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  1. 1. Basketball is a team sport in which two teams of five players try to score points by throwing or "shooting"a ball through the top of a basketball hoop while following a set of rules. Basketball is one of the worlds [1]most popular and widely viewed sports.A regulation basketball hoop consists of a rim 18 inches in diameter and 10 feet high mounted toa backboard. A team can score a field goal by shooting the ball through the hoop during regular play.A field goal scores two points for the shooting team if a player is touching or closer to the hoop thanthe three-point line, and three points (a "3 pointer") if the player is "outside" the three-point line. The teamwith more points at the end of the game wins, but additional time (overtime) may be issued when thegame ends with a tie. The ball can be advanced on the court by bouncing it while walking or running(dribbling) or passing it to a teammate. It is a violation (traveling) to walk with the ball, carry it, or to doubledribble (to hold the ball and then resume dribbling).Various violations are generally called "fouls". Disruptive physical contact (a personal foul) is penalized,and a free throw is usually awarded to an offensive player if he is fouled while shooting the ball.A technical foul may also be issued when certain infractions occur, most commonly forunsportsmanlikeconduct on the part of a player or coach. A technical foul gives the opposing team a free throw.Basketball has evolved many commonly used techniques of shooting, passing, and dribbling, as well asspecialized player positions and offensive and defensive structures (player positioning) and techniques.Typically, the tallest members of a team will play "center", "power forward" or "small forward" positions,while shorter players or those who possess the best ball handling skills and speed play "point guard" or"shooting guard".While competitive basketball is carefully regulated, numerous variations of basketball have developed forcasual play. Competitive basketball is primarily an indoor sport played on carefully marked andmaintained basketball courts, but less regulated variations are often played outdoors in both inner cityand rural areas.History: [2]In early December 1891, Dr. James Naismith, a physical education professor and instructor at the [3]International Young Mens Christian Association Training School (YMCA) (today, Springfield College)in Springfield, Massachusetts, USA), was trying to keep his gym class active on a rainy day. He sought avigorous indoor game to keep his students occupied and at proper levels of fitness during the long NewEngland winters. After rejecting other ideas as either too rough or poorly suited to walled-in gymnasiums,he wrote the basic rules and nailed a peach basket onto a 10-foot (3.05 m) elevated track. In contrast withmodern basketball nets, this peach basket retained its bottom, and balls had to be retrieved manuallyafter each "basket" or point scored; this proved inefficient, however, so the bottom of the basket was [4]removed, allowing the balls to be poked out with a long dowel each time.Basketball was originally played with an association football. The first balls made specifically forbasketball were brown, and it was only in the late 1950s that Tony Hinkle, searching for a ball that wouldbe more visible to players and spectators alike, introduced the orange ball that is now in common use.Dribbling was not part of the original game except for the "bounce pass" to teammates. Passing the ballwas the primary means of ball movement. Dribbling was eventually introduced but limited by the
  2. 2. asymmetric shape of early balls. Dribbling only became a major part of the game around the 1950s, asmanufacturing improved the ball shape.The peach baskets were used until 1906 when they were finally replaced by metal hoops withbackboards. A further change was soon made, so the ball merely passed through. Whenever a persongot the ball in the basket, his team would gain a point. Whichever team got the most points won the [5]game. The baskets were originally nailed to the mezzanine balcony of the playing court, but this provedimpractical when spectators on the balcony began to interfere with shots. The backboard was introduced [6]to prevent this interference; it had the additional effect of allowing rebound shots. Naismiths handwrittendiaries, discovered by his granddaughter in early 2006, indicate that he was nervous about the new gamehe had invented, which incorporated rules from a childrens game called "Duck on a Rock", as many had [7]failed before it. Naismith called the new game "Basket Ball". The first official game was played inthe YMCA gymnasium in Albany, New York on January 20, 1892 with nine players. The game ended at1–0; the shot was made from 25 feet (7.6 m), on a court just half the size of a present-dayStreetball or National Basketball Association (NBA) court. By 1897–1898 teams of five becamestandard.Rules and regulationsMain article: Rules of basketballMeasurements and time limits discussed in this section often vary among tournaments and organizations;international and NBA rules are used in this section.The object of the game is to outscore ones opponents by throwing the ball through the opponents basketfrom above while preventing the opponents from doing so on their own. An attempt to score in this way iscalled a shot. A successful shot is worth two points, or three pointsif it is taken from beyond the three-point arc which is 6.25 metres (20 ft 6 in) from the basket in international games and 23 feet 9 inches(7.24 m) in NBA games. A one-point shot can be earned when shooting from the foul line after a foul ismade.Playing regulations [27] [28]Games are played in four quarters of 10 (FIBA) or 12 minutes (NBA). College games use two 20- [29] [30]minute halves, while high school varsity games use 8 minute quarters. 15 minutes are allowed for a [29][31][32]half-time break under FIBA, NBA, and NCAA rules and 10 minutes in high [30] [29][33][34]school. Overtime periods are five minutes in length except for high school which is four minutes [30]in length. Teams exchange baskets for the second half. The time allowed is actual playing time; theclock is stopped while the play is not active. Therefore, games generally take much longer to completethan the allotted game time, typically about two hours. [35][36][37][38]Five players from each team may be on the court at one time. Substitutions are unlimited butcan only be done when play is stopped. Teams also have a coach, who oversees the development andstrategies of the team, and other team personnel such as assistant coaches, managers, statisticians,doctors and trainers.
  3. 3. For both mens and womens teams, a standard uniform consists of a pair of shorts and a jersey with aclearly visible number, unique within the team, printed on both the front and back. Players wear high-top sneakers that provide extra ankle support. Typically, team names, players names and, outside ofNorth America, sponsors are printed on the uniforms.A limited number of time-outs, clock stoppages requested by a coach (or sometimes mandated in theNBA) for a short meeting with the players, are allowed. They generally last no longer than one minute(100 seconds in the NBA) unless, for televised games, a commercial break is needed.The game is controlled by the officials consisting of the referee (referred to as crew chief in the NBA), oneor two umpires (referred to as referees in the NBA) and the table officials. For college, the NBA, andmany high schools, there are a total of three referees on the court. The table officials are responsible forkeeping track of each teams scoring, timekeeping, individual and team fouls, player substitutions,teampossession arrow, and the shot clock.EquipmentMain articles: Basketball (ball), Basketball court, and Backboard (basketball)Traditional eight-panelbasketballThe only essential equipment in a basketball game is the basketball and the court: a flat, rectangularsurface with baskets at opposite ends. Competitive levels require the use of more equipment such asclocks, score sheets, scoreboard(s), alternating possession arrows, and whistle-operated stop-clocksystems.
  4. 4. An outdoor basketball net.A regulation basketball court in international games is 91.9 feet long and 49.2 feet wide. Inthe NBA andNCAA the court is 94 feet by 50 feet. Most courts have wood flooring, usually constructed [39]from mapleplanks running in the same direction as the longer court dimension. The name and logo ofthe home team is usually painted on or around the center circle.The basket is a steel rim 18 inches diameter with an attached net affixed to a backboard that measures 6feet by 3.5 feet and one basket is at each end of the court. The white outlined box on the backboard is 18inches high and 2 feet wide. At almost all levels of competition, the top of the rim is exactly 10 feet abovethe court and 4 feet inside the baseline. While variation is possible in the dimensions of the court andbackboard, it is considered important for the basket to be of the correct height – a rim that is off by just afew inches can have an adverse effect on shooting.The size of the basketball is also regulated. For men, the official ball is 29.5 inches in circumference (size7, or a "295 ball") and weighs 22 oz. If women are playing, the official basketball size is 28.5 inches incircumference (size 6, or a "285 ball") with a weight of 20 oz.ViolationsThe ball may be advanced toward the basket by being shot, passed between players, thrown, tapped,rolled or dribbled (bouncing the ball while running).The ball must stay within the court; the last team to touch the ball before it travels out of bounds forfeitspossession. The ball is out of bounds if touches or crosses over a boundary line, or touches a player whois out of bounds. This is in contrast to other sports such as football, volleyball, and tennis (butnot rugby or American football) where the ball (or player) is still considered in if any part of it is touching aboundary line.The ball-handler may not move both feet without dribbling, an infraction known as traveling, nor dribblewith both hands or catch the ball in between dribbles, a violation called double dribbling. A players handcannot be under the ball while dribbling; doing so is known as carrying the ball. A team, once havingestablished ball control in the front half of the court, may not return the ball to the backcourt and be thefirst to touch it. The ball may not be kicked, nor be struck with the fist. A violation of these rules results inloss of possession, or, if committed by the defense, a reset of the shot clock (with some exceptions in theNBA).There are limits imposed on the time taken before progressing the ball past halfway (8 seconds in FIBAand the NBA; 10 seconds in NCAA mens play and high school for both sexes, but no limit in NCAAwomens play), before attempting a shot (24 seconds in FIBA and the NBA, 30 seconds in NCAAwomens and Canadian Interuniversity Sport play for both sexes, and 35 seconds in NCAA mens play),holding the ball while closely guarded (5 seconds), and remaining in the restricted area below the foul line(the lane, or "key") (3 seconds). These rules are designed to promote more offense.No player may touch the ball on its downward flight to the basket, unless the ball has no chance ofentering the basket (goaltending). In addition, no player may touch the ball while it is on or in the basket;when any part of the ball is in the cylinder above the basket (the area extended upwards from the basket);or when the ball is outside the cylinder, if the player reaches through the basket and touches it. Thisviolation is known as "basket interference". If a defensive player goaltends or commits basketinterference, the basket is awarded and the offending team gets the ball. If a teammate of the shooter
  5. 5. goaltends or commits interference, the basket is cancelled and play continues with the defensive teambeing given possession.FoulsThe referee signals that a foul has been committed.Main articles: Personal foul (basketball) and Technical foulAn attempt to unfairly disadvantage an opponent through physical contact is illegal and is called a foul.These are most commonly committed by defensive players; however, they can be committed by offensiveplayers as well. Players who are fouled either receive the ball to pass inbounds again, or receive one ormore free throws if they are fouled in the act of shooting, depending on whether the shot was successful.One point is awarded for making a free throw, which is attempted from a line 15 feet (4.6 m) from thebasket.The referee may use discretion in calling fouls (for example, by considering whether an unfair advantagewas gained), sometimes making fouls controversial calls or no-calls. The calling of fouls can vary betweengames, leagues and even among referees.A player or coach who shows poor sportsmanship, such as by arguing with a referee or by fighting withanother player, can be charged with a more serious foul called a technical foul. The penalty involves freethrows (where, unlike a personal foul, the other team can choose any player to shoot) and varies amongleagues. Repeated incidents can result in disqualification. Blatant fouls with excessive contact or that arenot an attempt to play the ball are called intentional fouls (or flagrant fouls in the NBA). In FIBA, a foulresulting in ejection is called a disqualifying foul, while in leagues other than the NBA, such a foul isreferred to as flagrant.If a team exceeds a certain limit of team fouls in a given period (quarter or half) – four for NBA andinternational games – the opposing team is awarded one or two free throws on all subsequent non-shooting fouls for that period, the number depending on the league. In the US college and high schoolgames, if a team reaches 7 fouls in a half, the opposing team is awarded one free throw, along with asecond shot if the first is made. This is called shooting "one-and-one". If a team exceeds 10 fouls in thehalf, the opposing team is awarded two free throws on all subsequent fouls for the half.
  6. 6. When a team shoots foul shots, the opponents may not interfere with the shooter, nor may they try toregain possession until the last or potentially last free throw is in the air.After a team has committed a specified number of fouls, it is said to be "in the penalty". On scoreboards,this is usually signified with an indicator light reading "Bonus" or "Penalty" with an illuminated directionalarrow indicating that team is to receive free throws when fouled by the opposing team. (Somescoreboards also indicate the number of fouls committed.)If a team misses the first shot of a two-shot situation, the opposing team must wait for the completion ofthe second shot before attempting to reclaim possession of the ball and continuing play.If a player is fouled while attempting a shot and the shot is unsuccessful, the player is awarded a numberof free throws equal to the value of the attempted shot. A player fouled while attempting a regular two-point shot, then, receives two shots. A player fouled while attempting a three-point shot, on the otherhand, receives three shots.If a player is fouled while attempting a shot and the shot is successful, typically the player will be awardedone additional free throw for one point. In combination with a regular shot, this is called a "three-pointplay" or "four-point play" (or more colloquially, an "and one") because of the basket made at the time ofthe foul (2 or 3 points) and the additional free throw (1 point).Basketball - Basic SkillsDribbling - Dribbling is a crucial skill in basketball. Learn how to control the ball at game speedand keep the ball away from the opposition. Staying low and keeping the ball at waist level willhelp you keep possession. Always dribble with your head up and look for your teammates. No doubledribbling - when you have stopped dribbling the ball, you must either pass the ball to a teammate ortake a shot. To check out some drills for improving your dribbling.Passing - Passing is the best way to keep possession of the basketball and is a faster way ofmoving the ball up the court than dribbling. There are three main kinds of passes in basketball:the bounce pass, the chest pass and the overhead pass.Shooting - If you cant shoot, then you wont score, so shooting is one of the most importantbasketball skills to develop. Learn the three basic shots: the layup, the set shot and the jumpshot.Pivot - Pivoting with the basketball alows you to change direction and look for a pass or shot.Remember not to move your pivot foot.
  7. 7. Volleyball:Volleyball is a team sport in which two teams of six players are separated by a net. Each team tries to [1]score points by grounding a ball on the other teams court under organized rules. It has been a part ofthe official program of the Summer Olympic Games since 1964.A scene of Volleyball play in Ervadi village.The complete rules are extensive. But simply, play proceeds as follows: A player on one of the teamsbegins a rally by serving the ball (tossing or releasing it and then hitting it with a hand or arm), frombehind the back boundary line of the court, over the net, and into the receiving teams court. The receivingteam must not let the ball be grounded within their court. They may touch the ball as many as three times.Typically, the first two touches are used to set up for an attack, an attempt to direct the ball back over thenet in such a way that the serving team is unable to prevent it from being grounded in their court.The rally continues, with each team allowed as many as three consecutive touches, until either (1): ateam makes a kill, grounding the ball on the opponents court and winning the rally; or (2): a teamcommits a fault and loses the rally. The team that wins the rally is awarded a point, and serves the ball tostart the next rally. A few of the most common faults include: causing the ball to touch the ground outside the opponents court or without first passing over the net; catching and throwing the ball; double hit: two consecutive contacts with the ball made by the same player; four consecutive contacts with the ball made by the same team. net foul: touching the net during play.The ball is usually played with the hands or arms, but players can legally strike or push (short contact) theball with any part of the body.A number of consistent techniques have evolved in volleyball, including spiking andblocking (becausethese plays are made above the top of the net, the vertical jump is an athletic skill emphasized in thesport) as well as passing, setting, and specialized player positions and offensive and defensivestructures.
  8. 8. HistoryOrigin of volleyballWilliam G. MorganOn February 9, 1895, in Holyoke, Massachusetts (USA), William G. Morgan, a YMCA physical educationdirector, created a new game called Mintonette as a pastime to be played preferably indoors and by anynumber of players. The game took some of its characteristics from tennis and handball. Another indoorsport,basketball, was catching on in the area, having been invented just ten miles (sixteen kilometers)away in the city of Springfield, Massachusetts, only four years before. Mintonette was designed to be anindoor sport less rough than basketball for older members of the YMCA, while still requiring a bit ofathletic effort.The first rules, written down by William G Morgan, called for a net 6 ft 6 in (1.98 m) high, a 25×50 ft(7.6×15.2 m) court, and any number of players. A match was composed of nine innings with three servesfor each team in each inning, and no limit to the number of ball contacts for each team before sending theball to the opponents’ court. In case of a serving error, a second try was allowed. Hitting the ball into thenet was considered a foul (with loss of the point or a side-out)—except in the case of the first-try serve.After an observer, Alfred Halstead, noticed the volleying nature of the game at its first exhibition match in1896, played at the International YMCA Training School (now called Springfield College), the gamequickly became known as volleyball (it was originally spelled as two words: "volley ball"). Volleyball ruleswere slightly modified by the International YMCA Training School and the game spread around the [2][3]country to various YMCAs.Rules of the game
  9. 9. Volleyball courtThe courtThe game is played on a volleyball court 18 meters (59 feet) long and 9 meters (29.5 feet) wide, dividedinto two 9 m × 9 m halves by a one-meter (40-inch) wide net placed so that the top of the net is 2.43meters (7 feet 11 5/8 inches) above the center of the court for mens competition, and 2.24 meters (7 feet4 1/8 inches) for womens competition (these heights are varied for veterans and junior competitions).There is a line 3 meters from and parallel to the net in each team court which is considered the "attackline". This "3 meter" (or 10 foot) line divides the court into "back row" and "front row" areas (also backcourt and front court). These are in turn divided into 3 areas each: these are numbered as follows,starting from area "1", which is the position of the serving player:
  10. 10. After a team gains the serve (also known as siding out), its members must rotate in a clockwise direction,with the player previously in area "2" moving to area "1" and so on, with the player from area "1" movingto area "6".The team courts are surrounded by an area called the free zone which is a minimum of 3 meters wide [9]and which the players may enter and play within after the service of the ball. All lines denoting theboundaries of the team court and the attack zone are drawn or painted within the dimensions of the areaand are therefore a part of the court or zone. If a ball comes in contact with the line, the ball is consideredto be "in". An antenna is placed on each side of the net perpendicular to the sideline and is a verticalextension of the side boundary of the court. A ball passing over the net must pass completely betweenthe antennae (or their theoretical extensions to the ceiling) without contacting them.The ballMain article: Volleyball (ball)FIVB regulations state that the ball must be spherical, made of leather or synthetic leather, have a 2 [10]circumference of 65–67 cm, a weight of 260–280 g and an inside pressure of 0.30–0.325 kg/cm . Othergoverning bodies have similar regulations.Game playBuddhist monks play volleyball in theHimalayan state of Sikkim, India.
  11. 11. Each team consists of six players. To get play started, a team is chosen to serve by coin toss. A playerfrom the serving team throws the ball into the air and attempts to hit the ball so it passes over the net on acourse such that it will land in the opposing teams court (the serve). The opposing team must use acombination of no more than three contacts with the volleyball to return the ball to the opponents side ofthe net. These contacts usually consist first of the bump or passso that the balls trajectory is aimedtowards the player designated as the setter; second of the set(usually an over-hand pass using wrists topush finger-tips at the ball) by the setter so that the balls trajectory is aimed towards a spot where one ofthe players designated as an attacker can hit it, and third by the attacker who spikes (jumping, raising onearm above the head and hitting the ball so it will move quickly down to the ground on the opponentscourt) to return the ball over the net. The team with possession of the ball that is trying to attack the ballas described is said to be on offense.The team on defense attempts to prevent the attacker from directing the ball into their court: players atthe net jump and reach above the top (and if possible, across the plane) of the net in order to block theattacked ball. If the ball is hit around, above, or through the block, the defensive players arranged in therest of the court attempt to control the ball with a dig (usually a fore-arm pass of a hard-driven ball). Aftera successful dig, the team transitions to offense.The game continues in this manner, rallying back and forth, until the ball touches the court within theboundaries or until an error is made. The most frequent errors that are made are either to fail to return theball over the net within the allowed three touches, or to cause the ball to land outside the court. A ball is"in" if any part of it touches a sideline or end-line, and a strong spike may compress the ball enough whenit lands that a ball which at first appears to be going out may actually be in. Players may travel welloutside the court to play a ball that has gone over a sideline or end-line in the air.Other common errors include a player touching the ball twice in succession, a player "catching" the ball, aplayer touching the net while attempting to play the ball, or a player penetrating under the net into theopponents court. There are a large number of other errors specified in the rules, although most of themare infrequent occurrences. These errors include back-row or libero players spiking the ball or blocking(back-row players may spike the ball if they jump from behind the attack line), players not being in thecorrect position when the ball is served, attacking the serve in the front court and above the height of thenet, using another player as a source of support to reach the ball, stepping over the back boundary line [11]when serving, taking more than 8 seconds to serve, or playing the ball when it is above the opponentscourt.ScoringWhen the ball contacts the floor within the court boundaries or an error is made, the team that did notmake the error is awarded a point, whether they served the ball or not. If the ball hits the line, the ball iscounted as in. The team that won the point serves for the next point. If the team that won the point servedin the previous point, the same player serves again. If the team that won the point did not serve theprevious point, the players of the team rotate their position on the court in a clockwise manner. The gamecontinues, with the first team to score 25 points (and be two points ahead) awarded the set. Matches arebest-of-five sets and the fifth set (if necessary) is usually played to 15 points. (Scoring differs betweenleagues, tournaments, and levels; high schools sometimes play best-of-three to 25; in the NCAA games [12]are played best-of-five to 25 as of the 2008 season.)
  12. 12. Before 1999, points could be scored only when a team had the serve (side-out scoring) and all sets wentup to only 15 points. The FIVB changed the rules in 1999 (with the changes being compulsory in 2000) touse the current scoring system (formerly known as rally point system), primarily to make the length of thematch more predictable and to make the game more spectator- and television-friendly.Libero [13]In 1998 the libero player was introduced internationally. The libero is a player specialized in defensiveskills: the libero must wear a contrasting jersey color from his or her teammates and cannot block orattack the ball when it is entirely above net height. When the ball is not in play, the libero can replace anyback-row player, without prior notice to the officials. This replacement does not count against thesubstitution limit each team is allowed per set, although the libero may be replaced only by the playerwhom he or she replaced.The libero may function as a setter only under certain restrictions. If she/he makes an overhand set,she/he must be standing behind (and not stepping on) the 3-meter line; otherwise, the ball cannot beattacked above the net in front of the 3-meter line. An underhand pass is allowed from any part of thecourt.The libero is, generally, the most skilled defensive player on the team. There is also a libero trackingsheet, where the referees or officiating team must keep track of who the libero subs in and out for. Theremay only be one libero per set (game), although there may be a different libero in the beginning of anynew set (game).Furthermore, a libero is not allowed to serve, according to international rules, with the exception of theNCAA womens volleyball games, where a 2004 rule change allows the libero to serve, but only in aspecific rotation. That is, the libero can only serve for one person, not for all of the people for whom he orshe goes in. That rule change was also applied to high school and junior high play soon after.Recent rule changesOther rule changes enacted in 2000 include allowing serves in which the ball touches the net, as long asit goes over the net into the opponents court. Also, the service area was expanded to allow players toserve from anywhere behind the end line but still within the theoretical extension of the sidelines. Otherchanges were made to lighten up calls on faults for carries and double-touches, such as allowing multiplecontacts by a single player ("double-hits") on a teams first contact provided that they are a part of a singleplay on the ball.In 2008, the NCAA changed the minimum number of points needed to win any of the first four sets from30 to 25 for womens volleyball (mens volleyball remained at 30.) If a fifth (deciding) set is reached, the [12]minimum required score remains at 15. In addition, the word "game" is now referred to as "set".Changes in rules have been studied and announced by FIVB in recent years, and they have released the [14]updated rules in 2009.SkillsCompetitive teams master six basic skills: serve, pass, set, attack, block and dig. Each of these skillscomprises a number of specific techniques that have been introduced over the years and are nowconsidered standard practice in high-level volleyball.
  13. 13. ServeSetting up for an overhand serve.A player making a jump serve.A player stands behind the inline and serves the ball, in an attempt to drive it into the opponents court.His or her main objective is to make it land inside the court; it is also desirable to set the balls direction,speed and acceleration so that it becomes difficult for the receiver to handle it properly. A serve is calledan "ace" when the ball lands directly onto the court or travels outside the court after being touched by anopponent.In contemporary volleyball, many types of serves are employed: Underhand: a serve in which the player strikes the ball below the waist instead of tossing it up and striking it with an overhand throwing motion. Underhand serves are considered very easy to receive and are rarely employed in high-level competitions.
  14. 14.  Sky ball serve: a specific type of underhand serve occasionally used in beach volleyball, where the ball is hit so high it comes down almost in a straight line. This serve was invented and employed almost exclusively by the Brazilian team in the early 1980s and is now considered outdated. In Brazil, this serve is called Jornada nas Estrelas (Star Trek). Topspin: an overhand serve where the player tosses the ball high and hits it with a wrist span, giving it topspin which causes it to drop faster than it would otherwise and helps maintain a straight flight path. Topspin serves are generally hit hard and aimed at a specific returner or part of the court. Standing topspin serves are rarely used above the high school level of play. Float: an overhand serve where the ball is hit with no spin so that its path becomes unpredictable, akin to a knuckleball in baseball. Jump serve: an overhand serve where the ball is first tossed high in the air, then the player makes a timed approach and jumps to make contact with the ball, hitting it with much pace and topspin. This is the most popular serve amongst college and professional teams. Jump float: an overhand serve where the ball is tossed high enough that the player may jump before hitting it similarly to a standing float serve. The ball is tossed lower than a topspin jump serve, but contact is still made while in the air. This serve is becoming more popular amongst college and professional players because it has a certain unpredictability in its flight pattern.PassA woman making a forearm pass or bump.Also called reception, the pass is the attempt by a team to properly handle the opponents serve, or anyform of attack. Proper handling includes not only preventing the ball from touching the court, but alsomaking it reach the position where the setter is standing quickly and precisely.The skill of passing involves fundamentally two specific techniques: underarm pass, or bump, where theball touches the inside part of the joined forearms or platform, at waist line; and overhand pass, where itis handled with the fingertips, like a set, above the head. Either are acceptable in professional and beachvolleyball, however there are much tighter regulations on the overhand pass in beach volleyball.
  15. 15. SetJump setThe set is usually the second contact that a team makes with the ball. The main goal of setting is to putthe ball in the air in such a way that it can be driven by an attack into the opponents court. The settercoordinates the offensive movements of a team, and is the player who ultimately decides which player willactually attack the ball.As with passing, one may distinguish between an overhand and a bump set. Since the former allows formore control over the speed and direction of the ball, the bump is used only when the ball is so low itcannot be properly handled with fingertips, or in beach volleyball where rules regulating overhand settingare more stringent. In the case of a set, one also speaks of a front or back set, meaning whether the ballis passed in the direction the setter is facing or behind the setter. There is also a jump set that is usedwhen the ball is too close to the net. In this case the setter usually jumps off his or her right foot straightup to avoid going into the net. The setter usually stands about ⅔ of the way from the left to the right of thenet and faces the left (the larger portion of net that he or she can see).Sometimes a setter refrains from raising the ball for a teammate to perform an attack and tries to play it [15]directly onto the opponents court. This movement is called a "dump". The most common dumps are tothrow the ball behind the setter or in front of the setter to zones 2 and 4. More experienced setters tossthe ball into the deep corners or spike the ball on the second hit.AttackThe attack, also known as the spike, is usually the third contact a team makes with the ball. The object ofattacking is to handle the ball so that it lands on the opponents court and cannot be defended. A playermakes a series of steps (the "approach"), jumps, and swings at the ball.
  16. 16. Ideally the contact with the ball is made at the apex of the hitters jump. At the moment of contact, thehitters arm is fully extended above his or her head and slightly forward, making the highest possiblecontact while maintaining the ability to deliver a powerful hit. The hitter uses arm swing, wrist snap, and arapid forward contraction of the entire body to drive the ball. A bounce is a slang term for a veryhard/loud spike that follows an almost straight trajectory steeply downward into the opponents court andbounces very high into the air. A "kill" is the slang term for an attack that is not returned by the other teamthus resulting in a point.Contemporary volleyball comprises a number of attacking techniques: Backcourt (or backrow)/pipe attack: an attack performed by a back row player. The player must jump from behind the 3-meter line before making contact with the ball, but may land in front of the 3-meter line. Line and Cross-court Shot: refers to whether the ball flies in a straight trajectory parallel to the side lines, or crosses through the court in an angle. A cross-court shot with a very pronounced angle, resulting in the ball landing near the 3-meter line, is called a cut shot. Dip/Dink/Tip/Cheat/Dump: the player does not try to make a hit, but touches the ball lightly, so that it lands on an area of the opponents court that is not being covered by the defense. Tool/Wipe/Block-abuse: the player does not try to make a hard spike, but hits the ball so that it touches the opponents block and then bounces off-court. Off-speed hit: the player does not hit the ball hard, reducing its speed and thus confusing the opponents defense. Quick hit/"One": an attack (usually by the middle blocker) where the approach and jump begin before the setter contacts the ball. The set (called a "quick set") is placed only slightly above the net and the ball is struck by the hitter almost immediately after leaving the setters hands. Quick attacks are often effective because they isolate the middle blocker to be the only blocker on the hit. Slide: a variation of the quick hit that uses a low back set. The middle hitter steps around the setter and hits from behind him or her. Double quick hit/"Stack"/"Tandem": a variation of quick hit where two hitters, one in front and one behind the setter or both in front of the setter, jump to perform a quick hit at the same time. It can be used to deceive opposite blockers and free a fourth hitter attacking from backcourt, maybe without block at all.Block3 players performing a block
  17. 17. Blocking refers to the actions taken by players standing at the net to stop or alter an opponents attack.A block that is aimed at completely stopping an attack, thus making the ball remain in the opponentscourt, is called offensive. A well-executed offensive block is performed by jumping and reaching topenetrate with ones arms and hands over the net and into the opponents area. It requires anticipatingthe direction the ball will go once the attack takes place. It may also require calculating the best foot workto executing the "perfect" block.The jump should be timed so as to intercept the balls trajectory prior to it crossing over the net. Palms areheld deflected downward about 45–60 degrees toward the interior of the opponents court. A "roof" is aspectacular offensive block that redirects the power and speed of the attack straight down to theattackers floor, as if the attacker hit the ball into the underside of a peaked house roof.By contrast, it is called a defensive, or "soft" block if the goal is to control and deflect the hard-driven ballup so that it slows down and becomes more easy to be defended. A well-executed soft-block isperformed by jumping and placing ones hands above the net with no penetration into the opponentscourt and with the palms up and fingers pointing backward.Blocking is also classified according to the number of players involved. Thus, one may speak of single (orsolo), double, or triple block.Successful blocking does not always result in a "roof" and many times does not even touch the ball. Whileit’s obvious that a block was a success when the attacker is roofed, a block that consistently forces theattacker away from his or her power or preferred attack into a more easily controlled shot by the defenseis also a highly successful block.At the same time, the block position influences the positions where other defenders place themselveswhile opponent hitters are spiking.DigWoman going for a dig.Digging is the ability to prevent the ball from touching ones court after a spike or attack, particularly a ballthat is nearly touching the ground. In many aspects, this skill is similar to passing, or bumping: overhanddig and bump are also used to distinguish between defensive actions taken with fingertips or with joinedarms. It is especially important while digging for players to stay on their toes; several players choose toemploy a split step to make sure theyre ready to move in any direction.
  18. 18. Some specific techniques are more common in digging than in passing. A player may sometimes performa "dive", i.e., throw his or her body in the air with a forward movement in an attempt to save the ball, andland on his or her chest. When the player also slides his or her hand under a ball that is almost touchingthe court, this is called a "pancake". The pancake is frequently used in indoor volleyball.Sometimes a player may also be forced to drop his or her body quickly to the floor in order to save theball. In this situation, the player makes use of a specific rolling technique to minimize the chances ofinjuries.Team PlayVolleyball is essentially a game of transition from one of the above skills to the next, with choreographedteam movement between plays on the ball. These team movements are determined by the teams chosenserve receive system, offensive system, coverage system, and defensive system.The serve receive system is the formation used by the receiving team to attempt to pass the ball to thedesignated setter. Systems can consist of 5 receivers, 4 receivers, 3 receivers, and in some cases 2receivers. The most popular formation at higher levels is a 3 receiver formation consisting of two left sidesand a libero receiving every rotation.Offensive systems are the formations used by the offense to attempt to ground the ball in to the opposingcourt (or otherwise score points). Formations often include designated player positions and skillspecialization. Popular formations include the 4-2, 6-2, and 5-1 systems described in more detail below.Coverage systems are the formations used by the offense to protect their court in the case of a blockedattack. Executed by the 5 offensive players not directly attacking the ball, players move to assignedpositions around the attacker in order to dig up any ball that deflects off the block and back in to their owncourt. Popular formations include the 2-3 system and the 1-2-2 system.Defensive systems are the formations used by the defense to protect against the ball being grounded into their court by the opposing team. The system will outline which players are responsible for which areasof the court depending on where the opposing team is attacking from. Popular systems include the 6-Up,6-Back-Deep, and 6-Back-Slide defense.CoachingBasicCoaching for volleyball can be classified under two main categories: match coaching and developmentalcoaching. The objective of match coaching is to win a match by managing a teams strategy.Developmental coaching emphasizes player development through the reinforcement of basic skills duringexercises known as "drills." Drills promote repetition and refinement of volleyball movements, particularlyin footwork patterns, body positioning relative to others, and ball contact. A coach will construct drills thatsimulate match situations thereby encouraging speed of movement, anticipation, timing, communication,and team-work. At the various stages of a players career, a coach will tailor drills to meet the strategicrequirements of the team. The American Volleyball Coaches Association is the largest organization in theworld dedicated exclusively to volleyball coaching.
  19. 19. Volleyball Equipment &FacilitiesVolleyball Court DimensionsThe Volleyball court is 60 feet by 30 feet in total.The net in placed in the center of the court, makingeach side of the net 30 feet by 30 feet.Center LineA center line is marked at the center of the courtdividing it equally into 30 feet squares, above whichthe net is placed.Attack LineAn attack line is marked 10 feet of each side of the center line.Service LineA service line, the area from which the server may serve the volleyball, is marked 10feet inside the right sideline on each back line.Basic Skills of VolleyballThe worst situation that a volleyball team could be in is to show up at a game without knowing what skillsthey needed to win the game. Hitting the ball, being in the right place, and playing competitively can helpto win the game as well as gain confidence in the sport. Focusing on the basics for volleyball can helpyou to gain the skills you need for every game.1. Serving. This is what always starts the game and helps to keep the game. There are two basic types ofserves. One is overhand; where the player will throw the ball in the air first, then hit it. The second isunderhand, where the server will hold the ball and swing their other arm underneath the ball to hit it.There are a variety of other serves beyond these basics, all which help to get the ball over the net, andget the game going.2. Pass or reception. This is usually set up by the setter of the game. It is used in order to take the balland give it to the other players on your own team. They will then have the ability to put the ball to theother side like they want to. You can either pass by the forearm or by hitting the ball overhead.3. Tip. A tip is used as a way to trick the other team into thinking that the ball is going further than it will.The player will hit the ball lightly, making it go over the net but not too far into the other players area sothat they cant hit it back.
  20. 20. 4. Dig. This is the ability for a player to save the ball from hitting the court after it has been spiked. Itusually requires a player to slide underneath the ball on the court or to dive underneath the ball.5. Rebound. This occurs when the ball stays on one side, making the players rebound, or take the ballback.With all of these different hits for a ball, you will want to make sure that the players have the ability tomove freely and effectively with every move. With all of these different hits, the players will need toconnect where they want to hit the ball with the way that their feet move. For example, a dig will requirethe feet to move under the body in order to save the ball. A serve will require more balance on both feet inorder to hit the ball more effectively. This will be important to keep in mind as you are training players.The basics of volleyball hits can lead a long way when you are working towards playing the game. If youare finding ways to teach techniques to players, this is the place to start. It will allow everyone to have agood chance at controlling and hitting the ball, no matter what the set up is.Deon Melchior is the Editor and Publisher of Article Click. For more FREE articles for your ezine andwebsites visit Article Click is a free content article directory. You may reprint this article,as long as the article is unedited and this author box is included with its live hyperlinks.Basketball equipment:
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