Barbara D. Acosta, Charlene Rivera and Lynn Willner (2008) Presented by: Martha Crowell and Kerri Donahue ESL 501
Response to accountability requirements ELLs test scores not accurately reflected without adequate accommodations Previously, accommodations based on students with disabilities Need to distinguish between ELLs and students with disabilities
Construct-irrelevant variance o Error due to extraneous information unrelated to construct being assessed Linguistic challenges o Such as ELL English language processing skills and rate of encoding and decoding text Meet validity and reliability standards o Cannot alter the construct being assessed or provide undue assistance
Direct linguistic support- adjustment to language of test Indirect linguistic support- adjustment to conditions under which test is taken
Level of English language proficiency (ELP) o Beginning o Intermediate o Advanced Level of literacy in English and native language Age of students Years of formal schooling Language(s) of instruction Type(s) of language support program
Defined as likely to reduce construct-irrelevant variance due to language Nearly 2/3 of accommodations previously offered do not meet this criteria for ELLs Examples of accommodations not considered ELL Responsive: • Test in familiar room with minimal distractions • Test in small group • Allow student to point to answers • Allow student to mark answers in test booklet • Allow student to read test aloud • Familiar person administers test • Inform student of remaining time
Direct Linguistic Support Indirect Linguistic Support(language) (conditions)Provide plain English test Extended timeWritten translationReference materials (English and duallanguage)Written response in native languageScripted oral EnglishScripted oral translationClarification in EnglishSight translationOral Response - English or nativelanguage
1. Screen accommodations allowed by state to determine ELL Responsiveness2. Specify accommodations to be used for each area of content being tested3. Standardize and clearly describe accommodations4. Distinguish between test administration practices and accommodations5. Offer accommodations at each English language proficiency level6. Offer accommodations for ELLs with different levels of literacy in English and native language
Acosta, B., Rivera, C., & Willner, L. (2008). Best Practices in State Assessment Policies for Accommodating English Language Learners: A Delphi Study. Arlington: George Washington University. Google Images (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.google.com/imghp?hl
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