Breaking down the question It has: 5 words taken from the passage. You have to: Give a similar meaning for each word Use one word or a short phrase* *phrase= not more than 7words4. Answer must be at most 7 words long. 1. If longer than 7 words, the first 7 words will be marked only.
How to tackle this type of question?1. Determine the part of speech of the word. Answer should have same part of speech.2. Study the context* such as the words, sentences, paragraph or the whole passage to determine meaning of the word used it. context* = the meaning of a word when used in different sentences.3. Analyse the formation of the word 1. prefix + root word + suffix 2. analyse the meaning of each component.
Breaking down the answer Give only 1 answer. If more than one answer, only the first answer will be marked. BUT if first answer is correct while the second answer contradicts it, no marks will be awarded. If given two answers connected with the word „and‟, marks will be awarded if both answers are correct. Label question number correctly If you write the wrong number, it will be marked wrong.
Type of context Lexical context Grammatical context Situational context
Lexical context Lexical: ( „lexis‟ means words in Greek.) To find meaning: Look for words around it Example: You have just been introduced to an exchange student called Chinua, who comes from an exotic, faraway land, and has a tendency to sprinkle his English sentences with words from his native language. One day, he points outside the window, and exclaims, “Look! A xikuptuk with multicoloured feathers just flew away chirping to its nest!” What would you say “xikuptuk” means? Most probably you‟ll say it‟s a bird and its correct. Looking at the words „feather‟, „flew‟, „chirping‟ and „nest‟ can thus conclude that „xikuptuk‟ must be a bird.
Grammatical context We study the parts of speech of word. If it is a noun, we see if it is plural or singular. If it is a verb, we look at the tense.
Various part of speechPart of speech Definition ExamplesNoun A word used to refer to a person, Candidate, citizen, a place, a thing, or an abstract cinema, house, cat, car, idea such as a feeling or quality rage, beauty, art, finery (in short, a naming word)Verb A word that denotes action. For Hiss, bark, drive, devour, example, what people or thing do, clamber, flow, plummet, or what happens to them heave, hurl, plungeAdjective A word that modifies a Red, amazing, opulent, noun/pronoun (or simply put, a fantastic, magnanimous, word that describes a sadistic, towering noun/pronoun)Adverb A word that modifies a verb, or It happened inside the give more information about it, or house, the poem was about the following adjective or beautifully written. It was adverb extremely boring.
Example:Grammatical context Now, what if Chinua says to you, “A talumba just growled at me!” What would you say a „talumba‟ is? „talumba‟ is a noun because it follows the article „a‟. find the word „growled‟. Put the two clues together, you can conclude that „talumba‟ could be a bear or dog.
Example:Grammatical context But what if he had said, “A grumpy old katumba growled angrily at me, brandishing his walking stick in the air.”? Looking at the grammatical context: katumba‟ follows 2 adjectives and precedes a verb. Looking at the lexical context: There is still „growled‟ The „katumba‟ is grumpy (used on humans and not animals.) Finally, the pronoun „his‟ indicates that the „katumba‟ is a male. Thus, the „katumba‟ is a man.
Situational context According to its name, we look for situation for this kind of context. i.e. what is happening, where it is happening, and who are involved.
Example: Supposing your uncle telephones you from Las Vegas and excitedly announces, “Hey! I‟ve got wonderful news! My baby just won a one million dollar jackpot at the casino!” What does “baby” mean in this context? Maybe an infant? You will know that it is not because “My baby” has been using a jackpot machine at Las Vegas casino and you need to be 18 years old to enter it. Who could a man call “baby”? His “baby” have to be 18 years old, thus we can conclude that his “baby” is probably his wife, girlfriend, fiancee, daughter (who is 18 years old) or even son.