The Renaissance

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The Renaissance

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The Renaissance

  1. 1. The Renaissance Era ~1425 - 1600  Period of recovery from the Middle Ages (also known as the “Dark Ages”)  Arts and sciences were revived.  French word for “rebirth”  Age of humanism--intellectual and cultural movement that explored human interests and values through science, philosophy, literature, painting, sculpture, and musicListen to This 2-1By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  2. 2. Renaissance Music(1450-1600)  Humanism-union of pagan & Christian beliefs  Emphasis on the human & nature vs the otherworldly & divine  Affect on Fine Arts: Use of balance & order  Individual achievement important  Belief that all things were knowable with the right kind of studyListen to This 2-2By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  3. 3. The Renaissance Period (1450-1600): Background  A “rebirth” in Europe after the Plague (Italy, 1348) and the Hundred Years’ War (England vs. France, 1337-1453)  Interest revived in Greek and Roman arts, philosophy, architecture, science, and mathematics  The age of exploration: Christopher Columbus, Vasco da Gama, Ferdinand Magellan.  Rebirth of science: Nicolai Copernicus and Galileo Galilei.Listen to This 2-3By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  4. 4. The Renaissance Era Background  Economic growth, particularly in Italy and the Low Countries (i.e., modern-day Belgium and the Netherlands)  New World “discovered” by Columbus in 1492.  Kingdoms, duchies, city-states got bigger and richer.  Ideal “Renaissance Man”--knowledge of a variety of arts and sciences  Human reason and individuality became very important values.  Movable type invented in mid-15th century. Music printing established by 1500.Listen to This 2-4By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  5. 5. Renaissance Artists  Botticelli  Michelangelo  Leonardo da Vinci  RaphaelListen to This 2-5By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  6. 6. The Renaissance Era Background  Protestant Reformation--1517--Martin Luther nailed his list of complaints to the Church door; was the beginning of a large split in the Catholic church, called the “Reformation.”  Counter-Reformation--attempts to hold onto the Catholic liturgy and doctrine in the face of ProtestantismListen to This 2-6By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  7. 7. The Renaissance Era Music  Composers brought words and music together in unity better than ever before.  Sound was based on polyphony--equal voice parts.  Most music had 3, 4, 5, or even 6 parts.  Strong attention to text being sung, even when polyphonic melodies were complexListen to This 2-7By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  8. 8. Renaissance Music  1450  Beginning of today’s voice arrangement  Superius-soprano  Altus-alto  Tenor  Bassus-bassListen to This 2-8By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  9. 9. Musical Compositions (Genres) of the Renaissance  Masses: settings of the Ordinary of the Mass  Polyphonic texture  Madrigals: secular songs, originating in the Italian courts and spreading to other countries  Secular songs about romantic love or nature  Settings of sonnets or pious devotionsListen to This 2-9By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  10. 10. Musical Compositions (Genres) of the Renaissance  Motets: sacred or secular pieces in polyphonic style  Each part had different words.  One part in a secular motet was based on a chant in long notes: called the cantus firmus.  Generally 3 parts during this periodListen to This 2-10By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  11. 11. Characteristics of Renaissance Music  Texture  Primarily polyphonic  Rhythm & Melody  Each melodic line has greater rhythmic independence  Scale with larger leaps vs. more step-wise movement  Words & Music  Vocal music more important than instrumental  Word paintingListen to This 2-11By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  12. 12. Josquin des Prez  ca. 1450-1521  Born in Flanders(Belgium)  Greatest composer of the early Renaissance  Contemporary of da Vinci  Known for chansons(French polyphonic songs) & motets  Demanded high salary, changed jobs often  Hired by Duke of Ferrara to be a composer for his court  Other compositions:  Missa Pange Lingua (a Mass)  Missa La Sol Fa Re Mi (another Mass)  Ave Maria. . . virgo serenaListen to This 2-12By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  13. 13. Ave Maria…Virgo serena (Hail Mary…Serene Virgin); 1475  4-voice motet  Latin prayer to the Holy Virgin  Uses polyphonic repetition, overlapping of phrases  Adapted melody from Gregorian chant, but rest of motet not based on chant  Varies texture, imitation in upper voices  Change from triple to duple meterListen to This 2-13By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  14. 14. Josquin des Prez • Quote from Martin Luther- “God has His Gospel preached also through the medium of music; this may be seen from the compositions of Josquin, all of whose works are cheerful, gentle, mild, and lovely; they flow and move along and are neither forced not coerced and bound by rigid and stringent rules, but, on the contrary, are like the song of the finch.”Listen to This 2-14By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  15. 15. Chaper 5: Josquin des Prez--“The Cricket”  Polyphonic--4 distinct voices, equally important  Uses word painting--(e.g., long notes on words “hold a long line” and chirping sounds which imitate a cricket)  Music written to a humorous poem; an attempt to enhance the spirit of the poetryListen to This 2-15By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  16. 16. Josquin des Prez--“The Cricket”  Texture--4 distinct voices, equally important  Soprano (highest range--usually female)  Alto (second-highest range--usually female)  Tenor (second-lowest range--male)  Bass (lowest range--male)  Voices move together rhythmically throughout most of the piece.Listen to This 2-16By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  17. 17. Josquin des Prez--“The Cricket”  Written in a style known as counterpoint.  Every voice is a good melody rather than one melody with accompanying voices.  Can be very intricate and complex.  Comes from the Latin, contrapunctum, meaning “note-against-note.”  In this recording, all 4 voices are male. The upper two voices are sung in falsetto.  Written so it could be played on instruments OR sung. Typical in the Renaissance Period.Listen to This 2-17By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  18. 18. Josquin des Prez--“The Cricket”  Word painting is extensive throughout the piece.  Long melisma among the 4 voices when the cricket sings of “love.”  Form: Three parts, known as ternary form  Described as ABA (B is a contrasting section to A)  Each section has clearly distinctive music.Listen to This 2-18By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  19. 19. A Woodcut Image of Josquin des PrezListen to This 2-19By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  20. 20. Portrait of Martin Luther by Lucas Cranach the Elder  A theologian and a composer  Wrote “A Mighty Fortress is Our God”  A German monk who nailed a list of complaints against the Catholic Church on the door of a church in WittenbergListen to This 2-20By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  21. 21. The Reformation  1517 The Ninety-Five Theses  Music for Congregational Participation  Beginning of Lutheran Chorale with text & tune only  Similar to today’s hymnsListen to This 2-21By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  22. 22. The Renaissance Period (1450-1600): Background  The power of the Catholic Church diminished, as new denominations sprung up.  The Catholic Church launched a “Counterreformation” as a reaction to this.  The most prominent composer of the Counterreformation was Palestrina.Listen to This 2-22By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  23. 23. The Counter-Reformation Council of Trent  Church felt threatened by Protestant Reformation  Music under attack  Had strayed from Chant  Complaints about use of secular tunes  Complicated polyphony making words hard to understand  Noisy instruments, bad singers Music should be purged of “barbarism, obscurities, contrarieties, and superfluities” so that “House of God should be house of prayer.” Desiderius ErasmusListen to This 2-23By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  24. 24. Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (1525-1594)  Appointed Choirmaster of Capella Giulia, Vatican by Pope Julius III  Published first book of Masses  Dismissed from position after marrying  Published first book of motets; 104 masses, approx. 450 other sacred works  Returned to Vatican in 1571, two eldest sons & wife died  Remarried, went into fur business, published 16 collections of music  Died 1594Listen to This 2-24By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  25. 25. Pope Marcellus Mass- Kyrie, (1562-1563)  Most famous mass  Was thought to convince Council of Trent that polyphonic masses should be kept in Catholic worship; not true, but does reflect need of understanding text  Dedicated to Pope Marcellus II  Written for a capella choir  Six voice parts  Rich polyphonic texture, imitationListen to This 2-25By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  26. 26. The Madrigal  Most popular form of secular music  Originating in the Italian courts and spreading to other countries  Similar to and different from motets  Many found in the Squarcialupi Codex, showing uses for voices singing same text  Written for small group of singers, imitative entrances of new text, singable vocal lines, more polyphonic  Songs about romantic love or nature, chivalry, spinningListen to This 2-26By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  27. 27. The Madrigal  Not limited by religious traditions  More innovative musical ideas  English madrigals popular  Text in English  Composers make lines tuneful & singable  Not taken too seriouslyListen to This 2-27By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  28. 28. Important Differences between Motets & Madrigals  Vernacular languages  Deal with sentimental/erotic love  Have stronger & more regular rhythm, faster tempo  Sung at social gatherings of learned, artistic societies  Popular among higher classes  Written down & composed  Contain text or word painting-music depicts word being sungListen to This 2-28By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  29. 29. Thomas Weelkes ca. 1575-1623  A professional An English musician with a composer who degree in music from lived during the New College, Oxford age of  Organist at Chichester Shakespeare Cathedral-most During reigns musically productive of Elizabeth I years and James I  Also wrote sacred Fascinated music with Italian  Lost his job at the poetry and Cathedral in 1617 music, because of blasphemy including Italian and drunkenness madrigalListen to This 2-29By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  30. 30. As Vesta Was From Latmos Hill Descending  The Triumphs of Oriana-anthology of madrigals composed in honor of Elizabeth I  Vesta-Roman goddess of hearth & home  Diana-goddess of the hunt, chastity, moon  Text-Vesta comes down hill with attendants(Diana’s darlings); Oriana, “maiden queen,” climbs hill with shepherds; Vesta’s attendants leave to join herListen to This 2-30By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  31. 31. As Vesta Was From Latmos Hill Descending Major use of word painting –  words like “ascending” & “descending” set with scales that move in said direction;  as Vesta’s attendants leave to run down hill, appropriate number of singers mirror text- 3, 2, then 1;  “Long” is longest note Rhythmic setting effective, contributes to expressivenessListen to This 2-31By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  32. 32. Instrumental Music  Instruments often accompanied singing of secular music  Players simplified written parts using chords  Lute-Most popular instrument  Instruments used exclusively for dance music  Pavane, Galliard, ballade, rondeauListen to This 2-32By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  33. 33. Instruments of the Renaissance  Dulcian  Viol de gamba  Harp/lyre  Hirten  LizardListen to This 2-33By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  34. 34. Instruments of the Renaissance  Lute  Organet  Psaltery  Sackbut  SerpentListen to This 2-34By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  35. 35. Instruments of the Renaissance  Shawm  Shofar  Tenor viol  Flute  Tenor recorderListen to This 2-35By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

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