The Baroque             The Baroque Era01/08/13                       1
The Baroque Era: Overview            Time Period (1600-1750)          The period between the Renaissance and the         ...
The Baroque Era: Overview          National pride was illustrated in cultural, political, and           economic terms. F...
Baroque Music: General            Whereas in the Renaissance, most             church music was performed without        ...
Historical Events that             Influenced Baroque Period            Gutenberg’s movable type (1453) led to           ...
Characteristics of                     Baroque Style Music            General: heavy, grand, expansive            Perfor...
Characteristics of                     Baroque Style Music            Melody: using major and minor scales, ornamentation...
Characteristics of                     Baroque Style Music:                          Overview         Texture: mainly pol...
Louis XIV’s Palace at                          VersaillesListen to This                 3-9By Mark Evan Bonds             ...
The Baroque Era: Overview          Operas were first performed in private theaters in the courts of the           nobilit...
Example of Baroque Era             Painting--A Musical Interlude                                    By the Dutch painter ...
Instruments            Instruments of all             types continue to             improve            Amati-Guarneri   ...
New Musical Ideas            Stile antico                         Stile moderno            First                       ...
The Doctrine of Affections            Devised by the philosophies of several theorists            A musical means to exp...
Characteristics of the Baroque                                 Period     Main instrument-Harpsichord     Tuning-based o...
The Basso Continuo          Chords and the Basso Continuo                Chords became more important, by-products of th...
The Circle of FifthsListen to This                3-17By Mark Evan Bonds                      PRENTICE HALL               ...
Characteristics of the Baroque                                 Period          Words & Music             Word painting s...
Chapter 9: Claudio             Monteverdi--Orpheus (Act II)            Opera--a drama sung from beginning to             ...
Baroque Opera-Forerunners                                          Dramatic madrigals &        Medieval liturgical      ...
The Florentine Camarata         A group of composers who met to share musical          ideas and techniques         Wrot...
Baroque Opera: General                      Information            One of most important musical             innovations ...
Baroque Opera:                        Characteristics            Libretto--the story or play                  Usually ba...
Characteristics of                      Baroque Opera     One character = one voice        Homophonic texture with accom...
Characteristics of                             Baroque Opera            Types of compositions: recitatives, arias, chorus...
Characteristics of                           Baroque Opera            Types of                                Duet--2 si...
Baroque Opera:                     Characteristics             Soloists--principal characters are trained              si...
Baroque Opera       Rise of Virtuoso        singers                Done with consent of                 parents who hope...
Baroque: Vocal Music            Concertato Style: Vocal music that also             included instrumental ensembles      ...
Monteverdi’s Orpheus            Orpheus--the story               His beloved, Euridice, has been poisoned by a snake    ...
Claudio Monteverdi                         (1567-1643)            Career straddled the                   Other compositi...
Claudio Monteverdi                         (1567-1643)            A portrait of             Monteverdi, circa            ...
Chapter 10: Henry Purcell--                     Dido and Aeneas            One of the first operas ever written in Englis...
The Form of This                              Selection            Song—an aria in which Dido laments her situation      ...
Henry Purcell                        (ca. 1659-1695)            Dido and Aeneas--his only opera            Wrote many wo...
Other Baroque                     Composers of Opera            Italian                    George Frideric Handel       ...
Aria Form: Called “Da Capo”              A                             B                            A                 Thre...
Women Musicians in the                     Baroque Era            Trained primarily as performers/virtuosos, not as      ...
Other Baroque Composers                     of Chamber Music            Arcangelo Corelli                    Johann Pach...
Johann Pachelbel          Nuremburg, Germany          Taught Bach’s teacher          Canon in D             Composed 1...
The Baroque Orchestra         Chamber orchestra-small, 10 to 30-40          players, for use in smaller venues         A...
Baroque Instrumental                        Music: General                        Characteristics            Several majo...
Antonio Vivaldi The Four                        Seasons “Spring”            Concerto--an instrumental work for a         ...
Concerto            Sharp contrast between the timbre of the             solo instrument (or the small group of          ...
The Concerto Plan                             2nd Movement       3rd Movement         1st Movement                        ...
The Concerto Grosso       Typically a recurring theme (called the        “ritornello”) is played by the whole orchestra  ...
Form: The Ritornello                          Principle            A series of alternating sections--between the         ...
Ritornello Form                                              Ritornello Form                     Ritornello 1   Solo 1   R...
Program Music            An instrumental work that is in some way             associated with a story, event, or idea    ...
Antonio Vivaldi (1678-                            1741)      Born in Venice, a virtuoso violinist      Most important ac...
Antonio Vivaldi                      (1678 - 1741)                                     Called the “Red Priest”           ...
Chapter 13--Johann Sebastian                    Bach Fugue in G minor            Fugue--a polyphonic work based on a cent...
Organ = “King of                            Instruments”            Has size, power (volume), and a wide variety of      ...
The Baroque Fugue:                     General Information       Subject (main musical theme)--played in one        “voic...
Organ Fugue in G Minor(Little Fugue)Listen to This                    3-55By Mark Evan Bonds                            PR...
Fugue: Compositional                         Techniques          stretto-subject imitated before it is completed        ...
Johann Sebastian Bach                          (1685-1750)            Most prominent composer of Baroque Period         ...
Johann Sebastian Bach          First wife, Maria           Barbara, dies          Marries Anna           Magdalena, for ...
Johann Sebastian Bach                     Other Important Works            St. Matthew Passion--for vocalists and orchest...
Chapter 15: Johann Sebastian Bach             Brandenburg Concerto no.2 in F Major            Concerto grosso--Italian fo...
Baroque Cantata: General                     Characteristics            Featured soloists, chorus, and orchestra        ...
The Church Cantata     Performed in worship      service     1700-Influence of Erdmann      Neumister        Theologian...
Bach’s Cantatas at Leipzig       58 per year       Small orchestra: 18-24 players       Approx. 200 cantatas preserved ...
Chapter 17: Johann                 Sebastian Bach Cantata 140            The piece highlighted here is Awake, a Voice    ...
Cantata No. 140                 Wachet Auf, ruft uns die Stimme                   (Wake Up, Call the Voices)       Perfor...
Johann Sebastian Bach                     Cantata 140--Movement 1            An opening chorus            Dotted rhythms...
Johann Sebastian Bach                     Cantata 140--Movement 7            The Closing Chorale--this is sung in homopho...
Chapter 16: George Frideric                    Handel Water Music            Written for a riverboat party given by      ...
View of London and the Thames --similar                  to the Water Music processionListen to This                 3-69B...
The Baroque Suite       Dance Suites          “Stylized” collection of dances intended for listening rather           th...
Binary Form            Two sections, each repeated                    ||:            A                 :||:           B ...
George Frideric Handel                         (1685 - 1759)            Born in Halle, Germany but moved to Italy in 1706...
George Frideric Handel                         (1685 - 1759)                                         Here Handel is      ...
George Frideric Handel (1685-                                1759)       A few well known works:          Operas: Rinald...
Baroque Oratorio:                     General Characteristics            Like operas--tell a story (libretto)            ...
Chapter 18: George                 Frideric Handel Messiah            These selections are a recitative and aria         ...
The Messiah       2 ½ hours long       1st performance in Dublin(1742), benefit for        debtor’s prison       1st in...
The Messiah         3 Main parts                Prophecy of Messiah’s arrival                Christmas                ...
The Messiah       At first        performance-        “Hallelujah        Chorus”-King        George II stood,        star...
George Frideric Handel             Messiah--Recitative and Aria            Recitative--“He That Dwelleth in Heaven”      ...
“Hallelujah” Chorus     Characteristics         Lengthy with repetitive text         Rhythm strictly adhered to        ...
George Frideric Handel                       Messiah--Chorus            Based on verses from the New Testament Book of   ...
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The Baroque

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The Baroque

  1. 1. The Baroque The Baroque Era01/08/13 1
  2. 2. The Baroque Era: Overview Time Period (1600-1750)  The period between the Renaissance and the Classical Era  “Baroque” (irregular pearl)--extravagant and bizarre qualities of the music--harmonies, textures, and forms more free and unpredictable than those of either the Renaissance or Classical Eras  Music had energy and motion, ornamentation and extremes.  Expression of feelings (affect) became important; one feeling per movement = doctrine of affections  Represented passions through music  Architecture--very ornateListen to This 3-2By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  3. 3. The Baroque Era: Overview  National pride was illustrated in cultural, political, and economic terms. Finest music = highest power  Rulers/aristocracy proved their value by elaborate festivals, music, art, architecture.  King George I of England  Louis XIV of France  Churches also illustrated their importance with elaborate music and architecture.  Many of the compositions of this period were written for the churches--both Catholic and Protestant.  Height of church music-80% is religious  Music conveyed spiritual teachings, as did sacred architecture.Listen to This 3-3By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  4. 4. Baroque Music: General  Whereas in the Renaissance, most church music was performed without accompaniment (i.e., a cappella), in the Baroque, many instruments were used to accompany liturgical music.  Gabrieli pioneered the use of different instruments in various parts of the church--called “antiphonal” styleListen to This 3-4By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  5. 5. Historical Events that Influenced Baroque Period  Gutenberg’s movable type (1453) led to printed music (1501) Ottaviano Petrucci  Printed music allowed musical compositions to be performed by many different individuals and ensembles in a variety of places.  Printed music allows us to know much more about music after this time.Listen to This 3-5By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  6. 6. Characteristics of Baroque Style Music  General: heavy, grand, expansive  Performance Media: chamber orchestra, chorus plus chamber orchestra, chamber ensembles (vocal and instrumental), organ, harpsichord  Rhythm: steady beats, running bass, regular meters of 2, 3, 4, and 6 beats, tempo of piece stays same throughout except for slowing near endListen to This 3-6By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  7. 7. Characteristics of Baroque Style Music  Melody: using major and minor scales, ornamentation, sequences, and imitation, first real use of chromaticism, continuous, fortspinnung, repetition elaborate and ornamental, rapidious notes  Harmony: strong harmonic movement; sequences of harmony and recurring cadences; major and minor harmonies used  Dynamic Expression: contrasting (sudden drops and increases: called “terraced dynamics”); echo imitation used; no gradual increases or decreases in loudness (crescendo or diminuendo), lack of detail in scores- composers under pressure to produce a lot of music in a short amount of timeListen to This 3-7By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  8. 8. Characteristics of Baroque Style Music: Overview  Texture: mainly polyphonic; thick texture with 1 or more melodies in high parts and contrapuntal melodies in lower parts; continuous bass line; occasional contrasting homophonic sections to add interest  Unity of mood: One piece captures one mood, only exception is vocal music, (changes of text change the mood of the music)  Primary Forms: concerto, concerto grosso, suite, oratorio, cantata, opera; trio sonata and other sonatas for instruments; keyboard prelude, fugue, and toccataListen to This 3-8By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  9. 9. Louis XIV’s Palace at VersaillesListen to This 3-9By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  10. 10. The Baroque Era: Overview  Operas were first performed in private theaters in the courts of the nobility and royalty.  Public opera houses started in Venice, Italy, in 1637; by 1700 the public craved opera, and it was big business.  Oratorios--operas without costumes and staging; created for performance in church or in an opera house during LENT--a penitential season.  This was the beginning of the importance of virtuoso performers-- singers and instrumentalists of extremely high technical and musical skill.  Castrati--men who were castrated as boys so that their voices would not change; they sounded like women with voices that had a great deal of power.Listen to This 3-10By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  11. 11. Example of Baroque Era Painting--A Musical Interlude  By the Dutch painter Jan Verkolje (~1674)  Depicts a passionate musician reaching for his female companion, who is holding a viol.Listen to This 3-11By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  12. 12. Instruments  Instruments of all types continue to improve  Amati-Guarneri Stradivarius-makes ultimate violinListen to This 3-12By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  13. 13. New Musical Ideas  Stile antico  Stile moderno  First  Second practice Practice(Renaissance  Text dominates music Ideal)  Involves wider range  Music dominates text of emotion expressed and greater intensity Style differ for specific occasions: Church, chamber, theaterListen to This 3-13By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  14. 14. The Doctrine of Affections  Devised by the philosophies of several theorists  A musical means to express generic states of the soul  Grief, rage, excitement, grandeur, etc.  Vocabulary of motives devised which relate to rhetorical speech  To excite “the affections”Listen to This 3-14By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  15. 15. Characteristics of the Baroque Period  Main instrument-Harpsichord  Tuning-based on the Pythagorean comma  Equal Temperament-on keyboard instruments  System of intervals tuned off- key to keep distance between half-steps equal, still used todayListen to This 3-15By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  16. 16. The Basso Continuo  Chords and the Basso Continuo  Chords became more important, by-products of the motion of melodic lines  Many composed melody to fit particular chord progression  Gave more prominence to bass line-foundation of harmony  Result-most characteristic feature-basso continuo  Played usually by two instruments-harpsichord or organ and low instrument like cello or bassoon  Figured bass-bass part written with numbers indicated chord structure, musical shorthand, saved time & paper  Performers needed improvisational skills  Continuo provided continual flow of notesListen to This 3-16By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  17. 17. The Circle of FifthsListen to This 3-17By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  18. 18. Characteristics of the Baroque Period  Words & Music  Word painting still used  Emphasizing words by writing rapid notes for one syllable, also to display singers’ virtuosity  Individual words and phrases repeatedListen to This 3-18By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  19. 19. Chapter 9: Claudio Monteverdi--Orpheus (Act II)  Opera--a drama sung from beginning to end  Based on a mythological story (in this era)  Costumes, staging, lighting--all the dramatic aspects of theater combined with music  One character = one voiceListen to This 3-19By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  20. 20. Baroque Opera-Forerunners  Dramatic madrigals &  Medieval liturgical madrigal cycles-content of dramas, Mystery & epic & pastoral poems miracle plays with two types of text  Renaissance Intermedi : setting: narrative for plot of pastoral or mythological development(recitative), character, performed reflective for emotional between acts of plays, outpouring(aria) consist of solo &  The Pastoral-poems ensemble madrigals about shepherds and other rural subjects; amorous, lightListen to This 3-20By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  21. 21. The Florentine Camarata  A group of composers who met to share musical ideas and techniques  Wrote treatises on composing  Jacopo Peri-L’Euridice, first opera(1600)  Written for wedding of King Henri IV & Marie de’Medici  First to use stile recitative(solo over simple chords or continuo) for clarity of textListen to This 3-21By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  22. 22. Baroque Opera: General Information  One of most important musical innovations of this period  Monteverdi’s Orfeo made opera more popular with public, outside the courts.  First opera house, in Venice, opened in 1637.Listen to This 3-22By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  23. 23. Baroque Opera: Characteristics  Libretto--the story or play  Usually based on Greek dramas.  Started in Italy but moved to England and France.  Italian remained the popular language for opera during this period.  Currently, Baroque operas have been translated to many languages.Listen to This 3-23By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  24. 24. Characteristics of Baroque Opera  One character = one voice  Homophonic texture with accompaniment  Easier to understand the text  Restores balance between text and music  Accompaniment consists an instrument that can play chords (such as a lute or harpsichord) and a low melodic instrument that can play long notes, such as the cello or bassoon.  Accompaniment plays continuously and is known as basso continuo.  Bel Canto Singing Style--”beautiful singing”--the lilting flow of melody  Involves elaborate embellishments.  Trained singers are taught this style of singing routinely.Listen to This 3-24By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  25. 25. Characteristics of Baroque Opera  Types of compositions: recitatives, arias, choruses, duets, trios, sextets, etc.  Recitative--moved the action along--a style of singing that lies somewhere between singing and speaking.  Not very elaborate musically  Simple accompaniment  Less embellishment  Aria--character who sings this pauses to reflect on the story or an emotion.  Musically elaborate; this is where the singers get to display their virtuosity.  Accompaniment can also be more elaborate than the accompaniment for a recitative, but it does not overshadow the singer.Listen to This 3-25By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  26. 26. Characteristics of Baroque Opera  Types of  Duet--2 singers compositions:  Trio--3 singers recitatives, arias,  Quartet--4 singers choruses, duets,  Quintet--5 singers trios, sextets, etc.  Sextet--6 singers  Chorus--polyphonic  Septet--7 singers texture--various  Octet--8 singers members of the  Nonet--9 singers chorus comment on the action, reflect emotions, etc.Listen to This 3-26By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  27. 27. Baroque Opera: Characteristics  Soloists--principal characters are trained singers  Sopranos, altos, tenors, and basses all used to give variety.  Sometimes male voices used in female roles.  Some male roles required high voices; a castrated man would sing these roles (called castrati).  Boys were castrated before their voices changed; they were celebrities!  These roles are now usually sung byListen to This women (called “pants roles”). 3-27By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  28. 28. Baroque Opera  Rise of Virtuoso singers  Done with consent of parents who hoped sons would become highly paid opera singers  Faranelli-most famous Castrato-combined lung power of man with vocal range of woman; agility, breath control, and unique sound intriguing; received highest pay of any musician; audiences more impressed with vocal virtuosity than realismListen to This 3-28By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  29. 29. Baroque: Vocal Music  Concertato Style: Vocal music that also included instrumental ensembles  “concert” and “concerto” come from the word meaning “bring contrasting performing groups together”  Three musical genres (i.e., types of compositions): oratorio, cantata, and Mass  Composers: Monteverdi, Schütz, Telemann, Handel, and J. S. BachListen to This 3-29By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  30. 30. Monteverdi’s Orpheus  Orpheus--the story  His beloved, Euridice, has been poisoned by a snake bite and gone to the Underworld. Orpheus uses singing to persuade the guardians of the Underworld to let him bring Euridice back. They agree with the stipulation that he not look back while leaving the Underworld. He cannot resist the urge to look back, and he loses Euridice forever.  Orpheus--this selection  A recitative, a chorus--Orpheus is grieving the loss of Euridice, and the Chorus is commenting on his grief and sadness. Both sections are accompanied by basso continuo, although it is harder to hear in the chorus.Listen to This 3-30By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  31. 31. Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643)  Career straddled the  Other compositions by Renaissance and Monteverdi Baroque eras--he was a  Coronation of Poppea bridge composer.  Born in Cremona, Italy (opera) (where famous violins  The Return of Ulysses were made); became a to His Homeland violinist. (opera)  He served at the court of  “Zefiro torna”--a Mantua where Orpheus madrigal written in was first performed--1607. Italian  1613--He became music  “Vespers in Honor of director at St. Mark’s Basilica in Venice. the Blessed Virgin  1630’s--He composed Mary”--a sacred choral works for the new public piece opera houses in Venice.Listen to This 3-31By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  32. 32. Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643)  A portrait of Monteverdi, circa 1613  Made when he was appointed music director at St. Mark’s in Venice, Italy; became a priest and composed sacred music.Listen to This 3-32By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  33. 33. Chapter 10: Henry Purcell-- Dido and Aeneas  One of the first operas ever written in English  First documented production--at a girls’ school in Chelsea in 1689  Short, for strings & continuo; no elaborate staging; dances & choruses  Libretto-Nahum Tate, inspired by The Aenid(Virgil)  Plot--foreign prince (Aeneas) promises to marry the Queen of Carthage (Dido), but abandons her and drives her to suicide  Chief characters  Dido--(soprano)  Aeneas--(baritone)  Belinda, Dido’s maidservant--(soprano)Listen to This 3-33By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  34. 34. The Form of This Selection  Song—an aria in which Dido laments her situation  Melody sung over a repeated pattern in the bass-- ostinato  Ostinato can also be called a ground bass--a short sequence of low notes repeated over and over.Listen to This 3-34By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  35. 35. Henry Purcell (ca. 1659-1695)  Dido and Aeneas--his only opera  Wrote many works that included song and spoken dialogue (semi-operas).  Was far ahead of his time in writing opera in English. Opera wasn’t popular during his time, and even when it became popular, audiences wanted it sung in Italian.  Born into a musical family.  Served as composer and organist in the English court and later at Westminster Abbey (buried near the organ there--a BIG honor).Listen to This 3-35By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  36. 36. Other Baroque Composers of Opera  Italian  George Frideric Handel  Rinaldo--includesda capo aria--an aria in ABA form. The first section is repeated (embellished) after the contrasting second section  French  Lully--Armide  Jean-Philippe Rameau--Hippolyte etListen to This Aricie 3-36By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  37. 37. Aria Form: Called “Da Capo” A B A Three parts: called A B A (letters designate sections) A section: highly melodic, B section: contrasts A section: repeat minimal ornamentation of mood, tonality, the 1st section or change of tempo . Singer is free to improvise/ornament embellish melody  “da capo” means “go back and sing the beginning again”  A = very melodic, but not ornamented B = contrasting mood, tonality, tempo A = repeated, but this time embellishedListen to This 3-37By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  38. 38. Women Musicians in the Baroque Era  Trained primarily as performers/virtuosos, not as composers  Most women did not have access to training in musical composition--exceptions:  Barbara Stozzi, Francesca Caccini, and Elisabeth Jacquet de la Guerre  No professional prospects for women composers  Women weren’t really accepted as composers (or conductors) until the 20th century.Listen to This 3-38By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  39. 39. Other Baroque Composers of Chamber Music  Arcangelo Corelli  Johann Pachelbel  Many of both kinds of  Canon and Gigue in D trio sonatas major--3 violins and basso continuo--a very  Sonata--that which is famous Baroque piece played vs. cantata--  Marin Marais that which is sung  Much virtuosic music  Sonata da camera-- for viola da gamba (a chamber music for precursor to the cello) entertainment  Sonata da chiesa-- church sonataListen to This 3-39By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  40. 40. Johann Pachelbel  Nuremburg, Germany  Taught Bach’s teacher  Canon in D  Composed 1689, rediscovered  Used quite often today  Ground bass of 8 notes, all equal length  Melodic variation played over bass 27 times  3 instrumental parts, following each other after 8 beats in imitation  Originally for 3 violins & continuoListen to This 3-40By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  41. 41. The Baroque Orchestra  Chamber orchestra-small, 10 to 30-40 players, for use in smaller venues  All had basso continuo, upper strings, woodwinds/brass/percussion variable  Instrumentation varied from piece to piece  Baroque trumpet-no valves, difficult to play, aristocratic role in orchestra  Composers used great deal of doubling and rearrangingListen to This 3-41By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  42. 42. Baroque Instrumental Music: General Characteristics  Several major genres developed:  The Baroque Concerto--a soloist plus an accompaniment consisting of harpsichord and small chamber orchestra (mostly strings)  The Concerto Grosso--several soloists plus an orchestra (called “tutti”)  The Fugue---a complex instrumental composition for 3 or 4 “voices”--different parts in the counterpoint, but played on instruments, not sungListen to This 3-42By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  43. 43. Antonio Vivaldi The Four Seasons “Spring”  Concerto--an instrumental work for a soloist (or group of soloists) and a larger ensemble  “Spring”--for solo violin, an orchestra of string instruments, and basso continuo  “Spring”--the first of 4 concertos  Consists of 3 movements--fast-slow-fast.  This selection is the first movement.Listen to This 3-43By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  44. 44. Concerto  Sharp contrast between the timbre of the solo instrument (or the small group of soloists) and the larger ensemble/orchestra  An example of the Baroque love of extremes  Nearly every modern symphony concert includes at least one concerto--they were written in all periods after the Baroque era.Listen to This 3-44By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  45. 45. The Concerto Plan 2nd Movement 3rd Movement 1st Movement Slow (Adagio, Fast (allegro) Fast (allegro) Andante)  Movements- piece that sounds complete & independent on its own but part of larger composition  Three movements--typical arrangement: fast movement, slow movement, fast movement  Middle movement often in contrasting keyListen to This 3-45By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  46. 46. The Concerto Grosso  Typically a recurring theme (called the “ritornello”) is played by the whole orchestra (the “tutti).  Soloists play more virtuostic transition passages in which the key of piece changes (called “modulation”).  Tutti returns to play the ritornello theme in the new key; this pattern of soloists and tutti repeats several times.  Last statement of ritornello theme is in the original key.Listen to This 3-46By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  47. 47. Form: The Ritornello Principle  A series of alternating sections--between the soloist(s) and the orchestra; orchestra is called the tutti.  The main theme of the movement is called the ritornello.  Piece starts out with the ritornello. The soloist(s) play a section (which modulates to a new key) and then the ritornello comes back again in that new key. This happens over and over (any number of times) until the soloist section returns to the original key and the orchestra plays the ritornello in that key one last time.Listen to This 3-47By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  48. 48. Ritornello Form Ritornello Form Ritornello 1 Solo 1 Ritornello 2 Solo 2 Ritornello 3 repeat pattern Tonic key New keys-----------------> Tonic key at endListen to This 3-48By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  49. 49. Program Music  An instrumental work that is in some way associated with a story, event, or idea  Can be indicated by  Suggestive title  A prose narrative  A poem  Listener can listen with program in mind or without it--listener’s choice.Listen to This 3-49By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  50. 50. Antonio Vivaldi (1678- 1741)  Born in Venice, a virtuoso violinist  Most important accomplishments: innovations in concerto form, orchestration, and violin technique  Prolific composer of concertos, sonatas, operas, cantatas, chamber pieces, and sacred vocal music  Most famous works: hundreds of concertos, including The Four Seasons--4 violin concertos (one depicting each season)Listen to This 3-50By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  51. 51. Antonio Vivaldi (1678 - 1741)  Called the “Red Priest”  1703-1740-Director of music at Ospedale della Pieta-orphanage for young women  Moved to Vienna and worked in Charles VI’s court  Gave concerts in Europe, produced opera, lived w/French soprano  A master of melody and novelties in the basic forms of his dayListen to This 3-51By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  52. 52. Chapter 13--Johann Sebastian Bach Fugue in G minor  Fugue--a polyphonic work based on a central theme--very common type of composition in the Baroque Era  One voice plays the theme alone  Each voice comes in subsequently stating the theme while the previous voices spin out a countermelody--called counterpoint--note against note  Similar to voices chasing one another in imitation  This fugue composed for organ, probably at Arnstadt, when Bach was about 20.Listen to This 3-52By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  53. 53. Organ = “King of Instruments”  Has size, power (volume), and a wide variety of sounds (different pipes create different sounds)  Consists of keyboards (called manuals), and pipes (through which wind/air is blown)  Keys control the flow of air through the pipes  Stops control which pipes the keys open  Longest pipes are 16 feet; shortest about 2 feet  Longest pipes = lowest sounds; highest pipes = highest soundsListen to This 3-53By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  54. 54. The Baroque Fugue: General Information  Subject (main musical theme)--played in one “voice” and then imitated in others  Countersubject (counter theme played opposite the subject in other voices)  Episodes--parts of the fugue in which the subject is not heard--used for transition and musical interestListen to This 3-54By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  55. 55. Organ Fugue in G Minor(Little Fugue)Listen to This 3-55By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  56. 56. Fugue: Compositional Techniques  stretto-subject imitated before it is completed  pedal point(organ point)-a single tone, usually in bass is held while other voices are still moving  sequence-pattern of notes repeated several times in succession but at different pitch levels  suspension-holding notes from one chord to next to create tension & releaseListen to This 3-56By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  57. 57. Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750)  Most prominent composer of Baroque Period  Born in Eisenach, Germany; family with many musicians  Composed music at three locations during career (a few famous works composed at each)  Weimar--music for church services  Cöthen--The Well-Tempered Clavier and 6 Brandenburg Concertos  Leipzig--Mass in b minor, the cantata, Wachet Auf (“A Mighty Fortress is Our God”), St. Matthew Passion, 2 and 3-part Inventions for harpsichordListen to This 3-57By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  58. 58. Johann Sebastian Bach  First wife, Maria Barbara, dies  Marries Anna Magdalena, for which he wrote book of keyboard music, still used todayListen to This 3-58By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  59. 59. Johann Sebastian Bach Other Important Works  St. Matthew Passion--for vocalists and orchestra  The Well-Tempered Clavier--Books 1 and 2--two sets of preludes and fugues in all 24 of the major and minor keys  Toccata and Fugue in D minor--for keyboard  Chorale Prelude (Wachet Auf)--an organ version of one movement of his Cantata #140 (a chorale prelude was played prior to singing the hymn on which it was based)Listen to This 3-59By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  60. 60. Chapter 15: Johann Sebastian Bach Brandenburg Concerto no.2 in F Major  Concerto grosso--Italian for “big concerto”  Bach wrote 6 of these Brandenburg Concertos--dedicated to the Margrave of Brandenburg.  Actually composed for and performed by Bach employer Prince of Cöthen  Each has multiple soloists (concertina) and orchestra.  Soloists in this piece--trumpet, oboe, violin, and recorder (a kind of flute)  All have contrasting sounds  Trumpet--a loud brass instrument  Oboe--a rather shrill woodwind instrument  Violin--a high register string instrument  Recorder--a soft sounding woodwind instrumentListen to This 3-60By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  61. 61. Baroque Cantata: General Characteristics  Featured soloists, chorus, and orchestra  Similar in style to an oratorio, but much shorter  Sacred cantatas  Usually glorified New Testament subjects  Often based on a Lutheran Chorale (a 4-part hymn sung by the congregation)  Secular cantatas  Based popular stories and themes  Otherwise, like sacred cantatasListen to This 3-61By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  62. 62. The Church Cantata  Performed in worship service  1700-Influence of Erdmann Neumister  Theologian & poet who introduced subjective, meditative texts not of Biblical liturgical origin  Designed for use in arias or duets, in addition to choruses based on the ChoraleListen to This 3-62By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  63. 63. Bach’s Cantatas at Leipzig  58 per year  Small orchestra: 18-24 players  Approx. 200 cantatas preserved (not numbered by Bach, but by editors)  All use chorale melody as basis for each movementListen to This 3-63By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  64. 64. Chapter 17: Johann Sebastian Bach Cantata 140  The piece highlighted here is Awake, a Voice Calls to Us  Two movements presented here--the first and the last  First movement = polyphonic  Last movement = homophonic  This entire piece is a cantata--a work sung during a service of worship  Based on a hymn tune  Hymn tune is known as a chorale when sung in 4-part harmonyListen to This 3-64By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  65. 65. Cantata No. 140 Wachet Auf, ruft uns die Stimme (Wake Up, Call the Voices)  Performed Sunday Before Advent  Text: Matthew 25: 1-13, parable of 5 wise, 5 foolish virgins  Message: Be prepared and vigilant, for you don’t know when God will call  Seven sections totalListen to This 3-65By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  66. 66. Johann Sebastian Bach Cantata 140--Movement 1  An opening chorus  Dotted rhythms (long-short-long-short) make this sound like a march (similar to a French Overture).  Upper voice has the melody in very long notes.  Elaborate lines of counterpoint are weaved with the lower voices and the orchestra.  Form: also in Bar Form, but long pauses between sung sections are filled in by the orchestra.  Form: uses the ritornello principle--each vocal chorale section is followed by an orchestra ritornello section.  Ritornello 1 -->Chorale A --> Ritornello 2 --> Chorale A (again) --> Ritornello 3 --> Chorale B --> Ritornello 4Listen to This 3-66By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  67. 67. Johann Sebastian Bach Cantata 140--Movement 7  The Closing Chorale--this is sung in homophonic texture  It is easy to recognize the tune here.  The melody is in the top voice, set syllabically, in 4 part harmony.  Instruments of the orchestra play the same parts as the voices sing--called doubling  High instruments double soprano line  Lower instruments double other lines  This combination of voices and orchestral doubling creates a sense of unity and projects the text of the chorale clearly.Listen to This 3-67By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  68. 68. Chapter 16: George Frideric Handel Water Music  Written for a riverboat party given by English King George I--July 17, 1717  The entire piece is a suite--series of dance movements (about 2 dozen)  Movements presented here:  Rigaudon--a fast dance in duple meter, cheerful in tone  Hornpipe--a lively dance in triple meter, often associated with sailorsListen to This 3-68By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  69. 69. View of London and the Thames --similar to the Water Music processionListen to This 3-69By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  70. 70. The Baroque Suite  Dance Suites  “Stylized” collection of dances intended for listening rather than dancing  Derived from various types of dances that were in fashion  Core Dances: Allemande(Ger), Courante(Fr), Sarabande(Sp), Gigue(Irish)  Other dances: Bourée, minuet, gavotte, loure, polonaise, passepied  Might include prelude or overture  Customary for all to be written in the same key, faster dances contrast with slower  Binary formListen to This 3-70By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  71. 71. Binary Form  Two sections, each repeated  ||: A :||: B :||  Tonic key to related key New key ---> tonic  A section starts in tonic and modulates; B section starts in the new key and goes back to the tonic key.  Usually based on a single theme, manipulated in various ways; little actual contrasting material.Listen to This 3-71By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  72. 72. George Frideric Handel (1685 - 1759)  Born in Halle, Germany but moved to Italy in 1706-- composed operas and oratorios there.  Worked as a violinist in opera house at Hamburg.  Studied music in Rome with Corelli.  Spent time in Venice where he composed the oratorio, The Resurrection  Moved back to Germany to be music director for the Elector of Hanover in 1710, but then moved to England- composed operas and oratorios.  Director of London Royal Academy of Music  Abandoned opera in 1741 and turned to oratorios.  One of the first composers to become a cultural hero-- commemorated in 1784 by a series of large concerts in Westminster Abbey.Listen to This 3-72By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  73. 73. George Frideric Handel (1685 - 1759)  Here Handel is composing at the keyboard without his wig.  Notice that he is basically bald, keeping his head shaved so that the wig would fit more comfortably in public.Listen to This 3-73By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  74. 74. George Frideric Handel (1685- 1759)  A few well known works:  Operas: Rinaldo and Julius Caesar  Oratorios: Israel in Egypt, Messiah, Saul, Samson, and Judas Maccabaeus  Instrumental Music: Water Music and Music for Royal Fireworks  Secular vocal music, keyboard pieces, and chamber musicListen to This 3-74By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  75. 75. Baroque Oratorio: General Characteristics  Like operas--tell a story (libretto)  Have soloists, duets, trios, choruses  Accompanied by orchestra  Different from opera  No costumes, staging, or acting  Performed as a concert  Biggest composer: Handel, a German composer of Italian opera who wrote oratorios in England  Probably his most famous--The MessiahListen to This 3-75By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  76. 76. Chapter 18: George Frideric Handel Messiah  These selections are a recitative and aria followed by a large, grand chorus (known as the “Hallelujah Chorus.”)  The three work together to form one dramatic unit.  Each section has a different style of composing and singing the music.  Messiah is an oratorio--like an opera without staging, sets, or costumes.Listen to This 3-76By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  77. 77. The Messiah  2 ½ hours long  1st performance in Dublin(1742), benefit for debtor’s prison  1st in London-religious opposition to Christian text in theater  Achieved unique status, performed yearly at benefit for London orphanage  “Fed the hungry, clothed the naked, fostered the orphan.”Listen to This 3-77By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  78. 78. The Messiah  3 Main parts  Prophecy of Messiah’s arrival  Christmas  Easter  53 sections-19 choruses, 16 aria/recitatives, 2 orchestral features  Contemplation on Christian belief-prophecy, birth, suffering & death, Resurrection & Redemption  Only oratorio to use Old & New TestamentListen to This 3-78By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  79. 79. The Messiah  At first performance- “Hallelujah Chorus”-King George II stood, started tradition that is still practicedListen to This 3-79By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  80. 80. George Frideric Handel Messiah--Recitative and Aria  Recitative--“He That Dwelleth in Heaven”  In a declamatory style to project the text  Aria—“Thou Shalt Break Them”  More musically complex than the recitative with more elaborate melody  Text is quite brief, but Handel repeats the words many times and includes long melismas on key phrases/words.  Built on the ritornello principle, alternating between the tenor soloist and the orchestra.  Several instances of word painting are used  “broken,” “dashed,” “potter’s vessel.”Listen to This 3-80By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  81. 81. “Hallelujah” Chorus  Characteristics  Lengthy with repetitive text  Rhythm strictly adhered to  Accompaniment-important role  Music requires more than average singing skill, challenging  Chorus-two meanings  Group that sings choral music  Choral section of musical workListen to This 3-81By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  82. 82. George Frideric Handel Messiah--Chorus  Based on verses from the New Testament Book of Revelation  Form: sectional--each verse or half-verse receives its own melodic material, creating 4 large sections to the work (A, B, C, and D)  There are five melodies in the work.  When the same text reappears, so does its corresponding melody.  Texture: movement includes all 3 forms of texture-- monophonic, homophonic, and polyphonic.  Beginning “Hallelujah”--homophonic  “For the Lord God Omnipotent reigneth”--monophonic  Polyphonic when texts are combinedListen to This 3-82By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
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