The Classical Era

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The Classical Era

The Classical Era

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  • 1. The Classical Era The Classical Era01/08/13 1
  • 2. The Classical Period  Vienna-hub of the music world  Former seat of Holy Roman Empire  Bustling cultural & commercial center  4th largest city in Europe  Many aristocrats are musicians/performers  Class barriers broken down by musical tastesListen to This 4-2By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 3. The Classical Era: Overview Time Period: (1750 - 1800)  Two leading composers: Haydn & Mozart  Others include CPE Bach, JC Bach  “classical”--refers to  Greek and Roman antiquity  Balance, clarity, naturalness (vs. ornamentation, virtuosity, expressive extremes of Baroque Era)  1720-1790--Age of Enlightenment--critical thinking and reasoned discussion important  Gallant style, rococoListen to This 4-3By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 4. Cultural/Historical Context of Classical Era  1759--Voltaire’s Candide  1762--Rousseau’s Social Contract  1775-1776--American Revolution/Declaration of Independence  1789--French Revolution  1789--U.S. Constitution  1793-1794--Reign of Terror in FranceListen to This 4-4By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 5. Difference between Baroque & Classical Styles  More middle class  Greater need for public entertainment  Greater need for amateurs to play instruments  Musicians hired & paid for informal gatherings other than church, etc.  Beginning of profits from concert attendanceListen to This 4-5By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 6. “Classical” Music: Ideal Music  Language should be universal  Not limited by natural boundaries  Noble & entertaining  Expressive & natural  Free of needless technical complications  Please any normal sensitive listener Classical thought focuses on the objective vs. the subjective Term borrowed from Art History-stress on balance and clarity of structureListen to This 4-6By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 7. The Patronage System: From Aristocracy to Public  Composers worked during a period of violent political & social upheaval  Strongly affected by changes in society  Economical improvements  Middle class prospered & sought aristocratic luxuries  Had great influence on music • Townspeople organized concerts, flourished in 2nd half of 18th century • Children deserved music lessons • Demand for printed music, instruments, etc. increasedListen to This 4-7By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 8. The Patronage System: From Aristocracy to Public  More pieces written for amateurs  Serious to comic operas-ridiculing aristocracy  Serious compositions flavored by folk & popular music  Music written for private parties & eventsListen to This 4-8By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 9. Public Concerts in Classical Period  For first time subscription concerts (like season tickets) were offered to public, outside of the courts and homes of aristocracy.  Composers had guaranteed audiences, and they composed for their tastes.  Composers were usually present when their music was played. They were celebrities.  Their orchestras rarely played music by other composers because music printing wasn’t well developed so the music wasn’t available.Listen to This 4-9By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 10. The Classical Era: Changes from Baroque Era  General --restrained, balanced, and stable; clear musical ideas; predictable  Performance Media--symphony orchestra, chamber orchestra and ensembles, soloists opera companies  Rhythm-- simple, regular rhythms with steady beat; steady tempos  Dynamic Expression--extremes of dynamics not usedListen to This 4-10By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 11. The Classical Era: Changes from Baroque Era  Melodies--less complex, more tuneful, more balanced  Phrasing--more symmetrical; based on dance rhythms  Texture--more often homophonic; occasional polyphony  Themes--multiple themes vs. single theme  Instruments--equal importance with voiceListen to This 4-11By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 12. The Classical Era: Changes from the Baroque Era  Contrast of mood: Wider emotional range, not limited to one “mood” per piece  The End of the Basso Continuo  Abandoned, no need for improvised accompaniment, More music written for amateurs, Composers had more control, could specify correct accompanimentListen to This 4-12By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 13. The Classical Era: Changes from the Baroque Era  Forms  Detailed forms of single movements  binary & ternary forms, sonata- allegro, rondo, minuet & trio, theme & variations  Large forms in several movements  Symphony, concerto, sonata, string trio/quartet, opera, oratorios, MassesListen to This 4-13By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 14. Joseph Haydn (1732 - 1809) Music Director for Prince Nicholas Esterhazy for almost 3 decades  Composing--whatever Prince wanted  Conducting--in charge of one of the best orchestras in Europe  Keeping order among musicians Established the symphony and the string quartet as major instrumental forms. After death of Prince, Haydn made 2 long trips to England (1790).  Composed symphonies, songs, and piano works Returned to Vienna in 1795--produced oratorios, Masses, and more string quartets. Taught BeethovenListen to This 4-14By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 15. Joseph Haydn (1732 - 1809) Born in Rohrau, Austria, and studied in Vienna. Background consisted of folk music Went to Vienna at age 8, served as choirboy in Cathedral of St. Stephen Turned out when voice changed Gave music lessons Played violin in street bands Died 1809, while Napoleon’s army was occupying ViennaListen to This 4-15By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 16. Haydn’s Music  Wrote every kind of music  Optimistic, sense of humor  “Papa Haydn”-very influential to other musicians  Master at developing themesListen to This 4-16By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 17. Other Important Symphonies Composed by Haydn  Symphony #8--G Major (“Evening”)  One of a series (“Morning,” “Noon,” and “Evening”)  Symphony #45--F Minor (“Farewell”)  Musicians left the stage one-by-one in protest for having to be away from their families too long  Symphony #94--G Major (“Surprise”)  Loud chord near beginning of slow movement  Symphony #101--D major (“Clock”)  Tick-tock rhythm of slow movementListen to This 4-17By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 18. Chapter 19--Joseph Haydn: The String Quartet  Common Movements  Sonata form--fast  Sonata, theme and variations, or ABA-- slow (contrasting key)  Minuet and Trio--ABA--triple meter  Finale-sonata or rondo--very fastListen to This 4-18By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 19. The String Quartet  Musical Instruments  1st violin  2nd violin  viola  celloListen to This 4-19By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 20. Joseph Haydn: String Quartet in C Major--2nd Movement  Theme: hymn-like, resembling 4-part harmony (homophonic)  Variation 1: violin 2 has melody with violin 1 accompaniment (2-part homophony)  Variation 2: cello has theme with other 3 voices accompanying  Variation 3: viola has melody; only 3 voices play most of variation  Variation 4: 4-part polyphony throughoutListen to This 4-20By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 21. Concerto for Trumpet in E-flat Third Movement-Rondo(1796)  Composed in 1796 for keyed trumpet  Virtuoso-Anton Weidinger  Contains difficult passages  Exciting to listen to  Brilliant trumpet sound  Happy quality  Rondo form  Rondo contains both old and new ideasListen to This 4-21By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 22. The Classical Orchestra  Also called “chamber orchestra”  Strings--8-10 first violins, 6-8 second violins, 4-6 violas, 3-4 cellos, 2 double basses  Winds--2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 bassoons, 2 trumpets, 2 French horns  Trombones used-only in church music & opera(Haydn, Mozart)  Percussion--timpani (kettle drums)  Each section played a more special role- orchestra worked more as a wholeListen to This 4-22By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 23. The Classical Symphony  Symphony-extended composition typically lasting between 20 & 40 minutes, exploiting range of tone color and dynamics of orchestra  4 movements.  Mozart and Haydn used minuet and trio form for the 3rd movement.  Beethoven introduced the faster scherzo and trio as the dance movement.Listen to This 4-23By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 24. The Classical Symphony  Great contribution to orchestral music  Haydn-104, mostly composed for employers  Mozart over 40, may not have heard them performed  Beethoven-9, wrote only when inspired, longer than previous composers, conceived for performance in large concert hallsListen to This 4-24By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 25. Movements  I. Fast, vigorous movement, always in sonata-form  II. Lyrical slow movement-songlike melodies, can be in sonata-form, ABA form, theme & variations, NOT in tonic key  III. Dancelike movement-minuet & trio, moderate or quick tempo(Haydn, Mozart)  IV. Heroic fast movement-lively, brilliant, lighter in mood than opening movement, in rondo, sonata-form, sonata-rondoListen to This 4-25By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 26. The Classical Symphony  Key-important, provided with title of work, may be only reference to piece, not necessarily important to listener  Each movement self-contained composition with own set of themes, theme in one movement rarely appears in another  Unified by use of same key in 3 movements, movements balance & complement each other  Importance of symphony lasted through 20th centuryListen to This 4-26By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 27. Detailed Forms of the Classical Period  Sonata allegro  Theme and Variations  Minuet and Trio (song form and trio)  RondoListen to This 4-27By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 28. The Sonata-Allegro Form  Sonata-Allegro Form  Became expected form for first movements of symphonies, concertos, chamber works  Still used today  Also found in other movements of multimovement works  Sonata form different from sonataListen to This 4-28By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 29. The Sonata-Allegro Form  More than just plan or scheme  Features development of themes  Zucchini analogy(old text)Listen to This 4-29By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 30. The Zucchini Analogy Several years ago people in small town in Ohio realized that zucchini grew abundantly in their gardens and farms. In fact, conditions one summer were so good that they could never use all of it, and a lot of zucchini would rot unused on the vine. What to do? They decided to hold a “Zucchini Festival,” complete with crafts, dancing, music, and, of course, zucchini. Sure enough, it was chopped, sliced, and ground up and incorporated in all sorts of vegetable dishes, made into preserves and pickles, and blended in bread and muffins. Even the arts were included as many fine pieces of zucchini sculpture were carved It’s a bit like that with the development of themes in sonata-form. Composers take a theme and work it in all sorts of ways. The themes, or at least parts of them, are still there, but they have been given a variety of treatments.Listen to This 4-30By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 31. Sonata Form, Continued  Exposition lays out at least 2 main themes in contrasting, but related keys; the themes are usually dissimilar in character (e.g., one fast, one slower).Listen to This 4-31By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 32. Sonata Form, Continued  Development--moves through various keys (modulates), rarely staying in one key for long.  Recapitulation--returns to tonic key and stays in that key throughout; themes of the exposition are heard again, but ALL are in the tonic key.  Coda or Codetta--an ending section in the tonic key; not part of the actual sonata formListen to This 4-32By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 33. Sonata Form DiagramListen to This 4-33By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 34. Symphony No. 40 in G Minor, K.555 (1788)  Unlikely heard them performed  Score calls for typical orchestra: violins, violas, cellos, flute, 2 each oboe, bassoon, Fr. Horn; revised to include clarinetsListen to This 4-34By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 35. Difference between developing a theme vs. varying a theme Development  Involves fragmenting and remolding a theme Variation  Places the entire theme in new settings or gives it a new harmonic, rhythmic, or melodic costumeListen to This 4-35By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 36. Theme and Variations Form  Very popular in Classical Era  Theme presented and then altered in several ways  Examples of variation techniques:  Change of key  Change of mode (major to minor/minor to major)  Change of tempo or meter  Change of timbre (i.e., instrumentation)  Change in texture (homophony/polyphony)Listen to This 4-36By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 37. Theme & Variations  Can be independent piece or movement of symphony, sonata, or string quartet  Outline of form: A A΄(A prime, variation 1), A΄΄(variation 2), etc.; each prime mark indicates variation of basic theme  Connected or separated by pauses  Composer may borrow melody or invent own  Usually no more than 4 variations of a tuneListen to This 4-37By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 38. Minuet and Trio: A Three- Part Large Form  Often used as third movement of symphony, quartets, etc.  Originated as dance-stately, dignified  Triple meter(3/4), moderate tempo  Each part also divided into 3 parts  Minuet Section = A (a b a) repeated  Trio Section = B (c d c) repeated  Minuet Section = A (a b a) not repeated  Trio section is often in another key and is more lively in tempo.Listen to This 4-38By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 39. Rondo  Main theme lively, easy to remember, stated in tonic key  Used either as independent piece or movement of larger piece, usually last (happy ending syndrome)  Combined with elements of sonata form- sonata-rondo-with development section like sonata formListen to This 4-39By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 40. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756 - 1791) Born in Salzburg, Austria, child prodigy on piano Composed 1st symphony by age 8, 1st opera at 12. Father was a composer--Leopold Mozart; recognized his son’s musical genius early. Toured Europe to meet composers, perform, and learn about styles of composition and performance. Went to Vienna in 1781 without steady employment, hoping to support himself by performing on the piano, selling his compositions, and giving piano lessons. Died at age 35.Listen to This 4-40By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 41. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791)  Wrote every genre, mostly opera  In London-performed concerti of J.C. Bach  Archbishop Hieronymus Colloredo-refused him a more suitable position in court orchestra  Had no success acquiring decent job  Reputation as brat  All works catalogued by Ludwig von KochelListen to This 4-41By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 42. Mozart at the Keyboard with Sister, Nannerl, as Father, Leopold, Looks OnListen to This 4-42By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 43. Mozart--Other Famous Compositions  Mass in C Minor  Requiem--a Mass for the Dead--his last, unfinished work  Eine kleine Nachtmusik  Symphonies—no. 25 (“Little”), no. 38 (“Prague”), no. 41 (“Jupiter”)  Operas--Don Giovanni, The Magic Flute, The Marriage of Figaro, Cosi fan Tutte  Piano Concertos  Piano SonatasListen to This 4-43By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 44. Important Composers of the Classical Concerto  C.P.E. Bach--50  Mozart keyboard concertos  27 piano concertos  Johann Christian  5 violin concertos Bach--dozens of  4 horn concertos keyboard concertos  1 bassoon concerto  1 concerto for flute  Haydn and harp  Cello Concerto in D  Concerto for 2 Major Pianos in E-flat  Trumpet Concerto in Major E-flat Major  Clarinet Concerto in A MajorListen to This 4-44By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 45. The Solo Concerto  Soloist (typically piano or violin) and orchestra  3 movement format: fast, slow, fast  1st and last movements usually had cadenza: an improvisatory passage in which soloist could show off virtuosity on instrument, fermata  Often this passage was not written by composer.  Much of the musical improvisation was based on themes of the movement.Listen to This 4-45By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 46. Concerto--Movements  Typically a 3-movement genre  First movement--sonata form  Second movement--sonata, theme and variations, or ABA form  Third movement--Finale--sonata or rondo form  Omits the dance movement (minuet and trio)Listen to This 4-46By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 47. Chapter 23: Mozart’s Piano Concerto in A Major  1781--Mozart left his  Concerto = soloist plus native Salzburg and orchestra in various moved to Vienna at configurations age 25, hoping to get  Orchestra alone a position in a royal  Soloist alone court. There he  Orchestra supports composed 17 piano soloist concertos in the 10  Soloist supports years before he died orchestra (age 35).  Soloist and orchestra of equal importanceListen to This 4-47By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 48. Double-Exposition Concerto Form  First movement--sonata form  2 expositions  1st--orchestra alone; all in tonic  2nd--soloist and orchestra together; 2nd theme modulates to related key (as in other sonata form movements)  Development--avoids tonic, like sonata form  Recapitulation--all themes in tonic  Contains cadenza--virtuostic, improvisatory section based on themes and other material  Coda--follows cadenza--orchestra plays alone; tonic keyListen to This 4-48By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 49. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Master of Opera-wrote in both German & Italian Opera buffa-Italian, all composed to librettos by Lorenzo da Ponte The Marriage of Figaro- extremely successful Cosi fan tutte(They’re All Like That)Listen to This 4-49By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 50. Opera of the Classical Period  Enjoyed by middle class and aristocracy.  Public opera houses were very popular.  Both Haydn and Mozart composed many operas, thought most of Haydn’s are lost.  Although Haydn’s operas were in traditional Italian, Mozart wrote some in German.  Mozart produced some in folk theaters, called singspiel, rather than in opera houses.  Plots often attacked aristocracy or made fun of current figures of the day.Listen to This 4-50By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 51. Don Giovanni  Commissioned by Prague opera company  Not popular with Viennese  Blend of serious & comic opera, violence & the supernatural  Based on tale of Don JuanListen to This 4-51By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 52. Requiem Mass in D Minor(1791)  Commissioned by anonymous nobleman through letter brought by a stranger  Intended to pass off work as his own  Composed 9 movements, part of 10th  Tried to finish on deathbed  Baroque touches(double fugue in Kyrie)  Completed by student-Franz Suessmeyer, who filled out orchestration, completed fragment, added four movements  Dies irae-Day of Wrath-based on 13th century text, describing judgment dayListen to This 4-52By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 53.  Music- “must never offend the ear, but must please the hearer, or in other words, must never cease to be music.”Listen to This 4-53By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458