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The Atmosphere and Environment
The Atmosphere and Environment
The Atmosphere and Environment
The Atmosphere and Environment
The Atmosphere and Environment
The Atmosphere and Environment
The Atmosphere and Environment
The Atmosphere and Environment
The Atmosphere and Environment
The Atmosphere and Environment
The Atmosphere and Environment
The Atmosphere and Environment
The Atmosphere and Environment
The Atmosphere and Environment
The Atmosphere and Environment
The Atmosphere and Environment
The Atmosphere and Environment
The Atmosphere and Environment
The Atmosphere and Environment
The Atmosphere and Environment
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The Atmosphere and Environment

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GCE N Level Science ( Chemistry )

GCE N Level Science ( Chemistry )

Published in: Education
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  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hemoglobin
  • Transcript

    • 1. The atmosphere and Environment
    • 2. The Atmosphere and the Environment
      Composition of air
      Air Pollution
      1. Presentation in graphs/charts
      Identity of air pollutants
      2. Experiments which show composition of air
      Sources/how they are formed
      Effects
      Acid rain
      Equations
      Equations
    • 3. Composition of air
      Air is a mixture of several gases, both elements and compounds.
      Its composition varies from time to time.
    • 4. Representations of air composition
    • 5.
    • 6. Only oxygen gas will react with copper upon heating.
      We know that oxygen gas only constitute 20% of the volume of air.
      Thus , after the heated copper reacts with oxygen gas, the volume of air will decrease by 20% ( 80% of the volume of air is left. )
      Thus, the volume of air left in syringe B is  80% x 200cm3 = 160cm3
      Answer: Option C
    • 7. Air pollution
      Definition : the pollution caused by chemicals in the air that can harm living things or damage non-living things
      Example -
      Ozone , O3
      Unburnt hydrocarbons
      Carbon monoxide , CO
      Oxides of nitrogen , NO , NO2
      Sulfur dioxide , SO2
    • 8. Carbon monoxide
      Properties
      Poisonous
      Colourless
      Odourless
      Source
      Incomplete combustion of carbon-containing fuels ; i.e. incomplete combustion of petrol in car engines
      Effects
      CO reacts with haemoglobin in blood to form carboxyhaemoglobin. As a result, it cannot transport oxygen to the rest of the body.
      Headaches, fatigue, breathing difficulties and even death
    • 9.
    • 10. 3 Dimensional model of haemoglobin
    • 11. Oxides of nitrogen
      Produced in 2 ways
      Due to high temperature in a car engine, the nitrogen present combines with oxygen to form nitrogen monoxide (NO) or nitric oxide, a colourless gas.
      N2 (g) + O2 (g)  2NO (g)
      NO (g ) + O2 (g)  2NO2 (g)
      2. Heat energy released when lightning strikes. This causes the nitrogen and oxygen to react to form NO and NO2.
    • 12. Sulfur dioxide
      Source
      Combustion of fossil fuel e.g. coal , crude oil and natural gas
      Volcano eruptions
      Fossil fuel contains sulfur
      S (s) + O2 (g)  SO2 (g)
    • 13. Effects from sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen
      Eye irritation
      Lung irritation  breathing difficulties
      Inflammation of lungs  bronchitis
      Both gasses form acid rain
      Acid rain destroys buildings, plants and aquatic life
      pH of acid rain ~ 4
    • 14. Forming acid rain
      SO2 (g ) + H2O (l)  H2SO3 (aq)
      Sulfur dioxide sulfurous acid
      H2SO3 then slowly reacts with oxygen to form sulfuric acid, H2SO4
    • 15. Forming acid rain
      4 NO2 (g) + 2H2O (l) + O2 (g)  4HNO3 (aq)
    • 16. Forming acid rain
      CO2 (g) + H2O (l)  H2CO3 (aq)
    • 17. Effects of acid rain
      Acid reacts with metals, carbonates in marble and limestone .
      Recall acids chapter!!!
      This affects metal bridges and stone buildings
      Makes lakes and rivers acidic  kill fish and other aquatic life.
      Leaches (dissolves out) important nutrients from the soil  plants are destroyed

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