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Ch18sec2

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  • 1. Radical Revolution and Reaction Ch. 18, Sec 2
  • 2. The move to radicalism• Paris Commune- political group who attacked and took over the legislative assembly.• The called themselves the sans-culottes (“without breeches”)• Leader- Georges Danton• Jean-Paul Marat- published a journal called Friend of the People• Called a National Convention
  • 3. The fate of the king• National Convention agreed to abolish the monarchy and establish a republic• Split into two factions over the fate of the king • Girondins- areas outside the cities- wanted to keep the king alive • Mountain- radicals in the city of Paris- wanted to kill the king• Both members of the Jacobin club- network of political groups• The mountain won and the king was beheaded in 1793
  • 4. Crises and response• Austria, Prussia, Spain, Portugal, Britain, and the Dutch Republic were all mad because of the execution of King Louis XVI• National Convention gave powers to a special committee- the Committee of Public Safety• Lead first by Georges Danton, then by Maximilien Robespierre
  • 5. The reign of terror • Almost 40,000 people were killed • People who opposed the sans-culottes were killed • These people included King Louis XVI, Marie Antoinette, and Olympe de Gouges
  • 6. Crushing rebellion• Revolutionary armies brought rebellious cities back under control of the National Convention• Lyon- 1,800 citizens killed• Nantes- sunk in barges in the river• People of all classes were killed• The killing was only seen as temporary. Once the war was over, the “Republic of Virtue” would follow.
  • 7. The republic of virtue• “Good Citizens”• Slavery abolished• Attempted economic controls• De-christianization • Saint removed from street names • Churches closed • Priests encouraged to marry • Notre Dame re-named “Temple of Reason” • New Calendar
  • 8. A nation in arms• External forces threatened France• Raised a huge army- over one million!• Successfully defended France and conquered the Austrian Netherlands!
  • 9. End of Terror• Robespierre became obsessed with ridding France of all its enemies• National Convention voted to condemn him- guillotined in 1794• Jacobins lost power• More moderate leaders took control• Reign of Terror came to an end
  • 10. The Directory • New Constitution created • Legislative Assembly with two houses • Five directors elected as the executive committee- The Directory • Era of corruption • Economic problems • 1799- Napoleon Bonaparte lead a coup d’etat and seized power

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