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The Middle Ages
The Middle Ages
The Middle Ages
The Middle Ages
The Middle Ages
The Middle Ages
The Middle Ages
The Middle Ages
The Middle Ages
The Middle Ages
The Middle Ages
The Middle Ages
The Middle Ages
The Middle Ages
The Middle Ages
The Middle Ages
The Middle Ages
The Middle Ages
The Middle Ages
The Middle Ages
The Middle Ages
The Middle Ages
The Middle Ages
The Middle Ages
The Middle Ages
The Middle Ages
The Middle Ages
The Middle Ages
The Middle Ages
The Middle Ages
The Middle Ages
The Middle Ages
The Middle Ages
The Middle Ages
The Middle Ages
The Middle Ages
The Middle Ages
The Middle Ages
The Middle Ages
The Middle Ages
The Middle Ages
The Middle Ages
The Middle Ages
The Middle Ages
The Middle Ages
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The Middle Ages

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The Medieval Era, Middle Ages

The Medieval Era, Middle Ages

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  • 1. The Medieval Period Ancient Music & the Middle AgesListen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-1By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 2. Ancient Period  Beg of time unknown to 1300  Up until birth of Christ-Ancient Music, 0-1300-Medieval Period  Instruments-violin, flute, versions of No known composers, trumpet, oboe mostly passed down  Rna-chum-Tibet, orally between made of human skulls generationsListen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-2By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 3. Greek & Roman Civilizations  1st written music found in Greece, 600 B.C.  Golden Age of Pericles-value of music in Greek society  Plato-considered music essential part of education, influenced moralListen to This character 1-3 PRENTICE HALLBy Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 4. Greek & Roman Civilizations  Greeks developed instruments  Zither or Lyre  Harp-like Instrument  Romans emphasized military musicListen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-4By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 5. Middle Ages: 476 CE - ~1400 CE  Beginning with the fall of the Roman Empire  Ending with the beginning of the Renaissance Period  Music: reflects sacred and secular functionsListen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-5By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 6. Middle Ages(450-1450)  Development of monasteries responsible for preserving writings & culture of ancient world  Gothic Period-1100 to 1450  Poems of troubadours, legends of King Arthur  Dante The Divine Comedy  Most secular music lost but did exist outside the ChurchListen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-6By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 7. Middle Ages: Overview Time Period: 476 CE - ~1400 CE  476--Fall of Western Roman Empire  800--Pope Leo III crowns Charlemagne  936--Otto I establishes Holy Roman Empire  1066--Normans conquer England  1095--Beginning of first crusade  1215--King John of England signs Magna Carta  1348-1350--Black Death ravages EuropeListen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-7By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 8. Christianity  Had no standard musical practice for 1st 3 centuries  Borrowed from Judaism, reciting psalms, call & response method  Adopted other practices upon expansion through Asia Minor & Europe  Symbolism very important to medieval life- age of miracles, mysticism, etc.Listen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-8By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 9. Middle Ages: Music for Sacred Spaces  Churches/Cathedrals = most important sacred structures of the Middle Ages  Reflected testimonies toward God and power of Church itself  Created spaces in which music could be performed  Large with incredible acoustic qualities  Built to instruct the faithful (e.g., stained glass windows depicting Biblical scenes)Listen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-9By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 10. Pope Gregory I  6th Century-codified music of worship services, establishment of liturgy, body of rites prescribed for worship  Function = to project the text clearly so that it could be understood by the people.  Possessed clarity and melodic beauty; thus it was inspirational.Listen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-10By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 11. Music of the Catholic Church  The “Ordinary” of the Mass: the part that doesn’t change each day: 5 parts  Kyrie Eleison: Lord, Have Mercy (in Greek)  Gloria: Glory to God in the Highest (in Latin)  Credo: I Believe (in Latin)  Sanctus and Benedictus: Holy, Holy, Holy (in Latin)  Agneus Dei: Lamb of God (in Latin)Listen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-11By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 12. Music of the Catholic Church  The “Proper” of the Mass: changes every day: the main chanted parts (in Latin):  Introit: introductory prayer  Gradual: often prayer of thanks or intercession (request)  Offertory: prayer of offering  Communion: prayer of thanks after communion  Post-Communion: prayer just before end of MassListen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-12By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 13. The Liturgical Year Advent Palm Sunday Nativity/Christmas Maundy Thursday Epiphany Good Friday Candlemass Easter Ash Wednesday Pentecost Lent All Saints/All Souls (Halloween)Listen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-13By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 14. Parts of Mass Were Sung in Chant  Liturgical (for worship) Chants: also called plainchant or plainsong: were based on “modes.”Listen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-14By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 15. The Church Modes  Unfamiliar scales, not like major & minor  Consist of seven different tones, an eighth tone duplicating the first(octave)  Different pattern of half-steps & whole-steps  Were the basic scales of Western music during the Middle Ages-Renaissance  Used in secular & sacred music  Many still used in Western folk musicListen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-15By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 16. The Church Modes  Setting words to music  Syllabic--one note per syllable  Melismatic--many notes per syllable  Melismas often used to emphasize wordsListen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-16By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 17. Gregorian Chant  Sung only by monks & priests  Text-Latin  Features  Non-metrical rhythm  Monophonic texture  Smooth, stepwise contour Composers of chant primarily unknown  Modal scales Music passed down almost strictly  Reverent mood by oral traditionListen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-17By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 18. Middle Ages: Notation  Earliest chant manuscripts merely showed whether the chant went up or down, not specific pitches.  Most manuscripts created by monks in monasteries, by hand. Parchment and ink were expensive.  Printing emerged--middle of 15th century.Listen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-18By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 19. Chapter 1: Hildegard von Bingen--Play of Virtues  A morality play--dramatized allegory of Good vs. Evil struggling over the fate of a single soul  Written for dedication of convent church at Rupertsberg  Plot centers around disputes between Satan and 16 virtues (e.g., Charity, Obedience, Humility, Chastity, Knowledge of God, Discipline, Compassion, Mercy, Victory, Discretion, Patience, Faith, Hope, Innocence, World Rejection, Heavenly Love).  Each virtue = 1 female singer  Chorus of all virtues sings same melody monophonically (called unison singing).  Music was based on a florid style of liturgical plainchant.  Devil was a spoken part (by a male).Listen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-19By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 20. Hildegard von Bingen(1098-1179) The Composer  Hildegard von Bingen--most prolific composer before 1500  First woman composer from whom a large number of works survived  Powerful abbess, theologian, naturalist, healer, poet, musician  Born in what is now western Germany to a noble family. Became a Benedictine nun at age of 16.  Used prominent position in Church to improve that of women  Experienced visions and revelations that were recorded in books-writer of theology, medicine, botany, and lives of the Saints  Musical works consisted of chants for religious services which took place throughout the day in the convent.Listen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-20By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 21. A Medieval Castle in Wales--13th CenturyListen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-21By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 22. Middle Ages: Music for Entertainment  Castles = most important secular structures of the Middle Ages  Reflected importance of secular and worldly power for royalty/aristocracy  Created opportunities for musical performances  Demonstrated power to subjects and each other.  Rulers competed for services of best composers, artists, and musicians.  Songs for Medieval entertainment sung in language of people.  Music for dancing served an important social function.Listen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-22By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 23. Middle Ages: Secular Music  Not much is known about this non-religious music because little of it was written down.  What was written was monophonic, but it is believed it was accompanied by instruments (homophonic).  We know it existed because of paintings and illustrated manuscripts from the period.Listen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-23By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 24. Estampie  13th century dance in triple meter  Anonymous composer  Clear, fast tempo  No instrumentation specified  This recording  Rebec  PipeListen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-24By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 25. Middle Ages: Secular Musicians of the Period  Minstrels: professional poet-musicians who traveled the countryside  Their music was the “news” of the day: gossip, recent events, legends.  They were the original “vaudeville” performers.  They performed a variety of acts: juggling, magic, acrobatics.  They were itinerant and didn’t write their songs down.  They were outcasts in society.Listen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-25By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 26. Middle Ages: Secular Musicians of the Period  Troubadours: about the 12th century, these knights of the Provence of Southern France performed songs about love, the beauty of women, honor, and the Crusades.  Trouvères: about the 12th and 13th centuries, noblemen from the courts of Northern France composed songs related to love and chivalry in their own French dialect.Listen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-26By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 27. Middle Ages: Secular Musicians of the Period  Minnesingers: German knights who composed and sang their own songs about the approach of dawn (“watchers’” songs), and the beauty of nature and of women  Meistersingers: c. 14th-16th centuries, middle class performers who built on tradition of Minnesingers  Formed guilds (the first musical unions)  Developed rules for songwriting  Tested composers for knowledge of rules before admitting them to the guildListen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-27By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 28. The Development of Polyphony  The first harmony was organum: singers sang same melody, but at different intervalsListen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-28By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 29. The Development of Polyphony: Organum  Polyphony  Combination of two melodic lines  Appeared sometime between 700 & 900  11th century notation indicates other pitches added to melody  Take line of chant, add additional parallel line a fourth or fifth belowListen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-29By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 30. The Development of Polyphony  Second line eventually became more independent around 1100, when chant and added melody were no longer restricted to note against note style  Development of music related to development of musical notation system  Neumes-signs written above words to indicate direction of pitch movementsListen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-30By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 31. The School of Notre Dame Leonin(1169-1201)  Composer at Notre Dame  Began to give chant longer note values, composed more active line above Perotin(1198-1236)  Followed same practice, added 3rd & 4th line  First known composer to write music with more than 2 voicesListen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-31By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 32. The School of Notre Dame  Name given to these composers & their followers  Made use of measured rhythm, with definite time values & defined meter  First time in history-notation indicated precise rhythm as well as pitch  Sounds hollow because of accepted intervals  8ve, 4th, 5th- consonant, 3rd dissonant but found in secular musicListen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-32By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 33. Alleluia vidimus stellam(We Have Seen His Star)  Based on Gregorian alleluia melody, referred to as a cantus firmus(fixed melody)Listen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-33By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 34. Guido d’Arezzo(995-1050)  First “music theorist”  Made fixed pitch relationships possible  Solfege syllables for scale patterns  do-re-mi-fa-sol-la-ti-do  Patricia Gray WebsiteListen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-34By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 35. 14th Century Music: The Ars Nova (New Art) in France  Ars nova  1322 Treastise by Philippe de Vitry including acceptance of division of beat  Literary works became more about sensuality than virtue  Secular music more important than sacred  New system of music notation evolved  Composers could specify any rhythm pattern  Beats divided into 2s as well as 3s  Syncopation appears  Polyphony not based on chant, drinking songs, etc.Listen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-35By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 36. Guillaume de Machaut(1304-1377)  Single most important figure in French Ars Nova  Priest-studied theology & took holy orders  Served as court musician for royal families; King of Bohemia, royal family of France  Important church official in ReimsListen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-36By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 37. Guillaume de Machaut  Most important works  Secular songs  Inspired by relationship with Peronne d’Armentieres which ended in disappointment  Decline of church reflects works- mainly love songs for one or two voices & instrumental accompanimentListen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-37By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 38. Notre Dame Mass-Agnus Dei (Mid- 14th Century) First polyphonic treatment of mass ordinary by known composer Written for four voices Some parts probably performed and/or doubled on instruments Performance practice of piece unknown When & why mass was written unknownListen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-38By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 39. Instruments of the Middle Ages  Harps  Lutes (like a guitar)  Flutes (end blown, called recorders)  Shawns (like oboes)  Early violins  Trumpets and drumsListen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-39By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 40. Chapter 3: Francesco Landini--Behold Spring  A secular song of love  Courtly love in this age  Knight declares himself servant of his lady love  Heroic deeds done in her honor  Love for her ennobles him  Poet Giovanni Boccaccio (poem: Decameron) describes how a group of lords and ladies, fleeing the plague, sang this song to divert their minds.Listen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-40By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 41. Francesco Landini The Composer  Most prolific and famous Italian composer of the 14th century  Blinded by smallpox as a child  Served as organist at a church in Florence  Was also a famous poet  Music:  Balletas--like Behold Spring  Virelais--French songs  Caccia--hunting songsListen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-41By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 42. Chapter 4: Alfonso el Sabio-- “He Who Gladly Serves”  From Songs to the Virgin Mary, no. 249  A collection of more than 400 songs  A piece using voice, drums (percussion) and shawms (woodwinds, like the oboe)  Shawm = double reed instrument  Player blows through a pair of reeds that vibrate; vibrations are magnified by a long wooden tubular instrument.  Has a raucous, rough soundListen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-42By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 43. Alfonso el Sabio--“He Who Gladly Serves”  Form: The form of this piece is ABA ABA AA  Based on 2 relatively short melodic units  A and B move similarly, but B moves to a higher register.  The whole form (ABA) is repeated twice.  The A section is then repeated twice again at the end.Listen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-43By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 44. Alfonso el Sabio--“He Who Gladly Serves”  Texture--three kinds in this piece  Monophony--both instruments play same notes together.  Homophony--one instrument plays melody while the other plays a single long note underneath (called a drone bass).  Heterophony--both instruments play same melody at same time, but one is embellished and more elaborate than the other.Listen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-44By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  • 45. Alfonso el Sabio The Composer  Ruled the Kingdom of Castile and León (in modern central and northwestern Spain) during the 13th century.  May not be the real composer; probably attributed to him, but really by an anonymous person.  Possibly a monk, priest, or nun  Could have been a court musician or a traveling musician (called a troubadour, trouvère, or minnesinger).Listen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-45By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

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