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The Atmosphere and Environment
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The Atmosphere and Environment


GCE N Level Science ( Chemistry )

GCE N Level Science ( Chemistry )

Published in Education
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  • 1. The atmosphere and Environment
  • 2. The Atmosphere and the Environment
    Composition of air
    Air Pollution
    1. Presentation in graphs/charts
    Identity of air pollutants
    2. Experiments which show composition of air
    Sources/how they are formed
    Acid rain
  • 3. Composition of air
    Air is a mixture of several gases, both elements and compounds.
    Its composition varies from time to time.
  • 4. Representations of air composition
  • 5.
  • 6. Only oxygen gas will react with copper upon heating.
    We know that oxygen gas only constitute 20% of the volume of air.
    Thus , after the heated copper reacts with oxygen gas, the volume of air will decrease by 20% ( 80% of the volume of air is left. )
    Thus, the volume of air left in syringe B is  80% x 200cm3 = 160cm3
    Answer: Option C
  • 7. Air pollution
    Definition : the pollution caused by chemicals in the air that can harm living things or damage non-living things
    Example -
    Ozone , O3
    Unburnt hydrocarbons
    Carbon monoxide , CO
    Oxides of nitrogen , NO , NO2
    Sulfur dioxide , SO2
  • 8. Carbon monoxide
    Incomplete combustion of carbon-containing fuels ; i.e. incomplete combustion of petrol in car engines
    CO reacts with haemoglobin in blood to form carboxyhaemoglobin. As a result, it cannot transport oxygen to the rest of the body.
    Headaches, fatigue, breathing difficulties and even death
  • 9.
  • 10. 3 Dimensional model of haemoglobin
  • 11. Oxides of nitrogen
    Produced in 2 ways
    Due to high temperature in a car engine, the nitrogen present combines with oxygen to form nitrogen monoxide (NO) or nitric oxide, a colourless gas.
    N2 (g) + O2 (g)  2NO (g)
    NO (g ) + O2 (g)  2NO2 (g)
    2. Heat energy released when lightning strikes. This causes the nitrogen and oxygen to react to form NO and NO2.
  • 12. Sulfur dioxide
    Combustion of fossil fuel e.g. coal , crude oil and natural gas
    Volcano eruptions
    Fossil fuel contains sulfur
    S (s) + O2 (g)  SO2 (g)
  • 13. Effects from sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen
    Eye irritation
    Lung irritation  breathing difficulties
    Inflammation of lungs  bronchitis
    Both gasses form acid rain
    Acid rain destroys buildings, plants and aquatic life
    pH of acid rain ~ 4
  • 14. Forming acid rain
    SO2 (g ) + H2O (l)  H2SO3 (aq)
    Sulfur dioxide sulfurous acid
    H2SO3 then slowly reacts with oxygen to form sulfuric acid, H2SO4
  • 15. Forming acid rain
    4 NO2 (g) + 2H2O (l) + O2 (g)  4HNO3 (aq)
  • 16. Forming acid rain
    CO2 (g) + H2O (l)  H2CO3 (aq)
  • 17. Effects of acid rain
    Acid reacts with metals, carbonates in marble and limestone .
    Recall acids chapter!!!
    This affects metal bridges and stone buildings
    Makes lakes and rivers acidic  kill fish and other aquatic life.
    Leaches (dissolves out) important nutrients from the soil  plants are destroyed