The Middle Ages

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The Medieval Era, Middle Ages

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The Middle Ages

  1. 1. The Medieval Period Ancient Music & the Middle AgesListen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-1By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  2. 2. Ancient Period  Beg of time unknown to 1300  Up until birth of Christ-Ancient Music, 0-1300-Medieval Period  Instruments-violin, flute, versions of No known composers, trumpet, oboe mostly passed down  Rna-chum-Tibet, orally between made of human skulls generationsListen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-2By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  3. 3. Greek & Roman Civilizations  1st written music found in Greece, 600 B.C.  Golden Age of Pericles-value of music in Greek society  Plato-considered music essential part of education, influenced moralListen to This character 1-3 PRENTICE HALLBy Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  4. 4. Greek & Roman Civilizations  Greeks developed instruments  Zither or Lyre  Harp-like Instrument  Romans emphasized military musicListen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-4By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  5. 5. Middle Ages: 476 CE - ~1400 CE  Beginning with the fall of the Roman Empire  Ending with the beginning of the Renaissance Period  Music: reflects sacred and secular functionsListen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-5By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  6. 6. Middle Ages(450-1450)  Development of monasteries responsible for preserving writings & culture of ancient world  Gothic Period-1100 to 1450  Poems of troubadours, legends of King Arthur  Dante The Divine Comedy  Most secular music lost but did exist outside the ChurchListen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-6By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  7. 7. Middle Ages: Overview Time Period: 476 CE - ~1400 CE  476--Fall of Western Roman Empire  800--Pope Leo III crowns Charlemagne  936--Otto I establishes Holy Roman Empire  1066--Normans conquer England  1095--Beginning of first crusade  1215--King John of England signs Magna Carta  1348-1350--Black Death ravages EuropeListen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-7By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  8. 8. Christianity  Had no standard musical practice for 1st 3 centuries  Borrowed from Judaism, reciting psalms, call & response method  Adopted other practices upon expansion through Asia Minor & Europe  Symbolism very important to medieval life- age of miracles, mysticism, etc.Listen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-8By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  9. 9. Middle Ages: Music for Sacred Spaces  Churches/Cathedrals = most important sacred structures of the Middle Ages  Reflected testimonies toward God and power of Church itself  Created spaces in which music could be performed  Large with incredible acoustic qualities  Built to instruct the faithful (e.g., stained glass windows depicting Biblical scenes)Listen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-9By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  10. 10. Pope Gregory I  6th Century-codified music of worship services, establishment of liturgy, body of rites prescribed for worship  Function = to project the text clearly so that it could be understood by the people.  Possessed clarity and melodic beauty; thus it was inspirational.Listen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-10By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  11. 11. Music of the Catholic Church  The “Ordinary” of the Mass: the part that doesn’t change each day: 5 parts  Kyrie Eleison: Lord, Have Mercy (in Greek)  Gloria: Glory to God in the Highest (in Latin)  Credo: I Believe (in Latin)  Sanctus and Benedictus: Holy, Holy, Holy (in Latin)  Agneus Dei: Lamb of God (in Latin)Listen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-11By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  12. 12. Music of the Catholic Church  The “Proper” of the Mass: changes every day: the main chanted parts (in Latin):  Introit: introductory prayer  Gradual: often prayer of thanks or intercession (request)  Offertory: prayer of offering  Communion: prayer of thanks after communion  Post-Communion: prayer just before end of MassListen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-12By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  13. 13. The Liturgical Year Advent Palm Sunday Nativity/Christmas Maundy Thursday Epiphany Good Friday Candlemass Easter Ash Wednesday Pentecost Lent All Saints/All Souls (Halloween)Listen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-13By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  14. 14. Parts of Mass Were Sung in Chant  Liturgical (for worship) Chants: also called plainchant or plainsong: were based on “modes.”Listen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-14By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  15. 15. The Church Modes  Unfamiliar scales, not like major & minor  Consist of seven different tones, an eighth tone duplicating the first(octave)  Different pattern of half-steps & whole-steps  Were the basic scales of Western music during the Middle Ages-Renaissance  Used in secular & sacred music  Many still used in Western folk musicListen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-15By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  16. 16. The Church Modes  Setting words to music  Syllabic--one note per syllable  Melismatic--many notes per syllable  Melismas often used to emphasize wordsListen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-16By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  17. 17. Gregorian Chant  Sung only by monks & priests  Text-Latin  Features  Non-metrical rhythm  Monophonic texture  Smooth, stepwise contour Composers of chant primarily unknown  Modal scales Music passed down almost strictly  Reverent mood by oral traditionListen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-17By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  18. 18. Middle Ages: Notation  Earliest chant manuscripts merely showed whether the chant went up or down, not specific pitches.  Most manuscripts created by monks in monasteries, by hand. Parchment and ink were expensive.  Printing emerged--middle of 15th century.Listen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-18By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  19. 19. Chapter 1: Hildegard von Bingen--Play of Virtues  A morality play--dramatized allegory of Good vs. Evil struggling over the fate of a single soul  Written for dedication of convent church at Rupertsberg  Plot centers around disputes between Satan and 16 virtues (e.g., Charity, Obedience, Humility, Chastity, Knowledge of God, Discipline, Compassion, Mercy, Victory, Discretion, Patience, Faith, Hope, Innocence, World Rejection, Heavenly Love).  Each virtue = 1 female singer  Chorus of all virtues sings same melody monophonically (called unison singing).  Music was based on a florid style of liturgical plainchant.  Devil was a spoken part (by a male).Listen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-19By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  20. 20. Hildegard von Bingen(1098-1179) The Composer  Hildegard von Bingen--most prolific composer before 1500  First woman composer from whom a large number of works survived  Powerful abbess, theologian, naturalist, healer, poet, musician  Born in what is now western Germany to a noble family. Became a Benedictine nun at age of 16.  Used prominent position in Church to improve that of women  Experienced visions and revelations that were recorded in books-writer of theology, medicine, botany, and lives of the Saints  Musical works consisted of chants for religious services which took place throughout the day in the convent.Listen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-20By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  21. 21. A Medieval Castle in Wales--13th CenturyListen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-21By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  22. 22. Middle Ages: Music for Entertainment  Castles = most important secular structures of the Middle Ages  Reflected importance of secular and worldly power for royalty/aristocracy  Created opportunities for musical performances  Demonstrated power to subjects and each other.  Rulers competed for services of best composers, artists, and musicians.  Songs for Medieval entertainment sung in language of people.  Music for dancing served an important social function.Listen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-22By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  23. 23. Middle Ages: Secular Music  Not much is known about this non-religious music because little of it was written down.  What was written was monophonic, but it is believed it was accompanied by instruments (homophonic).  We know it existed because of paintings and illustrated manuscripts from the period.Listen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-23By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  24. 24. Estampie  13th century dance in triple meter  Anonymous composer  Clear, fast tempo  No instrumentation specified  This recording  Rebec  PipeListen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-24By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  25. 25. Middle Ages: Secular Musicians of the Period  Minstrels: professional poet-musicians who traveled the countryside  Their music was the “news” of the day: gossip, recent events, legends.  They were the original “vaudeville” performers.  They performed a variety of acts: juggling, magic, acrobatics.  They were itinerant and didn’t write their songs down.  They were outcasts in society.Listen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-25By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  26. 26. Middle Ages: Secular Musicians of the Period  Troubadours: about the 12th century, these knights of the Provence of Southern France performed songs about love, the beauty of women, honor, and the Crusades.  Trouvères: about the 12th and 13th centuries, noblemen from the courts of Northern France composed songs related to love and chivalry in their own French dialect.Listen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-26By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  27. 27. Middle Ages: Secular Musicians of the Period  Minnesingers: German knights who composed and sang their own songs about the approach of dawn (“watchers’” songs), and the beauty of nature and of women  Meistersingers: c. 14th-16th centuries, middle class performers who built on tradition of Minnesingers  Formed guilds (the first musical unions)  Developed rules for songwriting  Tested composers for knowledge of rules before admitting them to the guildListen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-27By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  28. 28. The Development of Polyphony  The first harmony was organum: singers sang same melody, but at different intervalsListen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-28By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  29. 29. The Development of Polyphony: Organum  Polyphony  Combination of two melodic lines  Appeared sometime between 700 & 900  11th century notation indicates other pitches added to melody  Take line of chant, add additional parallel line a fourth or fifth belowListen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-29By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  30. 30. The Development of Polyphony  Second line eventually became more independent around 1100, when chant and added melody were no longer restricted to note against note style  Development of music related to development of musical notation system  Neumes-signs written above words to indicate direction of pitch movementsListen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-30By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  31. 31. The School of Notre Dame Leonin(1169-1201)  Composer at Notre Dame  Began to give chant longer note values, composed more active line above Perotin(1198-1236)  Followed same practice, added 3rd & 4th line  First known composer to write music with more than 2 voicesListen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-31By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  32. 32. The School of Notre Dame  Name given to these composers & their followers  Made use of measured rhythm, with definite time values & defined meter  First time in history-notation indicated precise rhythm as well as pitch  Sounds hollow because of accepted intervals  8ve, 4th, 5th- consonant, 3rd dissonant but found in secular musicListen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-32By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  33. 33. Alleluia vidimus stellam(We Have Seen His Star)  Based on Gregorian alleluia melody, referred to as a cantus firmus(fixed melody)Listen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-33By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  34. 34. Guido d’Arezzo(995-1050)  First “music theorist”  Made fixed pitch relationships possible  Solfege syllables for scale patterns  do-re-mi-fa-sol-la-ti-do  Patricia Gray WebsiteListen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-34By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  35. 35. 14th Century Music: The Ars Nova (New Art) in France  Ars nova  1322 Treastise by Philippe de Vitry including acceptance of division of beat  Literary works became more about sensuality than virtue  Secular music more important than sacred  New system of music notation evolved  Composers could specify any rhythm pattern  Beats divided into 2s as well as 3s  Syncopation appears  Polyphony not based on chant, drinking songs, etc.Listen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-35By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  36. 36. Guillaume de Machaut(1304-1377)  Single most important figure in French Ars Nova  Priest-studied theology & took holy orders  Served as court musician for royal families; King of Bohemia, royal family of France  Important church official in ReimsListen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-36By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  37. 37. Guillaume de Machaut  Most important works  Secular songs  Inspired by relationship with Peronne d’Armentieres which ended in disappointment  Decline of church reflects works- mainly love songs for one or two voices & instrumental accompanimentListen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-37By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  38. 38. Notre Dame Mass-Agnus Dei (Mid- 14th Century) First polyphonic treatment of mass ordinary by known composer Written for four voices Some parts probably performed and/or doubled on instruments Performance practice of piece unknown When & why mass was written unknownListen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-38By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  39. 39. Instruments of the Middle Ages  Harps  Lutes (like a guitar)  Flutes (end blown, called recorders)  Shawns (like oboes)  Early violins  Trumpets and drumsListen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-39By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  40. 40. Chapter 3: Francesco Landini--Behold Spring  A secular song of love  Courtly love in this age  Knight declares himself servant of his lady love  Heroic deeds done in her honor  Love for her ennobles him  Poet Giovanni Boccaccio (poem: Decameron) describes how a group of lords and ladies, fleeing the plague, sang this song to divert their minds.Listen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-40By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  41. 41. Francesco Landini The Composer  Most prolific and famous Italian composer of the 14th century  Blinded by smallpox as a child  Served as organist at a church in Florence  Was also a famous poet  Music:  Balletas--like Behold Spring  Virelais--French songs  Caccia--hunting songsListen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-41By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  42. 42. Chapter 4: Alfonso el Sabio-- “He Who Gladly Serves”  From Songs to the Virgin Mary, no. 249  A collection of more than 400 songs  A piece using voice, drums (percussion) and shawms (woodwinds, like the oboe)  Shawm = double reed instrument  Player blows through a pair of reeds that vibrate; vibrations are magnified by a long wooden tubular instrument.  Has a raucous, rough soundListen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-42By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  43. 43. Alfonso el Sabio--“He Who Gladly Serves”  Form: The form of this piece is ABA ABA AA  Based on 2 relatively short melodic units  A and B move similarly, but B moves to a higher register.  The whole form (ABA) is repeated twice.  The A section is then repeated twice again at the end.Listen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-43By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  44. 44. Alfonso el Sabio--“He Who Gladly Serves”  Texture--three kinds in this piece  Monophony--both instruments play same notes together.  Homophony--one instrument plays melody while the other plays a single long note underneath (called a drone bass).  Heterophony--both instruments play same melody at same time, but one is embellished and more elaborate than the other.Listen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-44By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  45. 45. Alfonso el Sabio The Composer  Ruled the Kingdom of Castile and León (in modern central and northwestern Spain) during the 13th century.  May not be the real composer; probably attributed to him, but really by an anonymous person.  Possibly a monk, priest, or nun  Could have been a court musician or a traveling musician (called a troubadour, trouvère, or minnesinger).Listen to This PRENTICE HALL 1-45By Mark Evan Bonds ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

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