    • Motor unit
    • A motor neuron and all the muscle cells (fibers) inervated by this neuron
  • 80.  
  • 81.
      • A single motor neuron may innervate thousands of muscle fibers but in certain muscles a motor neuron may innervate less number of muscles (e.g. eye mm. 3-4 fibers are innervated by a motor neuron).
      • There are many motor units in a single muscle.
      • Whole of the motor units does not necessarily contract during a muscle contraction.
      • Number of contracting units determines the force of contraction.
  • 82.
    • During a single joint movement a number of muscles contract.
      • Prime mover
      • Synergist muscles (support the movement)
      • Antagonist muscles (oppose the movement)
      • Fixator muscle (the muscle that prevents the undesired movements)
  • 83.
    • Innervation of the muscles
      • Motor nerves (somatic or autonomic)
      • S ensory nerves ( for striated muscles; muscle spindle-golgi tendon organs)