Path to the Enlightenment What was the Enlightenment??? Philosophical movement- applying the scientific method to all aspects of life Common words of the Enlightenment: Reason Natural Law Hope Progress
Isaac Newton Discovered natural laws that governed the physical world Intellectuals of the Enlightenment used his methods to discover the natural laws of human society
John Locke Argued that everyone was born with a tabula rasa- blank slate People were molded by experiences and observations If environments changed then people would change. If people changed, society would be changed.
Philosophes and Their Ideas Philosophe = Philosopher Intellectuals of the Enlightenment Mostly from nobility and middle class Goal-to change the world through rational criticism of religion and politics
Montesquieu Most famous work- The Spirit of Laws Ideas: 3 basic kinds of governments: Republics (for small states) Despotism (for large states) Monarchies (medium states) Separation of Powers: 3 Branches: executive, legislative, and judicial Sound familiar?
Voltaire Greatest figure of the Enlightenment Known for his criticism of Christianity and strong belief of religious toleration Wrote Treatise on Toleration Deism- God is like a “clockmaker” and does not interfere with his creation
Diderot Freelance writer Wrote the Encyclopedia, or Classified Dictionary, of the Sciences, Arts, and Trades Attacked religious superstition and supported religious toleration and political improvements Sold to doctors, clergymen, teachers, and lawyers- spreading the ideas if the Enlightenment!
Economics Adam Smith Laissez-Faire- literally means “to let do” or let people do what they want Wrote The Wealth of Nations 3 basic roles of government: Protecting society from invasion (army) Defending citizens from injustice (police) Certain public works (roads, canals, etc)
Beccaria and Justice Wrote On Crimes and Punishments Opposed capital punishment- believed it did not stop others fro committing crimes Crimes should not be brutal “Is it not absurd, that the laws, which punish murder, should in order to prevent murder, publicly commit murder themselves?”
The Later Enlightenment Rousseau- believed people had become enslaved by government Social Contract- “the general will” is what’s best for the entire community Education should foster, not restrict, children’s natural instincts Saw the importance of emotions as well as reason- balance between heart and mind
Rights of Women Mary Wollstonecraft Wrote A Vindication of the Rights of Women 2 problems: If the power of monarchs over their people is wrong, then so is the power of men over women Enlightenment was based on the power of reason in all human beings. Since women have reason, they deserve the same rights as men Women should have equal writes in education, economic, and political life
Social World of the Enlightenment Growth of Reading Magazines and Newspapers Salons
Religion in the Enlightenment Many Europeans were still Christians John Wesley- Methodism Appealed to the lower classes Preached to the masses in open fields Influenced the abolition of the slave trade People still needed spiritual experiences