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The 20 Century                  th             The Twentieth Century01/09/13                             1
The Twentieth Century--                       Overview     Pace of everything, including stylistic changes in music,     ...
The Twentieth Century--                           Overview     Audio technology exploded.        Listeners could hear mu...
The Twentieth Century--                       Overview     Diversity in cultures, music, and other aspects of life became...
Pablo Picasso’s Violin and                      Grapes                                  An example of                    ...
Music & the Musician in Society    More 20th century music presented by orchestras     in 1950s    Modern compositions c...
Impressionism     First, an artistic movement advanced by French      painters like Claude Monet, Pierre Renoir, and Edga...
Impressionism in Music            Scales: nontraditional scales: tendency to             avoid key center                ...
Impressionism in Music      Rhythms            Asymmetrical and vague beats with complex             subdivisions (7, 11...
Claude Debussy                       (1862 - 1918)    Born just outside of Paris during the U.S. Civil War and died     j...
Prelude to the Afternoon                      of a Faun, 1894       “Free illustration of        the beautiful poem by   ...
Claude Debussy in 1911Listen to This                    PRENTICE HALL                           6-12By Mark Evan Bonds    ...
A Caricature of Stravinsky                  at the KeyboardListen to This                  PRENTICE HALL                  ...
Igor Stravinsky             The Rite of Spring Part One            A ballet--premiered in 1913 in Paris and caused       ...
The Rite of Spring   First performed in 1913 in Paris at the Theatre of    the Champs-Elysées by prestigious company,    ...
Igor Stravinsky The Rite of                       Spring Part One            Harmony--polytonal--2 tonalities going on at...
Igor Stravinsky The Rite of                       Spring Part One            Rhythm--very irregular at times             ...
Igor Stravinsky The Rite of                       Spring Part One            A musical choreographic work                ...
The Rite of Spring             Performed by the Kirov BalletListen to This                    PRENTICE HALL               ...
Igor Stravinsky (1882 - 1971)     Stravinsky--constantly reinvented himself.     Born in St. Petersburg, Russia.     Fa...
Stravinsky Visits DebussyListen to This                     PRENTICE HALL                            6-21By Mark Evan Bond...
Expressionism     Music, painting, poetry developed in Vienna in      early 20th century.     Rejection of “Impressionis...
ExpressionismListen to This                   PRENTICE HALL                          6-23By Mark Evan Bonds               ...
Expressionism: Musical                         Characteristics       Atonality--careful construction of melodies and     ...
Arnold Schoenberg                     Pierrot lunaire “Columbine”     “Columbine”--one of a set of 21 songs for      sopr...
A Modern Pierrot                                      Note the facial                                       expression de...
Arnold Schoenberg                     Pierrot lunaire “Columbine”       Pierrot--a clown in an improvisational type of th...
Arnold Schoenberg                     Pierrot lunaire “Columbine”            Timbre--soprano sings throughout in a manner...
Arnold Schoenberg                     Pierrot lunaire “Columbine”            Harmony--completely atonal                 ...
Arnold Schoenberg (1874-1951)     Grew up in Vienna; learned      violin.     Worked in a bank to support      family af...
Arnold Schoenberg (1874-1951)       Formulated 12-tone method between 1918        and 1923, used exclusively for all work...
Arnold Schoenberg                        (1874 - 1951)       A tortured soul who never felt he fit anywhere       He bel...
Arnold Schoenberg                     Other Compositions            Variations for Orchestra--a series of             var...
A Survivor from Warsaw,                          Op. 46 (1947)   Cantata for narrator, male    chorus, orchestra   Deals...
12-Tone Composition       The most widely used and systematic means        for avoiding repetition to avoid tonality; als...
Matrix for Serial CompositionListen to This              PRENTICE HALL                     6-36By Mark Evan Bonds         ...
Serial Music     Serial Music is composed systematically--somewhat like      following a mathematical formula.     Once ...
Alban Berg (1885-1935)                                   Born in Vienna; worked as a                                    g...
Wozzeck   Opera, libretto    adapted from Georg    Buchner play   Three parts      I. Exposition      II. Development ...
Wozzeck    Each act contains five scenes organized     around specific musical form or     compositional technique(Ex. Ac...
Wozzeck                          Plot                             Franz Wozzeck,                              incompeten...
Neoclassicism: An                 Approach to Composition            A creative approach to producing new             mus...
Neoclassical Composers and                            Compositions   France     Erik Satie     Francis Poulenc     Dar...
Important Neoclassical                       Composers and Some                          Compositions        Germany     ...
Bela Bartok(1881-1945)   Hungary   Studied piano & composition at    Budapest Royal Academy of    Music   Concert piani...
Concerto for Orchestra(1943)     $1000 commission from Boston Symphony Orchestra     Called concerto because single inst...
Charles Ives             The Unanswered Question            Timbre--performed by 3 contrasting             groups of inst...
Charles Ives             The Unanswered Question            Texture--layered using contrasting             instruments   ...
Charles Ives             The Unanswered Question            Harmony--conflict between 2 different harmonic             la...
Charles Ives                         (1874 - 1954)            Grew up in Danbury, Connecticut; father was a             b...
A Photo of Charles IvesListen to This                        PRENTICE HALL                               6-51By Mark Evan ...
Experimental andTechnological Music
New Compositional Techniques:                 Composer Control       Increased use of 12-tone system       Serialism    ...
New Compositional                 Techniques: Composer Control   Electronic Music      Pioneers-Edgard Varese & Karlhein...
New Compositional                 Techniques: Performer Control      Aleatoric Music: many important performance decision...
Chapter 53: John Cage                             4’33”            Probably the most controversial             compositio...
John Cage                      (1912 - 1992)            Born in Los Angeles.            Studied composition with Arnold ...
John Cage Gathering                      Wild Greens--1971Listen to This                       PRENTICE HALL              ...
Other Experimentalists and                 Compositions   Pierre Boulez: athematic, atonal music that is    highly organi...
Minimalism       Minimalism-music intentionally limited to        complexity of rhythm, melody, harmony, and        media...
Philip Glass                             (b. 1937)            Born and raised in Baltimore, Maryland.            Studied...
Philip Glass Composing at                      the PianoListen to This                 PRENTICE HALL                      ...
Philip Glass                         Other Compositions            Etudes--technical piano             Soundtracks for  ...
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The 20th Century

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  1. 1. The 20 Century th The Twentieth Century01/09/13 1
  2. 2. The Twentieth Century-- Overview  Pace of everything, including stylistic changes in music, increased dramatically in this century.  Audiences had greater access to varied styles of music.  Composers created new and novel approaches to musical sounds, forms, and other elements.  Inclusion of musical elements from the past merged with new ways of combining them.  Influence of African American and Latin music was seen in all realms of music.  Audiences didn’t always know how to respond to these changes--a pattern of shock and then acceptance became common.Listen to This PRENTICE HALL 6-2By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  3. 3. The Twentieth Century-- Overview  Audio technology exploded.  Listeners could hear music when and where they chose.  Cylinder disk--1877  78 RPM records (vinyl)--1897  Radio stations--1920’s  Audiotape--1940’s (reel-to-reel)  Later--film, television, 8-track tapes, cassette tapes, CD’s, internet, MP3 players  Technology changed the way music was produced and distributed.  Sounds could be manipulated in the studio without live musicians.  Electronic sounds and recording techniques gave complete quality control to composers/performers.Listen to This PRENTICE HALL 6-3By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  4. 4. The Twentieth Century-- Overview  Diversity in cultures, music, and other aspects of life became appreciated and celebrated.  Segregation yielded to integration in multiple aspects of life in the United States.  Idea of social melting pot gave way --> society is a mosaic of different cultures and traditions, each contributing something important to a bigger whole.  The world became smaller; globalization became the norm.  Transportation made the world more accessible.  Music became a global phenomenon.Listen to This PRENTICE HALL 6-4By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  5. 5. Pablo Picasso’s Violin and Grapes  An example of “cubism” in Modern Art  Perspective is very distorted.  Viewer can see aspects of violins and of grapes throughout the painting.Listen to This PRENTICE HALL 6-5By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  6. 6. Music & the Musician in Society More 20th century music presented by orchestras in 1950s Modern compositions commissioned by ballet & opera companies More women active in composing-Amy Beach, Nadia Boulanger Many foreign composers came to America due to political unrest in Europe American colleges, universities train & employ leading musicians, today’s patronsListen to This PRENTICE HALL 6-6By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  7. 7. Impressionism  First, an artistic movement advanced by French painters like Claude Monet, Pierre Renoir, and Edgar Degas, in late 1860’s  Used short, visible brush strokes to produce sensations, rather than representations of objects  Impressionist music: blurring of harmonies, rhythms, forms; avoiding clear cadences ad rhythmic patterns  Orchestral Colors: delicate sounds preferred: flutes, oboes, clarinets, muted strings, harp, muted brasses, antique cymbals and triangles, gentle percussion soundsListen to This PRENTICE HALL 6-7By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  8. 8. Impressionism in Music  Scales: nontraditional scales: tendency to avoid key center  Debussy exposed to these at Paris Expositions of 1878 and 1889  Pentatonic: 5 notes to octave  Whole tone: all intervals equal: 7 tones to octave  Chromatic: using half steps; 12 tones in the octaveListen to This PRENTICE HALL 6-8By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  9. 9. Impressionism in Music  Rhythms  Asymmetrical and vague beats with complex subdivisions (7, 11, 13)  Harmony: extended chords stacked in 3rds: the 13th chord has all notes of diatonic scale;, Chords move in parallel motion (forbidden in traditional harmony  Melody: wandering, relaxed, unstressedListen to This PRENTICE HALL 6-9By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  10. 10. Claude Debussy (1862 - 1918) Born just outside of Paris during the U.S. Civil War and died just before the end of WWI--life straddled 2 centuries. Studied piano and composition at the Paris Conservatory. Won Prix de Rome and studied there for a while, but returned to Paris. Rejected many of the conventions of composition and sought to create new sounds. A master of orchestration Expanded the limits of harmony. Didn’t like the term “Impressionism.”Listen to This PRENTICE HALL 6-10By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  11. 11. Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun, 1894  “Free illustration of the beautiful poem by Stephane Mallarme”Listen to This PRENTICE HALL 6-11By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  12. 12. Claude Debussy in 1911Listen to This PRENTICE HALL 6-12By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  13. 13. A Caricature of Stravinsky at the KeyboardListen to This PRENTICE HALL 6-13By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  14. 14. Igor Stravinsky The Rite of Spring Part One  A ballet--premiered in 1913 in Paris and caused a riot  Commissioned for the Ballets Russes (The Russian Ballet in Paris).  The scenario (story): young girl dances herself to death while sage elders look on.  Divided into 2 parts:  The Adoration of the Earth  The SacrificeListen to This PRENTICE HALL 6-14By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  15. 15. The Rite of Spring First performed in 1913 in Paris at the Theatre of the Champs-Elysées by prestigious company, Ballet Russes. Audience was unaccustomed to dissonant sounds, shocked by Nijinsky’s avant-garde choreography and pagan rituals. First laughing, then heckling and protesting, finally breaking into a riot that spilled out into streets of Paris.Listen to This PRENTICE HALL 6-15By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  16. 16. Igor Stravinsky The Rite of Spring Part One  Harmony--polytonal--2 tonalities going on at the same time  Difficult to hear either tonal center.  Each harmony sounds good alone, but put them together and they are dissonant.  Melody--many are pentatonic  Captures a folk-like sound  From Russian folk songs  Brief and full of repetitions--small fragments repeated and varied many timesListen to This PRENTICE HALL 6-16By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  17. 17. Igor Stravinsky The Rite of Spring Part One  Rhythm--very irregular at times  Frequent meter changes  Offset by frequent ostinato figures--a single rhythmic or rhythmic-melodic figure is repeated over and over again.  Timbre--the Mega-Orchestra  A huge ensemble with large woodwind, brass, and percussion sections, as well as a string sectionListen to This PRENTICE HALL 6-17By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  18. 18. Igor Stravinsky The Rite of Spring Part One  A musical choreographic work  Represents pagan Russia.  Unified by a single idea--the mystery and great surge of creative power of Spring.  Has no real plot.  Form: Through-composed in two parts  The Adoration of the Earth--many dancers represent various spring rites and rituals.  The Great Sacrifice--a young girl sacrifices herself while the old men watch.  Little repetition between sections of the workListen to This PRENTICE HALL 6-18By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  19. 19. The Rite of Spring Performed by the Kirov BalletListen to This PRENTICE HALL 6-19By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  20. 20. Igor Stravinsky (1882 - 1971) Stravinsky--constantly reinvented himself. Born in St. Petersburg, Russia. Father was a famous operatic bass singer. Studied composition with Rimsky-Korsakov Was a neoclassicist--a composer who retained musical elements from the past while experimenting with new ones. Came to Los Angeles at beginning of WWII. Lectured at Harvard, moved to Los Angeles; citizenship in 1945. Later in life, he started writing 12-tone music--a break from his earlier style. One of the century’s 2 greatest composers (Schoenberg) Connected well with audiences. Died in New York City; buried in Venice, his favorite city. Listen to This PRENTICE HALL 6-20 By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  21. 21. Stravinsky Visits DebussyListen to This PRENTICE HALL 6-21By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  22. 22. Expressionism  Music, painting, poetry developed in Vienna in early 20th century.  Rejection of “Impressionism” with its focus on the “outer” world; focus on “inner” world, described by Sigmund Freud; desperate intensity of feeling.  Three leading composers: Arnold Schoenberg, Anton Webern, Alban Berg  Three leading painters: Pablo Picasso, Wassily Kandinsky, Paul Klee  Three leading writers-Frederich Nietzsche, Tennessee Williams, James JoyceListen to This PRENTICE HALL 6-22By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  23. 23. ExpressionismListen to This PRENTICE HALL 6-23By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  24. 24. Expressionism: Musical Characteristics  Atonality--careful construction of melodies and harmonies to avoid a tonal center, “absence of key”  The 12-tone system of composition  Developed by Schoenberg circa 1923  Also called serial or dodecaphonic method  Involves creating a set of pitches in a certain order (register--which octave pitch is in-- doesn’t matter)  No pitch repeats until entire row has been heardListen to This PRENTICE HALL 6-24By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  25. 25. Arnold Schoenberg Pierrot lunaire “Columbine”  “Columbine”--one of a set of 21 songs for soprano and a small ensemble of instruments--Pierrot lunaire  A piece that represents expressionism--an artistic movement in music, painting, and literature--concerned with expression of inner moods and thoughts, giving voice to the unconscious, to humanity’s deepest and darkest emotions.Listen to This PRENTICE HALL 6-25By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  26. 26. A Modern Pierrot  Note the facial expression depicting longing and anxiety.  Pierrot’s character was subject to many mood changes.Listen to This PRENTICE HALL 6-26By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  27. 27. Arnold Schoenberg Pierrot lunaire “Columbine”  Pierrot--a clown in an improvisational type of theater that originated in the Renaissance in Italy but spread throughout Europe--commedia dell’arte  Other characters--Harlequin, Punch, and Judy  Pierrot is the lovesick character who is always pining away.  Based on Albert Giraud’s Pierrot lunaire--a cycle of poems.  “Columbine”--another character--a sharp-witted maidservant linked romantically to Harlequin. Pierrot laments that she has rebuffed him.Listen to This PRENTICE HALL 6-27By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  28. 28. Arnold Schoenberg Pierrot lunaire “Columbine”  Timbre--soprano sings throughout in a manner that is between speech and song--called Sprechstimme (“Speech-voice”).  Singer hits precise pitches but doesn’t hold them.  Creates an eerie, disassociated sort of sound that fits with the text of Pierrot lunaire.  Different from earlier recitative--notes are delivered slowly so sound of voice trails off at end of each word--sounds like slow, exaggerated talking.Listen to This PRENTICE HALL 6-28By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  29. 29. Arnold Schoenberg Pierrot lunaire “Columbine”  Harmony--completely atonal  No sense of tonal center  No sense of resolution or harmonic closure  Word-Music Relationships--Pierrot is anguished and expresses this through his song.  He sings of “miraculous white roses” that he wants to spread on Columbine’s hair.  The music mimics petals dropping--flute and clarinet play a repeated three-note figure.Listen to This PRENTICE HALL 6-29By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  30. 30. Arnold Schoenberg (1874-1951)  Grew up in Vienna; learned violin.  Worked in a bank to support family after father passed away.  Mostly self-taught as composer, started as Neo- Romantic, moved toward Expressionism.  Became music director at Berlin cabaret.  Returned to Vienna, but served in Austrian army in WWI.Listen to This PRENTICE HALL 6-30By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  31. 31. Arnold Schoenberg (1874-1951)  Formulated 12-tone method between 1918 and 1923, used exclusively for all works.  Appointed professor of composition at Berlin Academy of Arts.  Fled to U.S. from Germany when Hitler seized power because he was Jewish.  Lived in Southern California and became a U.S. citizen.  Taught at Univ. of Southern CA and UCLA.Listen to This PRENTICE HALL 6-31By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  32. 32. Arnold Schoenberg (1874 - 1951)  A tortured soul who never felt he fit anywhere  He believed he was extending the work of Bach, Beethoven, and Brahms, but he was not accepted.  Born Jewish, converted to Christianity, and then went back to Judaism.  Searched for a new system of organizing music-- founded the twelve tone system.  All 12 notes in octave played before any is repeated.  All notes equally important.  Appointed to faculty of California universities.Listen to This PRENTICE HALL 6-32By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  33. 33. Arnold Schoenberg Other Compositions  Variations for Orchestra--a series of variations on a 12-tone theme  A Survivor from Warsaw--a cantata for narrator, male chorus, and orchestraListen to This PRENTICE HALL 6-33By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  34. 34. A Survivor from Warsaw, Op. 46 (1947) Cantata for narrator, male chorus, orchestra Deals with single episode in murder of 6 Jews by Nazis Schoenberg wrote text, based on direct report by one survivor Uses sprechstimme, twelve- tone, 6 minutesListen to This PRENTICE HALL 6-34By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  35. 35. 12-Tone Composition  The most widely used and systematic means for avoiding repetition to avoid tonality; also called serial composition.  The melody is called a tone row.  Rows could be manipulated:  Forward  Backward (retrograde)  Inverted (inversion)  Backward and inverted (retrograde inversion)Listen to This PRENTICE HALL 6-35By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  36. 36. Matrix for Serial CompositionListen to This PRENTICE HALL 6-36By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  37. 37. Serial Music  Serial Music is composed systematically--somewhat like following a mathematical formula.  Once the tone-row is established, the composer decides how to transform it.  Pieces tend to be short and concise.  For example, Webern’s Symphony only lasts 10 minutes (compare to Mahler’s Third (1 hr. 20 min.).  Sounds fragmented and dissonant; difficult for audience to follow.  Klangfarbenmelodie-”Tone Color Melody”  Instruments maintaining constant pitches drop in and out of an orchestral texture, creating a melody of different tone colorsListen to This PRENTICE HALL 6-37By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  38. 38. Alban Berg (1885-1935)  Born in Vienna; worked as a government accountant.  Studied composition with Schoenberg at 19.  Chronically ill, did not perform or conduct  Served in Austrian army during WWI.  Composed opera, Wozzeck, to capture turmoil of common people during wartime.Listen to This PRENTICE HALL 6-38By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  39. 39. Wozzeck Opera, libretto adapted from Georg Buchner play Three parts  I. Exposition  II. Development  III. Recapitulation  Different from Sonata FormListen to This PRENTICE HALL 6-39By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  40. 40. Wozzeck Each act contains five scenes organized around specific musical form or compositional technique(Ex. Act III-Theme & Variations)  Scene 1-on theme  Scene 2-on single tone  Scene 3-on rhythm pattern  Scene 4-on chord  Scene 5-continuous running note Did not intend for audience to be aware of formsListen to This PRENTICE HALL 6-40By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  41. 41. Wozzeck  Plot  Franz Wozzeck, incompetent soldier, persecuted by captain, guinea pig for demented doctor; Mistress Marie cheats on him, he stabs her then drowns trying to wash away bloodListen to This PRENTICE HALL 6-41By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  42. 42. Neoclassicism: An Approach to Composition  A creative approach to producing new music by using resources from former musical style periods  Idea = composer could incorporate any aspect of music from any/several previous style period(s) in a piece  “Back to Bach” attitude; turning away from program music & large orchestrasListen to This PRENTICE HALL 6-42By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  43. 43. Neoclassical Composers and Compositions France  Erik Satie  Francis Poulenc  Darius Milhaud United Kingdom  Edward Elgar: Pomp and Circumstance  Ralph Vaughan Williams  Gustav Holst: The Planets  Benjamin Britten: The Young Person’s Guide to the OrchestraListen to This PRENTICE HALL 6-43By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  44. 44. Important Neoclassical Composers and Some Compositions  Germany  Paul Hindemith  Carl Orff: Carmina burana  Central Europe  Bela Bartók  Latin America  Heitor Villa-Lobos  Carlos ChávezListen to This PRENTICE HALL 6-44By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  45. 45. Bela Bartok(1881-1945) Hungary Studied piano & composition at Budapest Royal Academy of Music Concert pianist & teacher Collected folk songs with Zoltan Kodaly Used fokd melodies in nationalistic music Fled to US upon Nazi occupation Taught at Columbia University Died of leukemiaListen to This PRENTICE HALL 6-45By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  46. 46. Concerto for Orchestra(1943)  $1000 commission from Boston Symphony Orchestra  Called concerto because single instruments and sections are treated in concerted way(Baroque style)  Movements independent of each other, no themes carried over  Five movements  I. based on interval of fourth  II. “Games of Pairs”-instruments paired off at specific pitch intervals  III. “lugubrious death-song”-folklike melody, oboe  IV. “Interrupted Intermezzo”-opening melody, Hungarian folklike quality pentatonic scale; 3rd theme adapted from Shostakovich 7th Symphony, display revulsion of Nazis  V. Large three part form, running notes, contrapuntalListen to This PRENTICE HALL 6-46By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  47. 47. Charles Ives The Unanswered Question  Timbre--performed by 3 contrasting groups of instruments.  Strings--small string orchestra of violins, violas, cellos, and double basses plays throughout the piece.  Solo trumpet--plays “The Unanswered Question.”  Wind quartet--(two flutes and two clarinets) responds to question with a different answer each time.Listen to This PRENTICE HALL 6-47By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  48. 48. Charles Ives The Unanswered Question  Texture--layered using contrasting instruments  Groups of instruments in dialogue with one another (trumpet vs. winds) while strings play on obliviously.  Three blocks of sound result; each moves independently of the others.Listen to This PRENTICE HALL 6-48By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  49. 49. Charles Ives The Unanswered Question  Harmony--conflict between 2 different harmonic languages--tonal and atonal  Tonal = having a tonal center  Atonal = having no tonal center  Notes sound “wrong”  Sound is called dissonance, as opposed to notes that sound “right” which are consonance.  Strings play tonal music--like a very slow hymn.  Solo trumpet plays 5-note figure that has no harmonic center.  Wind quartet plays atonally and is rhythmically independent of the other sections.Listen to This PRENTICE HALL 6-49By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  50. 50. Charles Ives (1874 - 1954)  Grew up in Danbury, Connecticut; father was a bandmaster.  Exposed to many types of music.  Had a “day job” as an insurance salesman, where he contributed to development of actuarial tables.  Composed in his spare time; gave it up in 1918 when his health declined.  By time of his death, recognized as a pioneer in music.Listen to This PRENTICE HALL 6-50By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  51. 51. A Photo of Charles IvesListen to This PRENTICE HALL 6-51By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  52. 52. Experimental andTechnological Music
  53. 53. New Compositional Techniques: Composer Control  Increased use of 12-tone system  Serialism  Total serialism-expanded further by Pierre Boulez, Luciano Berio, Milton Babbitt, Karlheinz Stockhausen  Musique Concrète: use of everyday sounds captured and manipulated with tape recorders  Electronic Music: sounds produced on electronic oscillators; recorded, stored, and used in compositions  Computer and Mixed Media: use of digital formats to create, manipulate, and organize sounds into compositionsListen to This PRENTICE HALL 6-53By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  54. 54. New Compositional Techniques: Composer Control Electronic Music  Pioneers-Edgard Varese & Karlheinz Stockhausen  Varese-French, lived in US  1st work, Ameriques, unusual combo of percussion instruments; Poeme electronique, World Fair 1958  Ionisation-37 different percussion instruments played by 13 musicians, Density 21.5(flute)  Trained in engineering & mathematics  Contact with Bell Telephone Co. to create machines to synthesize musical sounds  First to explore magnetic tape recorders’ potential for music making  Stockhausen- Gesang der JunglingeListen to This PRENTICE HALL 6-54By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  55. 55. New Compositional Techniques: Performer Control  Aleatoric Music: many important performance decisions left to performer, although specific instructions are given regarding some aspects of music; interdeterminancy  Chance Music: less precise notation than aleatoric music; instructions very general  Silence: forces audience to focus on other aspects of experience  Deck of Cards: shuffle deck, pull cards, numbers and suits determine aspects of music  Throw music on floor  Based on “no such thins a progress”-existential philosophy & Asian religions, things just “happen”Listen to This PRENTICE HALL 6-55By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  56. 56. Chapter 53: John Cage 4’33”  Probably the most controversial composition ever written  Said to be 4’33” of silence, but not truly silence  Audience sounds, ambient noise, etc. create the “piece.”  Cage was attempting to get the audience to listen carefully to sounds around them.Listen to This PRENTICE HALL 6-56By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  57. 57. John Cage (1912 - 1992)  Born in Los Angeles.  Studied composition with Arnold Schoenberg but moved on to composing in a radically modern manner.  Audiences were forced by his music to rethink the nature of music and of the world around them.Listen to This PRENTICE HALL 6-57By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  58. 58. John Cage Gathering Wild Greens--1971Listen to This PRENTICE HALL 6-58By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  59. 59. Other Experimentalists and Compositions Pierre Boulez: athematic, atonal music that is highly organized but dissonant Krysztof Penderecki: combines elements from Polish music with mainstream and experimental techniques: e.g., Threnody for the Victims of Hiroshima for orchestra and narrator Steve Reich: A minimalist using musique concrète techniques, but playing music “off track”; OctetListen to This PRENTICE HALL 6-59By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  60. 60. Minimalism  Minimalism-music intentionally limited to complexity of rhythm, melody, harmony, and media of performance  Consists of cyclic & repetitive patterns of hypnotic rhythms, constant harmonies, repeated phrases, ostinatos  Influenced by Javanese & Balinese music, “canned” rhythms, melodic patterns of synthesizers & rock musicListen to This PRENTICE HALL 6-60By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  61. 61. Philip Glass (b. 1937)  Born and raised in Baltimore, Maryland.  Studied flute at the Peabody Conservatory.  Studied composition at the Juilliard School of Music and worked in Paris with Nadia Boulanger--a composer/teacher.  Traveled in Asia studying music with the sitar player, Ravi Shankar.  Established the Philip Glass Ensemble--to assist modern music in reaching out to bigger audiences.Listen to This PRENTICE HALL 6-61By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  62. 62. Philip Glass Composing at the PianoListen to This PRENTICE HALL 6-62By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  63. 63. Philip Glass Other Compositions  Etudes--technical piano  Soundtracks for studies movies  Violin Concerto--for  The Illusionist violin and orchestra  The Secret Garden  A Descent into the  The Truman Show Maelstrom--a dance theater piece based on  Candyman Edgar Allen Poe’s short  The Hours story  Notes on a Scandal  10 operas  Kundun  Akhnaten--set in EgyptListen to This PRENTICE HALL 6-63By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
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