1. The “why” questionSelf –study notes for Paper 2: Comprehension
2. What do you have to do? Give a reason in your answer. Answer can start with ‘Because…’ or ‘This is because…’
3. Structure of sentences Some signals that indicate effects and causes provide clues to answers. *Effects= Current situation *Causes= Reasons Conjunction indicatingeffect reason cause (clue)
4. Examples of cause and effect sentencesEffect Conjunction indicating Cause(Current Situation) reason (Reason)Sarah was popular with Because She showed a deepthe masses understanding of their plight.John’s employees Since The manager did notreported for work late seem to mind their doingeveryday so.Ali was chosen to For He was the company’sreceive the prize most hardworking employee.Mr Chan fired all his As They sauntered into theemployees office late everyday.
5. Examples Question: Why was Sarah popular with the masses? Answer: Because she showed a deep understanding of their plight. Question: Why did John’s employees report for work late everyday? Answer: Because the manger did not seem to mind their doing so.
6. Examples of linking wordsCause Linking word(s) Effect(Reason) (Current Situation)Mark overslept As a result, He missed the interview.yesterday.Michael vandalised his Therefore, The judge sentencedneighbour’s cars. him to six months in jail.The two men were arch- Thus, They hated each other torivals in love. Hence, the core.Karl’s car broke down for Consequently, He decided to sell it off.no apparent reason.
7. Answering the questions(The cause has already happened: Use past tense)1. Why was Ali chosen to receive the prize? Because he was the company’s most hardworking employee.2. Why did Mr Chan fire all his employees? Because they sauntered into the office late everyday.3. Why did the two men hate each other to the core? Because they were arch-rivals in love.4. Why did Karl decide to sell off his car? Because it broke down for no apparent reason.
8. Examples Question: Why was Michael sentenced to jail? Answer: Because he vandalised his neighbour’s cars.Sometimes, the link between cause and effect is not obvious. Examples:-1. Tired of his daily battle with the traffic congestion, Mr Raj decide to cycle to work. Question: Why did Mr Raj decide to cycle to work? Answer: Because he was tired of his daily battle with traffic congestion.2. The coolie was overjoyed. After eight months, he finally found a job. Question: Why was the coolie overjoyed? Answer: Because after eight months, he had finally found a job.