Romantic Era-Early 19th Century
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Romantic era, Part 1

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  • 1. The Romantic Era The Nineteenth Century01/07/13 1
  • 2. Political and Social Events of the Times  Monarchies had given way to more and more democracies.  Many countries which retained their monarchies also had democratic elements in their governments (e.g., Great Britain).  Lively cultural centers arose in Paris, Vienna, Prague, Budapest, Leipzig, Dresden, Amsterdam, and London, where artists, musicians, philosophers, and others gathered.Listen to This 5-2By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 3. The Nineteenth Century  Composers’ status rose tremendously as they were no longer employees of royalty and the aristocracy.  Performers received enormous fees.  Pianos and other instruments became widespread.  Many middle-class homes had their own pianos.  Demand for compositions for amateurs grew.  Music became a political force, calling for freedom, equality, and rights to assemble and associate with whomever people chose.Listen to This 5-3By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 4. Musicians  Musicians were self-sustaining.  Sources of income were published music, public concerts, commissions.  Public concert associations, ballet companies, symphony societies, and opera companies were formed all over Europe and the United States.  London Philharmonic Society, Paris Societe des Concerts du Conservatoire, New York Philharmonic, etc.  They became highly respected members of society.Listen to This 5-4By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 5. The Romantic Era  A time of fascination with imagination, individual emotion--called “Romanticism”  Intellect and art still important; dreams became important too.  Music--composers were freed from conventional styles and forms to compose in their own voices.  Orchestras were bigger; timbres, more diverse.  Program music became more important.  Range of musical elements--melody, rhythm, harmony, dynamics, timbre, texture, and form grew tremendously during this period.Listen to This 5-5By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 6. Romantic Composers & Their Public  Composers wrote to fulfill inner need, rather than by commission  Wanted to be judged by posterity  Musicians wrote for middle-class; now increased in size  Industrial revolutionListen to This 5-6By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 7. Romantic Composers & Their Public  Founding of music conservatories in U.S.-Chicago, Cleveland, Boston  More young men & women studying to become professional musicians  Virtuosity-Franz Liszt, Niccolo Paganini, Clara Wieck Schumann  Romantic composers came from their own social class audience, needed family support for careers  Few able to support selves through composition alone: sell music to publishers, touring, teaching, music critics, some lucky enough to have patronsListen to This 5-7By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 8. Romantic Composers  Beethoven & Wagner-prolific  U.S. composers-Stephen Foster, Henry Gilbert,  Schubert-symphonies, art song  Chopin-keyboard music only  Verdi-Italian opera  Rossini-Italian opera  Tchaikovsky-ballet  R. Strauss-Tone poem  Sibelius, Brahms, Mendelssohn, Mahler, Liszt, Mussorgsky, Franck, BerliozListen to This 5-8By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 9. Romantic Subjects for Artistic Works  Nature  Travel, distant lands,  Beauty exotic cultures  Love  Drug-induced states  Death  The brotherhood of  The supernatural man  The individual and the  The mystical, magical, and common man mysterious  The superman and hero  AdventureListen to This 5-9By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 10.  Romanticism should be:  Subjective and emotional  Translating human soul into music  Sorrow, passion, tenderness, exuberance, despairListen to This 5-10By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 11. Characteristics of Romantic Music Individuality of Style  Self-expression, “echo of innermost feeling”- Tchaikovsky  Highly emotional music  Unique  Reflects personality of composerListen to This 5-11By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 12. Characteristics of Romantic Music  Evocative Titles for Musical Works: musicians gave their works titles which depicted Romantic themes or subjects (e.g., love, nature, adventure)  Emotional Music: Romantic music attempted to express the gamut of human emotions through the musical elements: increased length of compositions, larger orchestrasListen to This 5-12By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 13. Characteristics of Romantic Music  Program Music: music written to tell a story or describe something  Sometimes the composer included a story, called a “program.”  The composer told the story or described something through the elements of music.  Musical sounds imitate non-musical situations  “Union of the Arts”Listen to This 5-13By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 14. Characteristics of Romantic Music  Rhythm: changing tempos within sections; rubato common; more complex meters and rhythms  Melody: long, flowing, emotional melodies; some short themes to express specific ideas or people; major and minor tonalities with chromaticism (using notes not in scale); instrumental melodies with wide leaps: not easy to grasp or singListen to This 5-14By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 15. Characteristics of Romantic Music  Harmony: key centered (tonal), but many changes of key (modulations) and much chromaticism; harmonies complex and not easy to follow  Dynamic Expression: extremes of dynamics used (ppp to fff); crescendo and decrescendo used extensively  Texture: mainly homophonic with some polyphonyListen to This 5-15By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 16. Characteristics of Romantic Music  Forms  Continued use of classical genres and forms: symphony (often with titles), solo concerto. opera  New small piano forms (nocturne, ballade, étude, waltz, mazurka)  New orchestral forms: ballet, symphonic tone poem, concert overtureListen to This 5-16By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 17. Form: Miniature & Monumental  Age of contradictions  Movements longer(Symphonies-45 minutes)  New techniques-more use of theme throughout symphony  Thematic transformation-ex. Lyrical melody becomes grotesque dance tune  One movement goes directly into next  Generalizations of period difficult-great diversityListen to This 5-17By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 18. Performance Media  Larger concert halls & opera houses  More emphasis on horn & percussion sections  More woodwind instruments  Addition of other percussion  Greater instrumental flexibility  More use of upper & lower registers  Higher level of virtuosity  New ways of blending & combining tone colors for intense soundListen to This 5-18By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 19. Nationalism  Nationalism--pride in country became important; the nation as a central social identity rose to prominence.  Groups were united by language and culture.  Composers created music to reflect their national pride, often using folk music of their countries as the basis for compositions.  Transportation changed.  Railroads and steamships made long distance travel feasible.  Communication expanded--telephone and telegraph invented.  Populations grew.Listen to This 5-19By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 20. Outstanding Composers of the Early Romantic Period  Hector Berlioz:  Frédéric Chopin: orchestration short piano works  Franz Schubert: art  Franz Liszt: piano songs virtuoso  Robert Schumann:  Felix Mendelssohn: piano works conductor, promoter,  Clara Schumann: a and composer concert pianist and  Fanny composer Mendelssohn: pianist and composerListen to This 5-20By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 21. The Romantic Art Song  A poem set to  Singer and piano music equally important  Typical subjects: love, nature,  Piano: introduction beauty, death, and and ending section heroism  Melodies heard in  Performed in small both parts in a gatherings in musical dialogue people’s homes;  Poetry and music later performed in both high art concert hallsListen to This 5-21By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 22. The Art Song  Many composers set poems in native language  Favored poets: Goethe, Heine  German art song: Lied  Art song-filled with unrequited love, beauty of nature, supernatural folk tales, reaching out of the soul  Translation of mood & imagery into music; mood set by introduction & postlude (end of piece)Listen to This 5-22By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 23. Forms of Art Songs  Strophic and Modified Strophic: Several verses of poetry with the same (or basically the same) music (e.g., The Trout)  Through-composed: Music does not repeat itself in a a specific pattern as the poem unfolds (e.g., The Erlking)  Song Cycles: groups of songs that tell a story or reflect on nature, beauty (e.g., Winterreise)Listen to This 5-23By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 24. Chapter 27: Franz Schubert “Erlkönig”  A drama set to music; characters  Sung by Narrator  Father  Child  The Erlking (death)  Only one performer with piano accompaniment  Text is a poem by Wolfgang Goethe--a ballad--poem that tells a story.Listen to This 5-24By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 25. The Erlking: The Story  Father is riding horse at  Child asks Father if he night with his Child. can see The Erlking.  Child is afraid; he sees  Father says he can only the Erlking (Death). see Willow Trees.  Father reassures Child  Child resists, but The as they ride. Erlking takes him by force.  Erlking entices the Child  When Father arrives to come with Him. home, his Child is dead!  Child expresses fearListen to This 5-25By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 26. Franz Schubert “Erlkönig”  Word-Music Relationships--song fits the content, meter, and rhyme scheme of the poem.  Rhythm--repetitive rhythmic figure in the accompaniment represents the horse.  Register--three characters and the narrator each have a particular register of the singer’s voice.  Dynamics--reflect the story; father is always loud; child is soft then loud; Erlking is softer and softer until very loud at end.  Harmony--key of g minor; shifts to major when the Erlking “speaks”--provides harmonic variety to the song.Listen to This 5-26By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 27. Franz Schubert (1797 - 1828)  A prolific composer of German lieder (art songs)  His songs involve texts from some of the greatest writers of his day.  Other works:  9 symphonies, many piano sonatas, chamber music  “The Trout”--a song and a piano quintet  Symphony no. 8--”Unfinished”  “Death and the Maiden”--a song and a string quartet  “Serenade”--a song and a piano piece  7 masses  Over 600 art songsListen to This 5-27By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 28. Franz Schubert at the Piano by W. A. RiederListen to This 5-28By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 29. Franz Schubert (1779-1828)  Born in Vienna; member of Vienna Boy’s Choir  Son of school master  Pianist and violinist  Wrote Gretchen am Spinnrade at 17  Started out as a teacher, but quit to compose at 21.  Income came entirely from composition  Usually lived with friends, did not mingle with upper class  Contracted syphilis at 25, moody & prone to despair  Like Mozart, he died at a young age (31), after 5 years of illness.  Applied to musical positions but not acceptedListen to This 5-29By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 30. Franz Schubert  Die Forelle(The Trout)  1817  Text by Christian Daniel Schubart  Trout caught by fisherman  Also as string quartetListen to This 5-30By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 31. Clara and Robert SchumannListen to This 5-31By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 32. Robert Schumann (1810-1856) Born in Zwickau, Germany; went to study law at Leipzig University, but skipped class!! Studied piano with Friedrich Wieck; married his daughter, Clara: a concert pianist. Contracted syphilis, which ruined his hands and ended his concert piano career. Founded The New Journal for Music: served as editor and music critic- set up with partners in 1834. One of first to praise Berlioz’ Symphonie fantastique and to recognize both Chopin and Brahms as compositional geniuses Developed depression and hallucinations (from syphilis?); died in asylum at age 46.Listen to This 5-32By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 33. Robert Schumann  Through writing & criticism, championed Chopin, Schubert, Brahms  Wrote with pseudonyms  Wrote virtually all piano works before age of 30 in 1840  4 symphonies with experimental aspects- large brass section, high level of chromaticism; cyclic devices; sonata- allegro form with no developmentListen to This 5-33By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 34. Robert Schumann(1810-1856)  Schizophrenic, “gloriously mad”  Attempted suicide by jumping into Rhine in 1854, rescuedListen to This 5-34By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 35. Robert Schumann “Dedication”  “Widmung” = “Dedication”  Written in 1840, the year he married Clara Wieck (they eloped)  A love poem set to music  An example of a German liedListen to This 5-35By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 36. Robert Schumann “Dedication”  Form = ternary  A B A’  A’ means that the first section is repeated after the contrasting section, but slightly differently  Both the melody and the rhythm create the contrast between the A and B sections; harmony contributes to the contrast as well  Harmony  A = key of A-flat  B = key of E--NOT a closely related key; A-flat has 4 flats; E has 4 sharps.Listen to This 5-36By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 37. Robert Schumann  Character pieces  Carnaval-Opus 9 from Piano Solo  “Little Scenes on Four Notes”  Collections of personalities  Written during Carnaval season of 1835(Mardi Gras)  Chiarina-for Clara Weick  Chopin- “nocturne”  Estrella-fiancee Ernestine von Fricken  Reconaissance-reunion  Certain movements named for clowns of Commedia del arte(Italian theater)  Papillons-butterfliesListen to This 5-37By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 38. Robert Schumann Other Compositions  Dichterliebe (Poet’s Love)--a song cycle  Kreisleriana--a cycle of solo piano works  Piano Concerto in A Minor  Symphony no. 3 (“Rhenish”)  Over 275 art songs  Chamber music  Symphony No. 1Listen to This 5-38By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 39. Clara Wieck Schumann (1819 - 1896)  Studied piano at age 5  Gave first full piano recital at age 9  Toured Europe as child prodigy  Published music as teenager, rare  Her father, Friedrich Wieck, opposed her marrying a musician, but she eloped and married Robert Schumann anyway at age 21  8 children, one dying in infancy.  She was one of the great piano virtuosos of her generation.Listen to This 5-39By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 40. Clara Wieck Schumann (1819-1896)  Premiered Robert’s works and those of Brahms(came to live with Schumanns in 1853)  Continued to perform after marriage and widowhood, but few compositions were published after that.  Had long relationship with Johannes Brahms.  Widowed in her mid-30’s, Clara pursued a highly successful career as a soloist (piano) and teacher.  Taught at Leipzig Conservatory of Music and Hoch Conservatory in Frankfurt.Listen to This 5-40By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 41. Clara Wieck Schumann-- by Dagli OrtiListen to This 5-41By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 42. Clara Wieck Schumann Other Compositions  Piano Concerto in A Minor  Three Songs on Texts by Rückert  Variations on a Theme by Robert Schumann--for piano  Piano Trio in G Minor  Three Romances--for pianoListen to This 5-42By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 43. Program Music & Symphonic Works  After Beethoven, two courses were established:  An attempt at sustaining the traditional concept of the symphony as established by the Viennese Classicists  Mendelssohn, Schumann, Brahms  Venturing into the experimental in expressiveness and expansion as modeled after Beethoven’s 6th(Pastoral) and 9th(Choral)  Berlioz, Liszt, MahlerListen to This 5-43By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 44. Program Music  Berlioz & Liszt  Abandoned four movement form  Theme transformation  Colorful and expressive orchestral resources  Many changes in tempo & dynamics  Melodic & harmonic chromaticismListen to This 5-44By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 45. Program Music Symphonic poem-An orchestral form in which a poem or program provides a narrative or illustrative basis One movement Flourished in 1840’s to 1920’s Satisfied three aspirations of 19th century  To relate music to the outside world  To integrate multi-movement form  To elevate instrumental music to a higher level than that of vocal musicListen to This 5-45By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 46. Program Music  Overtures became independent of their theatrical origin  Achieve programmatic status  “Incidental Music”  Overture-direct prototype for Liszt’s conception of a one-movement symphonic poem  His view was to refrain from narrative & literal depiction, theme transformationListen to This 5-46By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 47. Chapter 29: Hector Berlioz Symphonie fantastique, 4th movement  A 5-movement composition with a written program written by Berlioz himself  The story--an artist’s dream that moves from blissful reverie (1st movement) to nightmare (movements 4 and 5).  Dream is about lover and her eventual rejection of him.Listen to This 5-47By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 48. Symphonie fantastique  Written during Prix de Rome year  A young musician of morbid sensibility and ardent imagination in a fit of lovesick despair has poisoned himself with opium. The drug, to weak to kill, plunges him into a heavy sleep accompanied by strange visions. The sensations, feelings, and memories are translated in his sick brain into musical images and ideas. The beloved one herself becomes for him a melody, a recurrent theme that haunts him everywhere.Listen to This 5-48By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 49. Hector Berlioz Symphonie fantastique  1st Movement--“Dreams--Passions”--artist thinks about beloved  2nd Movement--“A Ball”--artist sees lover at a dance  3rd Movement--“Scene in the Countryside”--artist dreams he is in the country but then thinks about his lover’s betraying him  4th Movement-- “March to the Scaffold”--artist’s execution for killing lover  5th Movement-- “Dream of a Witches’ Sabbath”-- ghosts and monsters gather for his funeralListen to This 5-49By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 50. Hector Berlioz Symphonie fantastique, 4th movement  Timbre--composed for a huge orchestra  Berlioz--widely acknowledged as the first great master of orchestration--the art of arranging music for instruments  Symphony includes novel and spectacular orchestral effects.  Combining timbres of individual instruments and groups of instruments to create sounds that had never been heard before  Exploiting the range of the instruments and the types of melodies that could best be played by themListen to This 5-50By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 51. Program Music: Berlioz’ Symphonie Fantastique  He also asked string players to hit strings with the back of the bow (“col legno battuta”) to imitate skeletons.  He wrote a detailed program.  The 5th movement includes another famous melody: the Dies Irae (Day of Wrath) from the Requiem Mass for the Dead.  Berlioz “transformed” the melody: i.e., he varied it for effect, but it was recognizable.Listen to This 5-51By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 52. Hector Berlioz Symphonie fantastique, 4th movement  Idée fixe--a melody (represents the beloved) whose form changes from movement to movement but which appears at some point in all five movements, transformed to fit the emotion of the moment  Form of 4th movement:  Introduction A/B/A/B/A/ Coda (two contrasting sections framed with an Introduction and a Coda  A theme - “gloomy and ferocious”  B theme - “solemn and brilliant”  Idée fixe is heard just prior to the fall of the guillotine blade (artist thinks of lover before dying)Listen to This 5-52By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 53. Hector Berlioz (1803 - 1869)  Born near Lyon, France, Grenoble  Berlioz’ father wanted him to be a doctor; he went to medical school in Paris, but dropped out.  Started serious music study at age 19.  Studied in Rome(Prix de Rome) and returned to Paris to compose.  Studied at the National Conservatory of Music in Paris.  Wrote music criticism to support himself during his studies.  Studied instrumental effects and learned how they produced sounds.  Wrote an important book on orchestration (how to use the instruments of the orchestra to produce the desired sounds): Treatise on Instrumentation.  Friends with Eugene Delacroix, Victor Hugo  This composition is written about Berlioz’s obsessive love for Harriet Smithson. Another composition, “The Return to Life” is believed to be a marriage proposal to her.Listen to This 5-53By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 54. Hector Berlioz(1803-1869)  Obsessed with actress Harriet Smithson  “Smithson & Berlioz will be reunited in the oblivion of the tomb”  Married Harriet despite objection, left after nine years to live with Italian opera singerListen to This 5-54By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 55. A Caricature of Hector Berlioz Note the Exaggerated HairListen to This 5-55By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 56. Hector Berlioz Other Compositions  Harold in Italy--a symphony  Romeo and Juliet--a symphony  Requiem--a Mass for the Dead  “L’enfance du Christ” (The Infancy of Christ)--an oratorio  Te Deum  The Trojans-opera  Grande symphonie funèbre et triomphaleListen to This 5-56By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 57. Felix Mendelssohn (1809-1847)  Born in Hamburg, Germany into a prominent family notable for its expertise in the areas of philosophy and finance..  Child prodigy; studied piano, and began composing at a very early age.  Wrote 6 symphonies by age 12, 7 more by age 14, and an overture by age 21.  Father tried to add “Bartholdy” to family name to avoid anti- Semitism (sometimes this name is added to his).  A cosmopolitan composer who spoke English, French, and Italian; able to read both Greek and Latin easily.  Conducted a revival of Bach’s St. Matthew Passion.  Composed the famous “Wedding March.”Listen to This 5-57By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 58. Felix Mendelssohn (1809-1847)  Became conductor of Gewandhaus Orchestra in Leipzig.  Orchestra performed music of many contemporary composers.  Pushed his orchestra to perform at high level.  Founded Leipzig Conservatory, one of Europe’s finest music schools.  Died shortly after his older sister, at age 37.Listen to This 5-58By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 59. Felix Mendelssohn: An Early Promoter and Producer  As conductor of the Leipzig Orchestra  Doubled musicians’ salaries from own pocket; established pension plan for them.  Assembled programs of music from both contemporary and earlier composers.  Actively promoted music of his contemporaries: e.g., Schubert, Schumann, Berlioz, Brahms, and Chopin.Listen to This 5-59By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 60. Mendelssohn on a Trip to London, by James W. ChildeListen to This 5-60By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 61. Fanny Mendelssohn (1809-1847)  Felix Mendelssohn’s older sister; married Wilhelm Hensel.  A fine pianist and composer, but her music remained unpublished.  Some speculate that some music attributed to her brother may have been composed by her.  Also performed music by of other composers.  Died on stage during a rehearsal.Listen to This 5-61By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 62. Romantic Piano Music  Pianos had greatly improved by the time of the Romantic Period.  Better sound, loud enough to fill public concert halls  Better mechanical systems, responsive to virtuoso playing  The Public loved virtuoso performers.  Private concerts for selected guests were performed in salons.Listen to This 5-62By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 63. The Piano  Cast-iron frame allowed for greater string tension  Hammers covered with felt  Range extended  Damper pedal addedListen to This 5-63By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 64. Romantic Piano Music  Pianos became popular in the home; composers wrote and publishers produced music for the non-virtuoso player.  Especially among the middle class and the wealthy, learning to play piano was considered part of a good education.  This demand for all-level works was lucrative for composers and publishers.Listen to This 5-64By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 65. Salon (Intimate) Piano Music: Miniatures (2-5 mins.)  Ballades  Nocturnes  Capriccios  Polonaises  Consolations  Preludes  Etudes (studies)  Rhapsodies  Fantasies  Scherzos  Impromptus  Songs Without  Mazurkas Words  WaltzesListen to This 5-65By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 66. Frédéric Chopin (1809 - 1848) Born near Warsaw, Poland; gave first piano recital at age 8; studied piano at Warsaw Conservatory. Father was French and mother was Polish--never felt at home in either place. Russia annexed most of Poland, which awakened his nationalism--as manifested in his polonaises and mazurkas. Made a living in Paris from teaching and sales of his music for piano. Had a long relationship with Amandine Lucile Aurore Dudevant (George Sand). Died of tuberculosis, age 39. Most of his works are for piano.Listen to This 5-66By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 67. Frederick Chopin(1810-1849)  Wrote exclusively for piano, “the poet of the piano”  First imaginative use of pedal & rubato(performer deviates slightly from exact execution of rhythm)Listen to This 5-67By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 68. A Daguerreotype of ChopinListen to This 5-68By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 69. Other Virtuoso Artists of the 19th Century  Franz Liszt--piano; created the public piano recital  Very famous piece--Hungarian Rhapsody #2  Nicolo Paganini--violin  Very famous pieces--Caprices, and Violin Concerto #2 in B MinorListen to This 5-69By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 70. Franz Liszt (1811-1886)  Born near Sopron (in Austria-Hungary).  Studied piano in Vienna; piano concert debut in London at age 11.  Considered greatest piano virtuoso of 19th century.  Lived in Paris from age 16 to age 38, touring throughout Europe.Listen to This 5-70By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 71. Franz Liszt (1811-1886)  Became music director to Grand Duke of Weimar.  Story has it, he changed position of piano on stage (from back to audience to sideways) and threw away the music!  Ever since, tradition has dictated that pianists play concert music from memory.Listen to This 5-71By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 72. Franz Liszt (1811-1886)  Some famous works  Orchestra: Faust Symphony, Dante Symphony, Les Préludes, Piano Concertos No. 1 and No. 2  Piano Music: Sonata in b minor, Six Consolations, Transcendental Studies, Hungarian Rhapsodies, and many short piano piecesListen to This 5-72By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458