The move to radicalism• Paris Commune- political group who attacked and took over the legislative assembly.• The called themselves the sans-culottes (“without breeches”)• Leader- Georges Danton• Jean-Paul Marat- published a journal called Friend of the People• Called a National Convention
The fate of the king• National Convention agreed to abolish the monarchy and establish a republic• Split into two factions over the fate of the king • Girondins- areas outside the cities- wanted to keep the king alive • Mountain- radicals in the city of Paris- wanted to kill the king• Both members of the Jacobin club- network of political groups• The mountain won and the king was beheaded in 1793
Crises and response• Austria, Prussia, Spain, Portugal, Britain, and the Dutch Republic were all mad because of the execution of King Louis XVI• National Convention gave powers to a special committee- the Committee of Public Safety• Lead first by Georges Danton, then by Maximilien Robespierre
The reign of terror • Almost 40,000 people were killed • People who opposed the sans-culottes were killed • These people included King Louis XVI, Marie Antoinette, and Olympe de Gouges
Crushing rebellion• Revolutionary armies brought rebellious cities back under control of the National Convention• Lyon- 1,800 citizens killed• Nantes- sunk in barges in the river• People of all classes were killed• The killing was only seen as temporary. Once the war was over, the “Republic of Virtue” would follow.
The republic of virtue• “Good Citizens”• Slavery abolished• Attempted economic controls• De-christianization • Saint removed from street names • Churches closed • Priests encouraged to marry • Notre Dame re-named “Temple of Reason” • New Calendar
A nation in arms• External forces threatened France• Raised a huge army- over one million!• Successfully defended France and conquered the Austrian Netherlands!
End of Terror• Robespierre became obsessed with ridding France of all its enemies• National Convention voted to condemn him- guillotined in 1794• Jacobins lost power• More moderate leaders took control• Reign of Terror came to an end
The Directory • New Constitution created • Legislative Assembly with two houses • Five directors elected as the executive committee- The Directory • Era of corruption • Economic problems • 1799- Napoleon Bonaparte lead a coup d’etat and seized power