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  1. 1. The Enlightenment Chapter 17, Section 2
  2. 2. Path to the Enlightenment What was the Enlightenment???  Philosophical movement- applying the scientific method to all aspects of life Common words of the Enlightenment:  Reason  Natural Law  Hope  Progress
  3. 3. Isaac Newton Discovered natural laws that governed the physical world Intellectuals of the Enlightenment used his methods to discover the natural laws of human society
  4. 4. John Locke Argued that everyone was born with a tabula rasa- blank slate People were molded by experiences and observations If environments changed then people would change. If people changed, society would be changed.
  5. 5. Philosophes and Their Ideas Philosophe = Philosopher Intellectuals of the Enlightenment Mostly from nobility and middle class Goal-to change the world through rational criticism of religion and politics
  6. 6. Montesquieu Most famous work- The Spirit of Laws Ideas:  3 basic kinds of governments:  Republics (for small states)  Despotism (for large states)  Monarchies (medium states)  Separation of Powers:  3 Branches: executive, legislative, and judicial  Sound familiar?
  7. 7. Voltaire Greatest figure of the Enlightenment Known for his criticism of Christianity and strong belief of religious toleration Wrote Treatise on Toleration Deism- God is like a “clockmaker” and does not interfere with his creation
  8. 8. Diderot Freelance writer Wrote the Encyclopedia, or Classified Dictionary, of the Sciences, Arts, and Trades Attacked religious superstition and supported religious toleration and political improvements Sold to doctors, clergymen, teachers, and lawyers- spreading the ideas if the Enlightenment!
  9. 9. Economics Adam Smith  Laissez-Faire- literally means “to let do” or let people do what they want Wrote The Wealth of Nations 3 basic roles of government:  Protecting society from invasion (army)  Defending citizens from injustice (police)  Certain public works (roads, canals, etc)
  10. 10. Beccaria and Justice Wrote On Crimes and Punishments Opposed capital punishment- believed it did not stop others fro committing crimes Crimes should not be brutal “Is it not absurd, that the laws, which punish murder, should in order to prevent murder, publicly commit murder themselves?”
  11. 11. The Later Enlightenment Rousseau- believed people had become enslaved by government Social Contract- “the general will” is what’s best for the entire community Education should foster, not restrict, children’s natural instincts Saw the importance of emotions as well as reason- balance between heart and mind
  12. 12. Rights of Women Mary Wollstonecraft Wrote A Vindication of the Rights of Women 2 problems:  If the power of monarchs over their people is wrong, then so is the power of men over women  Enlightenment was based on the power of reason in all human beings. Since women have reason, they deserve the same rights as men Women should have equal writes in education, economic, and political life
  13. 13. Social World of the Enlightenment  Growth of Reading  Magazines and Newspapers  Salons
  14. 14. Religion in the Enlightenment Many Europeans were still Christians John Wesley- Methodism  Appealed to the lower classes  Preached to the masses in open fields  Influenced the abolition of the slave trade People still needed spiritual experiences